Method of determining parameters of transformable and inert organic carbon in soils
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of soil biology and agroecology, and can be used as criteria for evaluating the soil fertility and potential emission of carbon dioxide with soils in climate change. The method comprises determining the total content of organic carbon in the soil sample (C content), the amount of potentially mineralised organic carbon (C pm) upon incubation of the same sample, resulting in the calculation of the transformed organic carbon content (C trans). The amount of inert organic carbon (C inert) is calculated by the formula C inert = C content - C trans.
EFFECT: acceleration and simplification of determining is achieved.
1 ex, 2 tbl
The invention relates to the field of soil biology and Agroecology. It can be used as a diagnostic criterion of soil fertility, as well as estimates of potential emissions of CO2soils under global climate change.
The prototype [2, 5] is to determine the minimum content of organic carbon of the soil on a permanent clean couple in a long-term field experience (>20 years).
In accordance with Gershenson (1992) gross organic carbon (shaft) consists of inert (With inert), practically not involved in the processes of transformation, and the transformed organic carbon (TRANS). Inert fraction mainly depends on habitat conditions, and convertible, which is easily decomposed in soils, land use systems, including various agricultural practices.
The content of the inert organic carbon identically minimum, most correctly and accurately defined in perpetuating pure Paravani soil.
The contents of transforming organic carbon calculated by the formula
With TRANS = shaft With inert [2, 3].
The main disadvantage of the method definition With inert and TRANS is the need for prolonged field experience (>20 years) with permanent clean provenien soil, requiring significant time, mA is arealnykh and financial costs.
The aim of the invention is accelerated more than 350 times in comparison with the existing prototype definition With TRANS and inert in the soil without conducting long-term field experiments with permanent clean steam.
The method is as follows. In a sample of soil sample to determine the content of organic With Val (% of soil mass) by Tyurin method with spectrophotometric end. In another sample of the same sample to determine the production of S-CO2a 20-day incubation period at a temperature of 22°C and humidity 60% PPV. Next, using equations derived empirically for different taxa of soil, calculate the number of potentially mineralizing carbon, and then using special equations for these same taxa of soil aggregates With the TRANS. Values inert find the difference between values With the shaft and With the TRANS.
A reasonably accurate forecast of the availability of soil potentially mineralizers organic carbon PM without long-term incubation of samples, simulating the vegetation period, a calculation according to the cumulative production WITH CO2(when calculating the estimate of the amount of carbon dioxide is carried out in such carbon) for the 20-day incubation period, using obtained for sod-podzolic soil (equation 1), typical Chernozem (equation 2) and you alotenango Chernozem (equation 3) according to
With PM=5.54+2.04·-CO2r=0.969, n=10 (1),
With PM=13.56+1.63·-CO2r=0.999, n=6 (2),
With PM=4.95+1.94·-CO2=0.998, n=11 (3).
In turn, if the data content in the soil With gr (%) it is possible to calculate the approximate levels in the soils With TRANS (%), using special equations for sod-podzolic soil (equation 4), typical Chernozem (equation 5) and leached Chernozem (equation 6)
With TRANS=7.212·PM-0.146 r=0.951, n=6 (4),
With TRANS=5.290·PM+0.347 r=0.934, n=5 (5),
With TRANS=8.932·PM+0.056 r=0.962, n=10 (6).
An example of the calculation. As an example, consider the typical Chernozem loam Kursk region, experience 2, options permanent pure steam from 1964 and virgin steppe.
The prototype. In the soil samples these options determine the content of the organic With the shaft by Tyurin method with spectrophotometric end . For soil sample permanent pure steam With Val = inert = 2,665, % of soil mass, and for such of virgin steppe With Val = 3,970, % of soil mass ≠ With inert. Then according to the formula for sample permanent pure steam With TRANS = shaft With inert = 0, and for any virgin steppe With TRANS = 3,970, % by weight of the soil - 2,665, % by weight of soil = 1,305, % of soil mass (table 1).
The proposed method. Consider the example of soil samples of the same options. As noted above, the content of experimentally identified Val = inert = 2,665% of soil mass) for sample pair of permanent and shaft=3,970 (% of soil mass) to that of virgin steppe. Is the 20-day incubation of samples according to . On the basis of data on cumulative production WITH CO2when 20-day incubation of these samples are calculated first value With the PM according to equation (2), and then TRANS by equation (5). For sample version of virgin steppe calculated With TRANS = 1,333 (% of soil mass), which is close enough (statistically significant at p=0,95) experimentally determined With TRANS = 1,305 (% of soil mass). Knowing With the shaft and With the TRANS for a sample of typical Chernozem virgin steppe, can be calculated With inert for typical Chernozem Kursk region (3,970-1,333=2,637, % of soil mass), which corresponds to the experimentally determined in the sample permanent pure steam - 2,665 (% of soil mass) (table 2).
In table 1 presents the results of experimental determination of gross organic carbon in samples of sod-podzolic soils of the Vladimir region, typical Chernozem Kursk region and leached Chernozem of the Novosibirsk region in conditions of long-term field experiments. On versions with permanent provenien soils With Val = inert, and TRANS = 0. In all other cases, the transformable content of organic carbon was calculated by the formula With TRANS = shaft With inert and it was always >0.
Are given in table 2 information indicates the absence of doscover the x differences (p=0,95) between the data From the trance, received the prototype in long-term field experiment, and those with the proposed method, using the metric of potentially mineralizing carbon PM, installed in the laboratory conditions of 20-day incubation of the soil sample at a temperature of 22°C and humidity 60% PPV with quantitative account of spin-off CO2.
It is recommended that the content of the transformed organic carbon in soils with friction organic carbon content from 0.5 to 1.5% With the organization of soil mass to use equations (1) and (4); from 1.5 to 3.5% With the organization of soil mass - equation (2) and (5); from 3.5 to 5.5% With the organization of soil mass - equation (3) and (6) (table 2).
1. Dyakonov C.V. research Methods of organic substances in lysimetric waters, soil solutions and other natural objects.// Methods of stationary soil study. - M.: Nauka, 1977. S-226.
2. Kerssens M Is the content of humus to soil fertility and nitrogen cycle. Dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birthday of Professor, academician Ivina.// Soil science. 1992. No. 10. S-131.
3. Kogut BM Principles and methods content evaluation transforming organic matter in arable soils.// Soil science. 2003. No. 3. S-316.
4. Semenov V.M., Ivannikova L.A., Kuznetsova T.V. Laboratory diagnostics of biological ka is esta soil organic matter.//In kN. Research methods of soil organic matter. 2005. VNIPTIOU. Vladimir. S-230.
5. Körschens M. Die Abbangigkeit der organishchen Bodensubstanz von Standortfactoren ind acker-und planzenbaulichen Massnahmen, ihre Beziehungen zu Bodeneigenschaften und Ertrag compounds Ableitung von erstenBodenftuchtbarkeitskennziffern für den Gehalt des Bodens an organischer Substanz. - Berlin:Akad. Landwirtsch. - Wiss. The DDR. Diss.B. 1980.
The content of total organic carbon (shaft) and transformed organic (TRANS) in non-arable and arable soils stationary experiments, %
|№p/p||Option||With Val||With TRANS|
|Sod-podzolic sandy loam soil. Experience 1|
|1||Permanent pure steam from 1968||0.487||Not ODA.|
|2||Accumulation of 2001||1.087||0.600|
|3||The rotation of 1968, without fertilizer (b/a)||0.522||0.035|
|4||The same, manure 20 t/ha annually||.832||0.345|
|5||The same, manure 10 t/ha + N50P25K60 annually||0.734||0.247|
|6||Same, N100P50K120 annually||0.620||0.133|
|7||The same, manure 10 t/ha + N100P50K120 annually||0.763||0.276|
|The typical Chernozem loam. Experience 2|
|8||Permanent pure steam from 1964||2.665||Not ODA.|
|10||Permanent winter wheat since 1964, b/a||3.125||0.460|
|12||The rotation of 1968, b/a||3.320||0.655|
|13||The same, manure + NPK||3.555||0.890|
|The leached Chernozem medium. Experience 3|
|14||Permanent pure steam since 1997||2.865||Not ODA.|
|16||Permanent wheat since 1997, b/a||Of 3,550||0.685|
|17||The rotation of 2001, b/y, the steam cleaner without straw||3.493||0.628|
|18||Same, pairs of clean straw||3.613||0.748|
|19||Same, couples busy with straw||3.687||0.822|
|20||Same, pairs of green manure with straw||3.717||0.852|
|21||The rotation of the 2001, N40-80P40, steam cleaner without straw||3.627||0.762|
|22||Same, pairs of clean straw||3.703||0.838|
|23||Same, couples busy with straw||3.727||0.862|
|24||Same, pairs of green manure with straw||3.853||0.988|
The comparison of the contents of the convertible (With TRANS) organic substances obtained by the prototype in long-term field experiments (I) and calculated by the proposed method (II) with 20 days ' incubation of the soil, t05-criterion
|№p/p∗)||With trance % of soil mass|
|Sod-podzolic sandy loam soil, experience 1|
|The typical Chernozem loam, experience 2|
|The leached Chernozem medium, experience 3||15||2.750||2.663|
|∗)Rooms variants of the experiments are the same as in table 1|
The method for determining indicators transformable and inert carbon in soils, including the determination of organic carbon, is great for the present, however, which soil sample is divided into two samples, one of them incubated for 20 days at a temperature of 22°C and at a humidity of 60% PPV with a quantitative accounting of evolved carbon dioxide, followed by calculation of the content of potentially mineralizing carbon and further calculation of the content, transforming carbon and the other to determine the content of total organic carbon by difference in the content of total and transformable determine the carbon content of the inert carbon.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises areal well-drilling of small diameter for shallow depth, sampling the subsurface gas, determination in samples the bulk concentration of methane and total hydrocarbons, as well as radon volumetric activity Rn222 and Rn220. According to reduction of the radon volumetric activity and increase in concentration of methane and total hydrocarbons relative to the natural background the conclusion is made on the presence of area of contamination.
EFFECT: increase in informational content and reliability of determination.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a housing, a porous measuring plate which pores are filled with water, a flexible screen with sensors which are electrically connected to the display device. The novelty is that the lateral inner surface of the housing is provided with microcells hydraulically interconnected and filled with polyacrylamide.
EFFECT: possibility of measuring the dynamic action on the soil of rain with the addition of polyacrylamide, due to the presence of microcells filled with polyacrylamide.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises phytoindication on age of woody vegetation. Determination of the upper limit of affection of a mountain valley with avalanche stream, at which avalanching no vegetation is left on the slopes of the valley, is carried out by measuring the difference in height between the bottom of the valley and the lower limit of the phytometer - autochthonous birch forests, which grow over the affected slope; assessment of date of affection is determined by measuring the amount of annual rings on wood cores drilled by the age-related borer, or on transverse saw cuts at the base of trunks at the level of root collar of the largest trees in the newly formed growing stocks, renewable in the affected area lower the autochthonous birch forests.
EFFECT: method enables to improve efficiency of detection of signs of hazardous natural phenomena.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: soil sample is passed through a stream of water. On the surface of the soil sample a load is placed. Beginning of dipping of the load is fixed. The parameters of the sample and the water flow are measured. The coefficient of soil filtration is calculated from the measured parameters. The value of the concentration of fulvic acid in the water stream, passed through the soil sample, is recorded. In reducing the concentration value by 10% of the initial value the fulvic acid solution is added into the stream of water directed into the soil sample, restoring the value of the fulvic acid concentration in the stream of water passed through the soil sample, to the initial value.
EFFECT: use of the claimed method extends functional capabilities of determining the filtration coefficient of soil, enables to determine quickly and accurately the filtration coefficient of soil exposed to fulvic acids, in the zone of prevalence of podzolic soils.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the device of cuts, power measurement of layer of membranes of soil biological organisms in the beginning and end of the observation period and the calculation. At that the power of the packed layer of membranes of testate amoebas is measured. The amount of change in the power of peat layer is calculated by the formula Hsrab=a·h, where Hsrab is reduction value of the peat layer power, cm; h is the power of packed layer of membranes of testate amoebas, cm; a is a coefficient. The coefficient a is determined by the formula a=(H1-H2)/(h1-h2), where H2, H1 is the power of the peat layer and h2, h1 is power of the packed layer of membranes of testate amoebas, respectively at the end and the beginning of the observation period.
EFFECT: method enables to determine quickly and accurately the amount of change of power of the peat layer on reclaimed land.
SUBSTANCE: controlled area in the planting is chosen and prepared, the procedure for controlling of soil respiration is carried out in the chosen controlled area in the planting by measuring the amount of accumulation (loss) of gaseous respiratory substrate CO2 (O2) in a sealed chamber, with which the controlled area is covered. Preparation of controlled area additionally includes such sowing seeds when a part of the area is left unsown. For measurement two different sealed chambers are used separately and alternately, with one of which the part of controlled area of the planting just sown with plants is covered entirely, and with another one additionally to the above area the unsown part of the controlled area of the planting is covered partially or completely. At that the amount of soil respiration attributable to the square of the controlled area of planting is calculated by determining the difference between the measurement results obtained with the above sealed chambers, multiplied by the ratio of the square of the controlled area of planting to the difference of squares of bases of above two sealed chambers.
EFFECT: ability to study in the field, and at the same time the interaction integrity of the root and ground parts of plants is not violated.
SUBSTANCE: samples of uncontaminated background soil and contaminated with heavy metals or crude oil and oil products are taken, and for each pair of samples of soil the number of ammonifying bacteria, the number of microscopic fungi, the abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, the catalase activity, the invertase activity, the germination of radish is determined. IRS of the soil is calculated as follows: IRS =Σ( Pconti/Pfoni)×100%/n, where Pconti is the value of i-th index (number of ammonifying bacteria, million/g, the number of microscopic fungi, million/g, the abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, %, catalase activity, ml O2/min, the invertase activity, ml, glucose/24 h, the germination of radish, %, for contaminated soil; Pfoni is the value of i-th/min, the indicator for uncontaminated soil; n is the number of indicators (n=6). The environmental condition of the soil is determined according to reduction of the IRS. If the IRS value in the contaminated soil is over 95%, the normal ecological condition of the soil is stated. In reduction of the IRS to 90-95% the satisfactory condition is stated. In reduction of the IRS to 75-90% the poor condition is stated. In reduction of the IRS below 75% the catastrophic condition is stated.
EFFECT: method enables to assess quickly and accurately the environmental condition of the soil.
17 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method to determine frost heave of soil during freezing of a seasonally thawing layer includes drilling of a well before start of its thawing, sampling of soil, measurement of depth of seasonal thawing ξ, definition of dry soil density in samples ρd,th. In addition wells are drilled after freezing of the seasonally thawing layer, on the samples they additionally define density of dry soil after freezing of the seasonally thawing layer ρd,f, and the heave value is determined in accordance with the given dependence.
EFFECT: reduced labour intensiveness of works, increased accuracy of determination of heaving value, provision of material intensity reduction.
SUBSTANCE: method involves probing an underlying surface having test areas with a multichannel spectrometer mounted on a space vehicle to obtain images on each channel; calculating, through zonal ratios of signal amplitude values in channels, partial degradation indices, specifically percentage content of humus (H), salinity index (NSI) and moisture loss index (W); determining the integral degradation index D based on a multi-parameter regressive relationship of the type:
EFFECT: faster and more reliable determination of degree of degradation of soil cover.
5 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes installation of a device into a vertical position, and the device is a metal hollow cylinder enclosed into the body, along the inner and outer wall of which there is a cutting element welded in the form of a spiral, lowering of the cylinder to the specified depth during its rotation with cutting of a soil sample of cylindrical shape.
EFFECT: simplification and increased reliability in production of samples.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, method used for determining of phosphorous fertilizer demands in the course of growing of cereals and leguminous crops.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing annual agrochemical investigation of soil arable layer; determining labile phosphorus content and availability of phosphorus to plant for forming of planned yields by providing chemical analyses for capability of soil to mobilization of labile phosphorus by using potassium phosphate solution, as well as by calculating doses of used phosphorous fertilizer from respective formula, with annual agrochemical investigation being provided in arable layer at 0-20 cm depth; additionally determining content of labile phosphorus delivered into soil in the course of mineralization of soil organic substance and plant remains of preceding crop.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumption, increased precision in diagnosis and regulation of phosphorous feeding of plants.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, agronomic chemistry, agronomic ecology, soil biology, and chemical analysis of soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining content of mineral nitrogen and potentially mineralizable nitrogen provided by soil incubation at temperature of 34-36°C for 7-8 days; converting mineral and potentially mineralizable soil nitrogen to solution by boiling incubated soil suspension in water in the ratio of 1:5 during 20 min for sandy, sandy loam and medium loamy soil and during 30 min for heavily loamy soil; subjecting aqueous extraction of soil sample to analysis by means of Kieldal apparatus for determining nitrogen content actually available to plants under light alkaline hydrolysis conditions; determining nitrogen content potentially available to plants under drastic alkaline hydrolysis conditions; forecasting fertilizer nitrogen dose on the basis of nitrogen content actually available to plants for predetermined yield of specific crop with the use of coefficient of assimilation by plants of soil nitrogen and fertilizers, and amount of nitrogen needed for production of 1 centner/hectare of product from formula: ,
where D is forecast fertilizer nitrogen dose; N is kg/hectare; Yc is crop yield for which fertilizer nitrogen dose is calculated, centner/hectare; C is amount of nitrogen needed for production of 1 centner/hectare of product of designed crop, kg/hectare; Naa is amount of nitrogen in soil actually available to plants, kg/hectare; 0.4 is coefficient of usage by plants of available nitrogen from fertilizer, %. Method may be used for evaluation of humic podzol soil with regard to its nitrogenous state, forecasting of need for nitrogenous fertilizer by plants, determining stock of nitrogen available to plants and forecasting of crop yields. Method does not require prolonged observations and controlling of soil temperature during plant growing periods.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, elimination of employment of expensive bulky equipment for performing forecasting process.
5 dwg, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method comprises using microscopic chlorella algae as a biological test, distributing the suspension of the cells of chlorella over the paper filter on the surface of the soil plate in the Petri caps, obtaining chlorophyll extract, determining optical density of the extract, and comparing it with the reference one. The 20-ml volume of the suspension of the chlorella cells are distributed inside the Petri caps. The caps are covered and set into a greenhouse. The caps are exposed to light during seven days, and then the filters are removed from the caps, dried at a temperature of 38-42°С, grinded, and extracted. The allelopathy activity of the soil is expressed in per cents of the optical density of the extract on the reference one, in which chlorella is grown on the filter, which is set onto four layers of moistened filtering paper or cotton.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumptions and enhanced reliability of determining.
FIELD: agriculture, soil science.
SUBSTANCE: alteration in soil properties during restoring the carcass of organo-mineral gel should be detected by measuring the difference of potentials between the soil and soil-contacting ion-exchange membrane. The method considerably simplifies and accelerates evaluating the carcass of organo-mineral soil gel.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of evaluation.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method contains sampling soils and analysis of samples using X-ray-fluorescent technique. Content of humus is judged of from arsenic-to-cobalt ratio on preliminarily plotted calibration graph.
EFFECT: increased reliability and rapidity of analytical procedure.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes performing compression tests according to system "cylindrical hollow sample - backfill material" in rigid matrices with different values of relation of height of backfill material, filling space between walls of rigid cylindrical matrix and sample, to sample height, which has relation of height to diameter no less than 2. sample is set in matrices in such a way, that its axis passes through matrix axis. Unified hardness passport is built in coordinates "horizontal stress - vertical stress" of rock sample. Tests of rock samples for sliding are additionally performed during compression with loads above limit of lengthy hardness of rock with construction of sliding curves in coordinates "load level - vertical deformations speed logarithm", after that rock samples in matrix are enveloped in backfill material and same tests are performed again. Relative reaction of backfill massif is determined from mathematical expression. Alignment chart is built for dependence of relative reaction of backfill material from relation of its height to height of rock sample for various levels of system load. Alignment chart is used to determine relative reaction of backfill massif during its long interaction with rocks, enveloping a mine.
EFFECT: higher reliability, higher trustworthiness, higher quality of control over processes of deformation and destruction of massifs.
5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, evaluation of soil capacity of supplying farm crops with mineral nitrogen under sloped relief conditions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves composting soil while adding ammonium sulfate; determining content of nitrates accumulated in soil after decomposition of organic compounds. Composting procedure is carried out under natural field temperature mode conditions in bottomless vessels and at optimal moisture content mode conditions by providing periodic off-season irrigation procedures. Nitrification capacity is evaluated by ammonium nitrogen-to-nitrate nitrogen transition intensity.
EFFECT: increased information content of nitrification capacity evaluating method and wider range of usage.
2 cl, 3 tbl
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, soil type determining method allowing soil fertility to be evaluated.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sampling soil; preparing and analyzing soil sample by fluororoentgenographic method for determining calcium, iron, zirconium and titanium content thereof; determining type of soil by iron to zirconium ratio and calcium to titanium ratio from preliminarily plotted gauging diagram.
EFFECT: quick process of determining soil type, intensified interpretation and provision for obtaining of reliable results.
FIELD: agriculture and soil science, in particular, determination of soil properties.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining maximal shear stress, with said process being carried out with the use of soil solution squeezed from soil and located in glass vessel; spilling dispersed material into glass pipe; determining maximal shear stress by difference of gas pressure at different ends of pipe, with soil solution being moved.
EFFECT: reduced labor intensity owing to substantial decrease in amount of soil required for carrying out test.
FIELD: agriculture and soil science, in particular, methods for determining of soil properties.
SUBSTANCE: method involves placing soil suspension into pycnometer; adding liquid and removing blocked air from soil by vacuum supplying. Liquid is solution tending to destruct soil aggregates. Air is removed from fluidized soil bed.
EFFECT: simplified process for determining density of soil solid phase and reduced probability of occurrence of error in test results.