SUBSTANCE: gypsum perlite contains a gypsum binder, such as a processed mechanically activated phosphogypsum ground to 5-40 mcm (active gypsum), hydrophobizated swollen sand, superplasticiser Melflux at the following ratio of components, wt %: active gypsum - 84.8-93.8%, hydrophobizated swollen perlite sand - 6-15%, superplasticiser - 0.2%.
EFFECT: improved heat insulation and strength properties at low prime cost.
The invention relates to the field of construction, namely, building materials, and can be used for the manufacture of insulation products with bearing properties.
Famous raw mix for the production of insulation products containing, wt.%: expanded perlite sand 50-56; asbestos 4-33; astringent 17-40 and use binder composition, wt.%: quartz sand ground 70-85 and lime ground 15-30, or composition, wt.%: sand perlite expanded ground 70-80; lime ground 15-25 and gypsum powder 4-5 (patent SU 1818321 published 30.05.1993). The disadvantage of this mixture are low insulating properties.
Known mixture for the production of thermal insulating material containing expanded perlite, mineral binding, basalt fiber or fiberglass and polymer additives (inventor's certificate SU 726068 published 05.04.1980). The disadvantages of the above-mentioned mixture are low insulating properties and relatively high cost.
Closest to the proposed invention is a raw mix for the production of insulation products, which is known binder containing phosphogypsum and expanded perlite (inventor's certificate SU 1650640 published 23.05.1991). However, obtained from the specified raw material mixture the products have low insulating properties, and low strength.
The objective of the presented invention to provide products having high thermal insulation properties, high strength and low cost.
The technical result - improved thermal insulation and strength properties.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that the raw material mixture containing recycled and mechanically activated phosphogypsum (Hipschen) and gidrofobizirovannym expanded perlite sand, further comprises superprecipitation Melflux in the following ratio of components, wt.%: hipschen - 84,8-93,8; expanded perlite sand - 6-15; and superprecipitation - 0,2.
As a superplasticizer is used plasticizer Melflux.
Phosphogypsum mechanoactivated through aerodynamic actuators of any type, crushing him to 5-40 microns.
Hipschen mixed with perlite in appropriate proportions in the mixer (see table 1). The mixture can be mixed directly on the ground in front zatvoreniem or in stationary conditions with the subsequent packing. The zatvoreniem mixture occurs in the mixer immediately before use. Start time setting vipsania is 4-5 minutes upon completion of setting 8-10 minutes). When using gypsum perlite as a monolith to fill the walls or casting large items footprint of the em to use retarders gypsum.
As modifiers for circulite can apply a water-repellent agent: Ciprom C, Dew, NGL-11, HSC-1 and other water properties.
Hypsometrically concrete has high strength. For comparison, the gypsum perlite specific gravity of 0.8 (average specific gravity of all foam and aerated concrete, available on the market of construction materials) has a compressive strength of from 60 to 70 kg/cm2, while the above foam and aerated concrete does not exceed 35 kg/cm2. Has a high resistance (over 35 cycles), high moisture resistance and low thermal conductivity of 0.14 W/(m·K). For comparison, the red brick is 0.81, claydite-concrete 0,35, foam 0,26, timber wooden 0,18.
With the above properties hypsometrically concrete can be used as the main load-bearing wall material during construction, this wall can be made either by casting in a non-removable formwork and method of manufacturing the building blocks of gypsum perlite.
The gypsum perlite unit weight of 0,6-0,65 can be applied to the device the floor and the ceiling, low specific weight and low thermal conductivity of 0.13 at a sufficiently high strength allows to produce effective heat/noise overlap. The gypsum perlite specific gravity of 0.4-0.5 is used for effetive the insulation of roofs and floors. Its conductivity 0,08-0,09.
|Strength, kg/cm2||thermal conductivity of|
The gypsum perlite containing gypsum binder and expanded perlite sand, characterized in that as gypsum binder use recycled crushed on the 5-40 microns and mechanically activated phosphogypsum,
as circulite use gidrofobizirovannym expanded perlite and further comprises a superplasticizer Melflux in the following ratio, wt.%:
mechanically activated phosphogypsum - 84,8-93,8;
gidrofobizirovannym expanded perlite sand - 6-15;
superplasticizer is 0.2.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of construction materials and can be used for fabrication of ceramic bricks, stones and blocks. Proposed method comprises preparation of foam-ceramic mix from clay stock, water, foaming agent, binding agent, drying, annealing and forming. Note here that, additionally, foaming agent PB-2007 is admixed as a plasticising agent while finished product ground to 1.25-5.0 mm fraction or perlite sand are used as binding additive. Then, obtained mix is poured in flat moulds and dried, first, at 30-35°C and, then at 50-56°C to make an integral blank to be withdrawn from the mould, annealed at 800-1600°C and formed to blocks.
EFFECT: higher heat- and noise-isolation properties, decreased weight.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction materials, in particular to polystyrene concretes, used in heat-preserving protective structures of buildings and constructions. Heat-insulating constructive polystyrene concrete with density 225-350 kg/m3, is obtained from mixture, which contains Portland cement, water, complex air-involving and plasticising additive of multifunctional action, which represents balanced mixture in dry or liquid form, consisting of air-involving additive PO-01B based on products of oxidation of food industry wastes and plasticiser of polycarboxilate type or sulfonated product of polycondensation of melamine with formaldehyde with number of links in molecular chain equal 18-27 with weigh ratio: air-involving additive:plasticiser, equal 1:(0.25-0.5), and specific consumption of said complex additive 0.06-0.15 wt % of Portland cement weight, polystyrene foamed granulated (PFG) with volume content in polystyrene concrete - φ in the range 0.40-0.60, obtained after triple foaming of initial polystyrene beads with coarseness 0.7-1.0 mm and characterised by complex dimensionless index of PFG quality - n in the range 1.5-1.75, whose values are determined in the process of designing polystyrene concrete composition by formula: where K1 and K2 are coefficients, reflecting peculiarities of technology of PFG obtaining, values of which are respectively in the range1.1-1.3 and 8.0-10.8; db is the average diameter of initial polystyrene beads, mm; dav is average weighted diameter of PFG granules, mm;
EFFECT: creation of heat-insulating constructive polystyrene concrete with density 225-350 kg/m3 with optimal properties: increased strength and heat-insulating properties.
3 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: heat-insulation structural masonry admixture based on a light filler contains, kg/m3: portland cement CEM1-42.5N 173-346, quartz sand from Razumenskoe deposit 700-1260, hollow microspheres of Novocherkasskaya regional power station 50-250, a water-retention additive Mecellose FMC 24502 0.1% of the portland cement mass, water - balance, besides, percentage content of light filler - specified microspheres - is given from the volume of sand.
EFFECT: reduced heat conductivity.
1 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: crude mixture for making claydite gravel contains the following, wt %: montmorillonite clay 65.0-75.0, andesite powder 15.0-20.0, scrap sheet glass ground until passage through sieve No 014 10.0-15.0.
EFFECT: high strength of the claydite gravel.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the industry of construction materials and specifically to making concrete wall blocks for low-height construction. The concrete mixture contains the following, wt %: portland cement 25-30; expanded clay gravel with particle size of 20-40 mm 13.8-19.2; haydite sand with particle size of less than 5 mm 30-35; saponified rosin 0.01-0.02; sodium ethylsiliconate 0.78-1.18; water 20-25.
EFFECT: high strength.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to building materials and can be used for reduction of sound level and increase of heat insulation in residual, public and industrial buildings, mainly in constructions of floors and walls. Material contains granules, connected to each other with glue, with formation of porous structure.
EFFECT: application of claimed material results in increase of its vibroinsulating, sound-insulating and heat-insulating properties.
SUBSTANCE: concrete mixture includes, wt %: Portland cement 26-28, gravel with 20-40 mm fraction 38.2-38.35; clayite sand with fraction to 5 mm 10-14; molasses evaporated post-yeast grains 0.1-0.15; 10-20 mm long glass fibre 0.5-0.7; water 21-23.
EFFECT: increased strength.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of heat insulating building materials in form of slabs, casings and other articles with a given geometrical shape and size. In the method of making heat insulating articles, which involves feeding and mixing expanded vermiculite and liquid glass with density of 1360-1450 kg/m3, followed by moulding and heat treatment, liquid glass with modulus of 2.8-3.2 is used, and the articles are moulded while heating the prepared crude mixture at temperature of 500-550°C for 1 hour, said crude mixture containing, wt %: said liquid glass 70-73, expanded vermiculite 27-30 and said mixture is loaded into dismountable metal moulds equipped with covers with rigid catchers, and packed with compression coefficient Kcom of 1.1-1.5 while filling the entire inner volume of the mould; after cooling to temperature of 120-150°C, the moulds re dismantled and the articles with the given shape and size are removed. The invention is developed in subclaims.
EFFECT: simple technique, shorter duration of the process and improved properties of the articles.
2 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method for production of a construction material includes mixing of an alkaline component, water and silica-containing component in the form of a mixture of zeolite rock and volcanic glass. Besides, components of raw mix prior to mixing with the alkaline component and water are exposed to separate grinding in a vibration mill to particle size of not more than 100 mcm. Then the zeolite rock is dried at 200-300°C for 0.25 hours, then the volcanic glass is dried at 315-335°C for 0.15 hour. After drying and grinding of the silicate mass they perform heating with delay at 40-60°C and 240-260°C, and then heating to 600-650°C with speed of not more than 7-8°C/min, afterwards it is heated with the speed of not more than 5-6°C/min to swelling temperature, which is in the range of 765-835°C. Then the swollen silicate mass is cooled, being exposed to stabilisation by means of dramatic swelling temperature reduction by 100-150°C, afterwards they perform baking to 60°C with speed of not more than 0.5-0.6°C/min.
EFFECT: improved physical and mechanical properties of items.
4 cl, 9 ex, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: light fibre-reinforced concrete is prepared from a mixture containing, vol. %: portland cement 10.0 - 22.0, granular foamed glass with particle size of 0.1 - 5 mm 40.0 - 70.0, packed or unpacked microsilica 0.5 - 3.0, generation 4 superplasticiser 0.1 - 0.3% of the weight of the binder, fibre 0.5 - 4.0 g per litre of the ready mixture, water - the balance. The light fibre-reinforced concrete is prepared from a mixture which further contains secondary filler - microcalcite with particle size of 5-100 mcm or dolomite powder or sieved sea sand. The light fibre-reinforced concrete is prepared from a mixture wherein the generation 4 superplasticiser used is polycarboxylate ether Sika Viscocrete 105P.
EFFECT: obtaining articles with a smooth front surface and low heat conductivity.
3 cl, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: claimed group of inventions relate to highly strong flooring compositions. Mixture for application in combination with water with obtaining suspension, which hydrates with formation of highly strong flooring composition contains: from approximately 50 wt % to approximately 98 wt % of calcium sulfate hemihydrates, from approximately 0.002 wt % to approximately 1 wt % of polysaccharide and from approximately 0.02 wt % to approximately 2.5 wt % of lignin or lignosulfonate. Suspension contains water and sand, mixed with said mixture. Sand is present in weight ratio, constituting, at least, approximately 2.5:1 (in units ft3 of sand: 80 pounds of dry mixture).
EFFECT: increased content of sand suspensions and respectively increased strength of flooring.
8 cl, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: crude mixture for making sculpture contains the following, wt %: gypsum binder 98.5-99.0; starch 0.2-0.3; borax 0.2-0.3; capron fibre cut to 3-7 mm pieces 0.5-1.0.
EFFECT: high strength.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to gypsum board panels which contain a novel binding substance, and methods of making such panels. The binding substance meant for use in making gypsum board panels contains starch material, having: (i) cold suspension viscosity of not more than 250 mPa·s; (ii) maximum viscosity of not more than 600 BU; and (iii) water retention of not more than 90 g/m2. Said binder is used in the core of the gypsum board panel, which includes core material and one or more sheets of reinforcing material. The gypsum board panel is made using a method involving: a) mixing material selected from a group consisting of plaster material or gypsum material with water and said binding substance to obtain a suspension; b) shaping the suspension into a panel; and c) drying the panel.
EFFECT: high mechanical strength.
13 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to composition of a crude mixture which can be used to make sculpture. The crude mixture for making sculpture contains the following, wt %: gypsum binder 97.0-98.5; starch 0.5-1.0; borax 0.5-1.0; asbestos fibre cut to 3-7 mm pieces 0.5-1.0.
EFFECT: high strength of the sculpture made from the crude mixture.
SUBSTANCE: composite water-resistant gypsum binding agent contains obtained by combined milling fine milled mixture of refinery slag and gypsum of calcium sulfate dehydrate. Binding agent contains refinery slag of stove-busket, additive with pozzolanic properties and periclase hydration activator with component ratio in binding agent, wt %: refinery slag of stove-busket 80-50; calcium sulfate dihydrate 10-25; additive with pozzolanic properties 9.5-23; periclase hydration activator 0.5-2.0. As calcium sulfate dihydrate it contains natural gypsum, fluoroanhydride or phosphogypsum. As additive with pozzolanic properties it contains lime stone or marble, acid slag of electric steel-making or red mud. As activator of periclase hydration it contains bischofite or sulfuric magnesium.
EFFECT: prevention of formation of hydration products, causing weakening of binding agent in application of refinery slag of stove-busket, with preservation of its strength characteristics.
9 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of gypsum boards, namely to gypsum suspension for production of gypsum boards with improved inter-layer adhesion. Gypsum suspension for production of gypsum boards with improved inter-layer adhesion includes: gypsum, oxidised starch, foam-generating substance, plasticiser, paper pulp, water and additionally alkaline starch paster with concentration by finished starch from 1% to 25%, in quantity from 0.001% to 0.2% of gypsum weight. Method of production of gypsum boards with improved inter-layer adhesion includes the following stages: preparation of alkaline starch paster, preparation of water suspension of paper pulp, dosing all components of gypsum suspension into mixer, mixing gypsum suspension components, formation of gypsum cloth of gypsum board with required edge shape and thickness, chopping obtained gypsum board cloth into straps, drying in drying chamber, cutting and facing lines into required length.
EFFECT: improved adhesion of board to gypsum core, increase of strength characteristics of gypsum board sheets without increase of 1 m2 weight.
4 cl, 3 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, particularly to production of construction materials and can be used to produce self-supporting heat insulating materials, for heat-insulating walls, ceilings, partition walls etc, primarily for rural and individual construction. The composition for producing self-supporting heat insulating material contains wood processing wastes - sawdust, gypsum plaster, a foaming additive and water, with the following ratio of components (wt %): sawdust 10.75-14.5, gypsum plaster 36.9-50.0, foaming additive 0.55-0.6, water 37.2-51.8. The technique of producing the composition includes the following: moistening sawdust using 10% of the water needed to produce the material; preparing a foam solution by adding the foaming additive to the remaining water and thoroughly mixing; gradually adding the gypsum plaster and the moist sawdust to the obtained foam while stirring constantly.
EFFECT: obtaining self-supporting heat insulating material, having high heat insulating properties, simple composition, wide raw material base and low cost.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method to produce a composite loose gypsum material, by means of grinding of a gypsum component, its baking and dry mixing of components. Natural gypsum stone is used as a gypsum component. The modifying additive is peat powder, which is introduced into natural gypsum stone before grinding or before baking in the following amount, wt %: natural gypsum - 90-99.5, peat powder - 0.5-10. Baking is carried out at temperature of 150÷200°C for 60÷180 minutes. Peat powder is introduced into gypsum powder.
EFFECT: higher stability of physical-chemical characteristics of a material produced by the proposed manner, during long-term storage, no negative impact at environment.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of building materials based on phosphogypsum binder. The mixture for making phosphogypsum boards contains, pts.wt: phosphogypsum 83-85; urea-formaldehyde resin 3.2-3.6; marshalite 11.4-13.8; water in an amount required to obtain a mass with standard consistency characterised by flow diameter of 180±5 mm. The mixture for making phosphogypsum boards contains, pts.wt: phosphogypsum 83-85; urea-formaldehyde resin 3.2-3.6; flue ash 11.4-13.8; water in an amount required to obtain a mass with standard consistency characterised by flow diameter of 180±5 mm.
EFFECT: high strength of phosphogypsum boards.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to composite materials used to make models, as well as in finishing, structural-decoration and sculpturing work, in restoration of architectural and interior objects. The model material contains a composition 1 and a composition 2 prepared in advance and mixed in a ratio ranging from 1:1 to 5:1, wherein composition 1 has the following components, pts.wt: gypsum binder 100; epoxy resin 20-80; ester plasticiser 5-40; silicon dioxide 5-20. Composition 2 has the following components, pts.wt: water 40; polyethylene polyamine (PEPA) 5-40; microspheres 50-150. The microspheres have size of 15-200 mcm and are made from inorganic materials.
EFFECT: producing high-strength material with low specific density and weather resistance.
3 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: gypsum-containing composition.
SUBSTANCE: claimed composition contains 0.1-30 % of various specific fat chemical additives with molecular weight of 20000 in respect to total dry mixture.
EFFECT: gypsum-containing composition of improved quality.
18 cl, 14 ex, 1 tbl