Method of express-determining contamination of areas of soil and groundwater with crude oil and refined products

FIELD: ecology.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises areal well-drilling of small diameter for shallow depth, sampling the subsurface gas, determination in samples the bulk concentration of methane and total hydrocarbons, as well as radon volumetric activity Rn222 and Rn220. According to reduction of the radon volumetric activity and increase in concentration of methane and total hydrocarbons relative to the natural background the conclusion is made on the presence of area of contamination.

EFFECT: increase in informational content and reliability of determination.

1 tbl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to environmental monitoring, determining zones of anthropogenic contamination of soils and groundwater by oil and oil products.

There are various ways to determine the contamination of soils and water, including sampling and analysis of water samples or soil, determination of the relative concentration of the components and comparing their content with the sanitary-hygienic and environmental standards, for example the way, the identification of the source of environmental pollution (patent No. 2102743).

A known method for determining contamination of soil anthropogenic components (patent No. 2229738), in which samples are analyzed using a binocular stereoscopic microscope, set the percentage of man-made components which are the building contour and highlight contaminated sites soil.

There is a method of identifying zones of anthropogenic chemical pollution (patent No. 2208781), in which samples of atmospheric air, surface water source or soil extract contamination of different toxicity, is subjected to the appropriate sample preparation, transferred into a chromatographic column chromatograph, equipped with a detector NDT introduce a model mixture of two toxicants, in particular hexane and benzene, one of which is malot cycnum, and the other has a high non-specific toxicity, measured retention time of benzene relative to hexane at a constant temperature thermostat, determine the relative amount of the retention of benzene relative to hexane at a given speed of carrier gas and calculate the content of the contaminants in specific areas of environmental objects.

Known geochemical method of identifying and assessing areas of technogenic pollution of rivers (patent No. 2205401), including sampling, selection of river mist, the determination of its chemical composition with subsequent evaluation of the level of accumulation of chemical elements with respect to their background concentrations, establishing areas of rivers with different levels of anthropogenic pollution, and quality of river mist use aperitivos, which is separated from the plants - macrophytes after retrieving them from the water and drying, the samples of epiphytosis standard methods of chemical analysis to determine the content of chemical elements, calculate the concentration factors of chemical elements in epiphytosis as the ratio of their content in a specific observation point to background content, group chemical elements on the values of the coefficients of concentration in epiphytosis and establish geochemical associations that characterize the qualitative composition of ichnogenera pollution, calculate the total pollution

The known method of finding oil in the ground (patent No. 2100829) using chemical photography. In this way carry out gas-geochemical survey in selected locations, not tied to the source of seismic waves, drilling the boreholes or shallow wells to a depth of 10 m for sampling subsurface air. The drilling depth is determined metologicheskie features of the upper part of the section and the groundwater level. Well pump to remove air and seal with a lid, into which is inserted a tube with a valve or clamp to bleed air from the well. Within 2 days well defended before the onset temperature and the component balance of the air in the well and in the near-well zone of the soil. Then carry out the extraction of the air from the well and determine the zones of high concentration of hydrocarbons in a known manner, for example by gas chromatography, and the ratio of the concentrations of heavy and light hydrocarbons are judged on the availability of petroleum products in the upper layers of soil of studied area.

The disadvantage of the above methods is the need for drilling deep wells (up to the upper unconfined aquifer groundwater), sampling, spending a lot of time on their preparation for proboat the oru and analysis, the need to attract technology specialists. Drilling is fraught with problems of accessibility and features of the terrain, as well as a relatively high cost.

A device for Express-analysis of the level of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil RemScan South Australian company Ziltek, which uses an infrared signal to the direct measurement of hydrocarbons in soil. The disadvantage is the possibility of determination of hydrocarbons only in the surface layer of air, which is the actual definition of the gas cap. Taking into account the possible biotic processes in the humus layer, can be obtained from data on the total content of hydrocarbons of biogenic origin, which can significantly distort the result.

Other well-known rapid methods for the determination of contaminated soil and groundwater by oil and oil products in the study of the technical level is not detected.

Closest to the claimed (prototype) is a method atmogeochemical (chemical) shooting site for the preliminary delineation of plumes of oil pollution of the geological environment, identify possible sources of contamination (http://www.hydrogeoecology.ru/index.php/iblioteka-gidek/zhumaly/razvedka-i-okhrana-nedr-10-2010-g/43-metodika-otsenki-nefteproduktovogo-zagryazneniya-geologicheskoj -sredy-na-otdelnykh-ob-ektakh-povolzhya). On resultdataset allocated zone of the subsoil accumulation of volatile hydrocarbons. For control you are using a portable photoionization detector "Colin-1A", intended for the quantitative determination of the concentration of toxic and highly hazardous substances (vapour hydrocarbon oil and oil products, etc. in the air. The detector "Colin-1A determines to 70 components 2-4 hazard class, including petroleum hydrocarbons. The range 5-2000 mg/m3.

Research concentration subsoil accumulations of gas is areal drilling small diameter to a depth of 0.5 m, in which the detector 5 seconds fixed concentration of a substance. Values are compared with the background values obtained at points located above the groundwater flow from the location of the pollution source, using the Navigator is the geo-location of measurement points.

The disadvantage of the prototype is able to catch only the total hydrocarbons and low selectivity of the device itself, in addition, the hydrocarbons emitted by biotic processes are not, which can also distort the result. In the way that there are no indirect confirming contamination signs. This increases the uncertainty in the preliminary delineation of pollution of the geological environment.

The objective of the invention is POPs is the W method of rapid measurements of pollution in areas of soil and groundwater by oil and oil products, in the short term without significant financial cost and technical resources to define the boundaries of contamination.

The problem is solved in that in the method of rapid measurements of pollution in areas of soil and groundwater by oil and oil products, including areal drilling small diameter at small depth, fixing the concentration of subsurface gas, according to the invention perform sampling subsurface gas samples to determine the volumetric concentration of methane and total hydrocarbons volume activity of radon Rn222and CL220according to the obtained data and make the conclusion about the presence of site contamination.

The method is implemented by the following sequence of operations: Buryat manually wells of small diameter (100 mm) at a depth of 0.5 m to 1 m In the borehole lower cylindrical sampling device that allows you to select soil gases, and stabilize for 20 minutes. The sampling points can be chosen according to specific conditions precluding distortion of the result.

To determine these samples the concentration of methane and total hydrocarbons, the volume activity of radon Rn222and Rn220use quasienergy radiometer spectrometer measurement error is not below 10%, combined with the detector and methane and total hydrocarbons with sensitivity from 0 to 30000 ppm. Collectively, the indicators measure the halo and the nature of the contamination.

Data of field observations are presented in the table and in the drawing.

Indicators of volumetric activity of radon Rn222and Rn220and the volume concentration of total hydrocarbons in samples
The point of measurementRn222, Bq/m3Rn220, Bq/m3CH4+CxHx, ppm
1560,2676400,4682349,8243
2160,0335440,26762685,468
3150,0669360,20074006,804
4106,6667346,66675404,248
5660,5686780,6689201,5422

According to table oil pollution is under points 2, 3, 4. Points 1 and 5 are point and natural background, which characterize the normal ratio of natural background-defined parameters. Points 2, 3, 4 are abnormal to the natural background, which directly indicates the presence of contamination.

If the layer of groundwater painting contamination will not change, but in this case uglevodorodno pollution will be in the form of lenses on the surface of the groundwater. This may confirm the presence of hydrocarbon lenses in anticyclones or oil traps aquifer.

The method is explained by the difference of solubility Rn222in hydrocarbons and water. Rn222stands out on the whole surface of the Earth approximately evenly (except geophysical anomalies), and in areas of pollution by hydrocarbons it is soluble in hydrocarbons and its concentration decreases (solubility in water at 40 times less than in hydrocarbons). And since the half-life is 3.8 days, dissolved in hydrocarbons, radon remains split on the child products. Rn220is a daughter product of the decay of Rn222that also indirectly confirms the presence of hydrocarbon contamination. Consequently, reducing radon concentrations below natural background and increasing the concentration of methane and total hydrocarbons indicates the presence of ug is vodorodnogo pollution.

The method of rapid measurements of pollution in areas of soil and groundwater by oil and oil products, including areal drilling small diameter at small depth, sampling subsurface gas detection in samples of the bulk concentration of methane and total hydrocarbons, as well as the volume activity of radon Rn222and Rn220to decrease the volume activity of radon and the increasing concentration of methane and total hydrocarbons relative to natural background make a conclusion about the presence of site contamination.



 

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