Method of express-determining contamination of areas of soil and groundwater with crude oil and refined products
SUBSTANCE: method comprises areal well-drilling of small diameter for shallow depth, sampling the subsurface gas, determination in samples the bulk concentration of methane and total hydrocarbons, as well as radon volumetric activity Rn222 and Rn220. According to reduction of the radon volumetric activity and increase in concentration of methane and total hydrocarbons relative to the natural background the conclusion is made on the presence of area of contamination.
EFFECT: increase in informational content and reliability of determination.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to environmental monitoring, determining zones of anthropogenic contamination of soils and groundwater by oil and oil products.
There are various ways to determine the contamination of soils and water, including sampling and analysis of water samples or soil, determination of the relative concentration of the components and comparing their content with the sanitary-hygienic and environmental standards, for example the way, the identification of the source of environmental pollution (patent No. 2102743).
A known method for determining contamination of soil anthropogenic components (patent No. 2229738), in which samples are analyzed using a binocular stereoscopic microscope, set the percentage of man-made components which are the building contour and highlight contaminated sites soil.
There is a method of identifying zones of anthropogenic chemical pollution (patent No. 2208781), in which samples of atmospheric air, surface water source or soil extract contamination of different toxicity, is subjected to the appropriate sample preparation, transferred into a chromatographic column chromatograph, equipped with a detector NDT introduce a model mixture of two toxicants, in particular hexane and benzene, one of which is malot cycnum, and the other has a high non-specific toxicity, measured retention time of benzene relative to hexane at a constant temperature thermostat, determine the relative amount of the retention of benzene relative to hexane at a given speed of carrier gas and calculate the content of the contaminants in specific areas of environmental objects.
Known geochemical method of identifying and assessing areas of technogenic pollution of rivers (patent No. 2205401), including sampling, selection of river mist, the determination of its chemical composition with subsequent evaluation of the level of accumulation of chemical elements with respect to their background concentrations, establishing areas of rivers with different levels of anthropogenic pollution, and quality of river mist use aperitivos, which is separated from the plants - macrophytes after retrieving them from the water and drying, the samples of epiphytosis standard methods of chemical analysis to determine the content of chemical elements, calculate the concentration factors of chemical elements in epiphytosis as the ratio of their content in a specific observation point to background content, group chemical elements on the values of the coefficients of concentration in epiphytosis and establish geochemical associations that characterize the qualitative composition of ichnogenera pollution, calculate the total pollution
The known method of finding oil in the ground (patent No. 2100829) using chemical photography. In this way carry out gas-geochemical survey in selected locations, not tied to the source of seismic waves, drilling the boreholes or shallow wells to a depth of 10 m for sampling subsurface air. The drilling depth is determined metologicheskie features of the upper part of the section and the groundwater level. Well pump to remove air and seal with a lid, into which is inserted a tube with a valve or clamp to bleed air from the well. Within 2 days well defended before the onset temperature and the component balance of the air in the well and in the near-well zone of the soil. Then carry out the extraction of the air from the well and determine the zones of high concentration of hydrocarbons in a known manner, for example by gas chromatography, and the ratio of the concentrations of heavy and light hydrocarbons are judged on the availability of petroleum products in the upper layers of soil of studied area.
The disadvantage of the above methods is the need for drilling deep wells (up to the upper unconfined aquifer groundwater), sampling, spending a lot of time on their preparation for proboat the oru and analysis, the need to attract technology specialists. Drilling is fraught with problems of accessibility and features of the terrain, as well as a relatively high cost.
A device for Express-analysis of the level of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil RemScan South Australian company Ziltek, which uses an infrared signal to the direct measurement of hydrocarbons in soil. The disadvantage is the possibility of determination of hydrocarbons only in the surface layer of air, which is the actual definition of the gas cap. Taking into account the possible biotic processes in the humus layer, can be obtained from data on the total content of hydrocarbons of biogenic origin, which can significantly distort the result.
Other well-known rapid methods for the determination of contaminated soil and groundwater by oil and oil products in the study of the technical level is not detected.
Closest to the claimed (prototype) is a method atmogeochemical (chemical) shooting site for the preliminary delineation of plumes of oil pollution of the geological environment, identify possible sources of contamination (http://www.hydrogeoecology.ru/index.php/iblioteka-gidek/zhumaly/razvedka-i-okhrana-nedr-10-2010-g/43-metodika-otsenki-nefteproduktovogo-zagryazneniya-geologicheskoj -sredy-na-otdelnykh-ob-ektakh-povolzhya). On resultdataset allocated zone of the subsoil accumulation of volatile hydrocarbons. For control you are using a portable photoionization detector "Colin-1A", intended for the quantitative determination of the concentration of toxic and highly hazardous substances (vapour hydrocarbon oil and oil products, etc. in the air. The detector "Colin-1A determines to 70 components 2-4 hazard class, including petroleum hydrocarbons. The range 5-2000 mg/m3.
Research concentration subsoil accumulations of gas is areal drilling small diameter to a depth of 0.5 m, in which the detector 5 seconds fixed concentration of a substance. Values are compared with the background values obtained at points located above the groundwater flow from the location of the pollution source, using the Navigator is the geo-location of measurement points.
The disadvantage of the prototype is able to catch only the total hydrocarbons and low selectivity of the device itself, in addition, the hydrocarbons emitted by biotic processes are not, which can also distort the result. In the way that there are no indirect confirming contamination signs. This increases the uncertainty in the preliminary delineation of pollution of the geological environment.
The objective of the invention is POPs is the W method of rapid measurements of pollution in areas of soil and groundwater by oil and oil products, in the short term without significant financial cost and technical resources to define the boundaries of contamination.
The problem is solved in that in the method of rapid measurements of pollution in areas of soil and groundwater by oil and oil products, including areal drilling small diameter at small depth, fixing the concentration of subsurface gas, according to the invention perform sampling subsurface gas samples to determine the volumetric concentration of methane and total hydrocarbons volume activity of radon Rn222and CL220according to the obtained data and make the conclusion about the presence of site contamination.
The method is implemented by the following sequence of operations: Buryat manually wells of small diameter (100 mm) at a depth of 0.5 m to 1 m In the borehole lower cylindrical sampling device that allows you to select soil gases, and stabilize for 20 minutes. The sampling points can be chosen according to specific conditions precluding distortion of the result.
To determine these samples the concentration of methane and total hydrocarbons, the volume activity of radon Rn222and Rn220use quasienergy radiometer spectrometer measurement error is not below 10%, combined with the detector and methane and total hydrocarbons with sensitivity from 0 to 30000 ppm. Collectively, the indicators measure the halo and the nature of the contamination.
Data of field observations are presented in the table and in the drawing.
|Indicators of volumetric activity of radon Rn222and Rn220and the volume concentration of total hydrocarbons in samples|
|The point of measurement||Rn222, Bq/m3||Rn220, Bq/m3||CH4+CxHx, ppm|
According to table oil pollution is under points 2, 3, 4. Points 1 and 5 are point and natural background, which characterize the normal ratio of natural background-defined parameters. Points 2, 3, 4 are abnormal to the natural background, which directly indicates the presence of contamination.
If the layer of groundwater painting contamination will not change, but in this case uglevodorodno pollution will be in the form of lenses on the surface of the groundwater. This may confirm the presence of hydrocarbon lenses in anticyclones or oil traps aquifer.
The method is explained by the difference of solubility Rn222in hydrocarbons and water. Rn222stands out on the whole surface of the Earth approximately evenly (except geophysical anomalies), and in areas of pollution by hydrocarbons it is soluble in hydrocarbons and its concentration decreases (solubility in water at 40 times less than in hydrocarbons). And since the half-life is 3.8 days, dissolved in hydrocarbons, radon remains split on the child products. Rn220is a daughter product of the decay of Rn222that also indirectly confirms the presence of hydrocarbon contamination. Consequently, reducing radon concentrations below natural background and increasing the concentration of methane and total hydrocarbons indicates the presence of ug is vodorodnogo pollution.
The method of rapid measurements of pollution in areas of soil and groundwater by oil and oil products, including areal drilling small diameter at small depth, sampling subsurface gas detection in samples of the bulk concentration of methane and total hydrocarbons, as well as the volume activity of radon Rn222and Rn220to decrease the volume activity of radon and the increasing concentration of methane and total hydrocarbons relative to natural background make a conclusion about the presence of site contamination.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a housing, a porous measuring plate which pores are filled with water, a flexible screen with sensors which are electrically connected to the display device. The novelty is that the lateral inner surface of the housing is provided with microcells hydraulically interconnected and filled with polyacrylamide.
EFFECT: possibility of measuring the dynamic action on the soil of rain with the addition of polyacrylamide, due to the presence of microcells filled with polyacrylamide.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises phytoindication on age of woody vegetation. Determination of the upper limit of affection of a mountain valley with avalanche stream, at which avalanching no vegetation is left on the slopes of the valley, is carried out by measuring the difference in height between the bottom of the valley and the lower limit of the phytometer - autochthonous birch forests, which grow over the affected slope; assessment of date of affection is determined by measuring the amount of annual rings on wood cores drilled by the age-related borer, or on transverse saw cuts at the base of trunks at the level of root collar of the largest trees in the newly formed growing stocks, renewable in the affected area lower the autochthonous birch forests.
EFFECT: method enables to improve efficiency of detection of signs of hazardous natural phenomena.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: soil sample is passed through a stream of water. On the surface of the soil sample a load is placed. Beginning of dipping of the load is fixed. The parameters of the sample and the water flow are measured. The coefficient of soil filtration is calculated from the measured parameters. The value of the concentration of fulvic acid in the water stream, passed through the soil sample, is recorded. In reducing the concentration value by 10% of the initial value the fulvic acid solution is added into the stream of water directed into the soil sample, restoring the value of the fulvic acid concentration in the stream of water passed through the soil sample, to the initial value.
EFFECT: use of the claimed method extends functional capabilities of determining the filtration coefficient of soil, enables to determine quickly and accurately the filtration coefficient of soil exposed to fulvic acids, in the zone of prevalence of podzolic soils.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the device of cuts, power measurement of layer of membranes of soil biological organisms in the beginning and end of the observation period and the calculation. At that the power of the packed layer of membranes of testate amoebas is measured. The amount of change in the power of peat layer is calculated by the formula Hsrab=a·h, where Hsrab is reduction value of the peat layer power, cm; h is the power of packed layer of membranes of testate amoebas, cm; a is a coefficient. The coefficient a is determined by the formula a=(H1-H2)/(h1-h2), where H2, H1 is the power of the peat layer and h2, h1 is power of the packed layer of membranes of testate amoebas, respectively at the end and the beginning of the observation period.
EFFECT: method enables to determine quickly and accurately the amount of change of power of the peat layer on reclaimed land.
SUBSTANCE: controlled area in the planting is chosen and prepared, the procedure for controlling of soil respiration is carried out in the chosen controlled area in the planting by measuring the amount of accumulation (loss) of gaseous respiratory substrate CO2 (O2) in a sealed chamber, with which the controlled area is covered. Preparation of controlled area additionally includes such sowing seeds when a part of the area is left unsown. For measurement two different sealed chambers are used separately and alternately, with one of which the part of controlled area of the planting just sown with plants is covered entirely, and with another one additionally to the above area the unsown part of the controlled area of the planting is covered partially or completely. At that the amount of soil respiration attributable to the square of the controlled area of planting is calculated by determining the difference between the measurement results obtained with the above sealed chambers, multiplied by the ratio of the square of the controlled area of planting to the difference of squares of bases of above two sealed chambers.
EFFECT: ability to study in the field, and at the same time the interaction integrity of the root and ground parts of plants is not violated.
SUBSTANCE: samples of uncontaminated background soil and contaminated with heavy metals or crude oil and oil products are taken, and for each pair of samples of soil the number of ammonifying bacteria, the number of microscopic fungi, the abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, the catalase activity, the invertase activity, the germination of radish is determined. IRS of the soil is calculated as follows: IRS =Σ( Pconti/Pfoni)×100%/n, where Pconti is the value of i-th index (number of ammonifying bacteria, million/g, the number of microscopic fungi, million/g, the abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, %, catalase activity, ml O2/min, the invertase activity, ml, glucose/24 h, the germination of radish, %, for contaminated soil; Pfoni is the value of i-th/min, the indicator for uncontaminated soil; n is the number of indicators (n=6). The environmental condition of the soil is determined according to reduction of the IRS. If the IRS value in the contaminated soil is over 95%, the normal ecological condition of the soil is stated. In reduction of the IRS to 90-95% the satisfactory condition is stated. In reduction of the IRS to 75-90% the poor condition is stated. In reduction of the IRS below 75% the catastrophic condition is stated.
EFFECT: method enables to assess quickly and accurately the environmental condition of the soil.
17 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method to determine frost heave of soil during freezing of a seasonally thawing layer includes drilling of a well before start of its thawing, sampling of soil, measurement of depth of seasonal thawing ξ, definition of dry soil density in samples ρd,th. In addition wells are drilled after freezing of the seasonally thawing layer, on the samples they additionally define density of dry soil after freezing of the seasonally thawing layer ρd,f, and the heave value is determined in accordance with the given dependence.
EFFECT: reduced labour intensiveness of works, increased accuracy of determination of heaving value, provision of material intensity reduction.
SUBSTANCE: method involves probing an underlying surface having test areas with a multichannel spectrometer mounted on a space vehicle to obtain images on each channel; calculating, through zonal ratios of signal amplitude values in channels, partial degradation indices, specifically percentage content of humus (H), salinity index (NSI) and moisture loss index (W); determining the integral degradation index D based on a multi-parameter regressive relationship of the type:
EFFECT: faster and more reliable determination of degree of degradation of soil cover.
5 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes installation of a device into a vertical position, and the device is a metal hollow cylinder enclosed into the body, along the inner and outer wall of which there is a cutting element welded in the form of a spiral, lowering of the cylinder to the specified depth during its rotation with cutting of a soil sample of cylindrical shape.
EFFECT: simplification and increased reliability in production of samples.
SUBSTANCE: method includes device of cutting, measurement of parameters of soil layer and calculation. In the layer of peat ash the mass of diatomic algae shells is measured per one unit of plot area. The value of pyrogenic change of peat layer thickness is calculated by the following formula: H=α·m, where H - is the value of pyrogenic change of peat layer thickness, cm; α - is the coefficient, cm·m2/g; n - is mass of diatomic algae shells per unit of plot area, g/m2. The coefficient α is evaluate according to the formula: α=H1/m1, where H1 - is the peat layer thickness of the analogue plot, cm; and m1 - is the mass of diatomic algae shells per unit of analogue plot area, g/m2.
EFFECT: method enables calculate quickly and accurately the pyrogenic change value of peat layer thickness.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, method used for determining of phosphorous fertilizer demands in the course of growing of cereals and leguminous crops.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing annual agrochemical investigation of soil arable layer; determining labile phosphorus content and availability of phosphorus to plant for forming of planned yields by providing chemical analyses for capability of soil to mobilization of labile phosphorus by using potassium phosphate solution, as well as by calculating doses of used phosphorous fertilizer from respective formula, with annual agrochemical investigation being provided in arable layer at 0-20 cm depth; additionally determining content of labile phosphorus delivered into soil in the course of mineralization of soil organic substance and plant remains of preceding crop.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumption, increased precision in diagnosis and regulation of phosphorous feeding of plants.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, agronomic chemistry, agronomic ecology, soil biology, and chemical analysis of soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining content of mineral nitrogen and potentially mineralizable nitrogen provided by soil incubation at temperature of 34-36°C for 7-8 days; converting mineral and potentially mineralizable soil nitrogen to solution by boiling incubated soil suspension in water in the ratio of 1:5 during 20 min for sandy, sandy loam and medium loamy soil and during 30 min for heavily loamy soil; subjecting aqueous extraction of soil sample to analysis by means of Kieldal apparatus for determining nitrogen content actually available to plants under light alkaline hydrolysis conditions; determining nitrogen content potentially available to plants under drastic alkaline hydrolysis conditions; forecasting fertilizer nitrogen dose on the basis of nitrogen content actually available to plants for predetermined yield of specific crop with the use of coefficient of assimilation by plants of soil nitrogen and fertilizers, and amount of nitrogen needed for production of 1 centner/hectare of product from formula: ,
where D is forecast fertilizer nitrogen dose; N is kg/hectare; Yc is crop yield for which fertilizer nitrogen dose is calculated, centner/hectare; C is amount of nitrogen needed for production of 1 centner/hectare of product of designed crop, kg/hectare; Naa is amount of nitrogen in soil actually available to plants, kg/hectare; 0.4 is coefficient of usage by plants of available nitrogen from fertilizer, %. Method may be used for evaluation of humic podzol soil with regard to its nitrogenous state, forecasting of need for nitrogenous fertilizer by plants, determining stock of nitrogen available to plants and forecasting of crop yields. Method does not require prolonged observations and controlling of soil temperature during plant growing periods.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, elimination of employment of expensive bulky equipment for performing forecasting process.
5 dwg, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method comprises using microscopic chlorella algae as a biological test, distributing the suspension of the cells of chlorella over the paper filter on the surface of the soil plate in the Petri caps, obtaining chlorophyll extract, determining optical density of the extract, and comparing it with the reference one. The 20-ml volume of the suspension of the chlorella cells are distributed inside the Petri caps. The caps are covered and set into a greenhouse. The caps are exposed to light during seven days, and then the filters are removed from the caps, dried at a temperature of 38-42°С, grinded, and extracted. The allelopathy activity of the soil is expressed in per cents of the optical density of the extract on the reference one, in which chlorella is grown on the filter, which is set onto four layers of moistened filtering paper or cotton.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumptions and enhanced reliability of determining.
FIELD: agriculture, soil science.
SUBSTANCE: alteration in soil properties during restoring the carcass of organo-mineral gel should be detected by measuring the difference of potentials between the soil and soil-contacting ion-exchange membrane. The method considerably simplifies and accelerates evaluating the carcass of organo-mineral soil gel.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of evaluation.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method contains sampling soils and analysis of samples using X-ray-fluorescent technique. Content of humus is judged of from arsenic-to-cobalt ratio on preliminarily plotted calibration graph.
EFFECT: increased reliability and rapidity of analytical procedure.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes performing compression tests according to system "cylindrical hollow sample - backfill material" in rigid matrices with different values of relation of height of backfill material, filling space between walls of rigid cylindrical matrix and sample, to sample height, which has relation of height to diameter no less than 2. sample is set in matrices in such a way, that its axis passes through matrix axis. Unified hardness passport is built in coordinates "horizontal stress - vertical stress" of rock sample. Tests of rock samples for sliding are additionally performed during compression with loads above limit of lengthy hardness of rock with construction of sliding curves in coordinates "load level - vertical deformations speed logarithm", after that rock samples in matrix are enveloped in backfill material and same tests are performed again. Relative reaction of backfill massif is determined from mathematical expression. Alignment chart is built for dependence of relative reaction of backfill material from relation of its height to height of rock sample for various levels of system load. Alignment chart is used to determine relative reaction of backfill massif during its long interaction with rocks, enveloping a mine.
EFFECT: higher reliability, higher trustworthiness, higher quality of control over processes of deformation and destruction of massifs.
5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, evaluation of soil capacity of supplying farm crops with mineral nitrogen under sloped relief conditions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves composting soil while adding ammonium sulfate; determining content of nitrates accumulated in soil after decomposition of organic compounds. Composting procedure is carried out under natural field temperature mode conditions in bottomless vessels and at optimal moisture content mode conditions by providing periodic off-season irrigation procedures. Nitrification capacity is evaluated by ammonium nitrogen-to-nitrate nitrogen transition intensity.
EFFECT: increased information content of nitrification capacity evaluating method and wider range of usage.
2 cl, 3 tbl
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, soil type determining method allowing soil fertility to be evaluated.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sampling soil; preparing and analyzing soil sample by fluororoentgenographic method for determining calcium, iron, zirconium and titanium content thereof; determining type of soil by iron to zirconium ratio and calcium to titanium ratio from preliminarily plotted gauging diagram.
EFFECT: quick process of determining soil type, intensified interpretation and provision for obtaining of reliable results.
FIELD: agriculture and soil science, in particular, determination of soil properties.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining maximal shear stress, with said process being carried out with the use of soil solution squeezed from soil and located in glass vessel; spilling dispersed material into glass pipe; determining maximal shear stress by difference of gas pressure at different ends of pipe, with soil solution being moved.
EFFECT: reduced labor intensity owing to substantial decrease in amount of soil required for carrying out test.
FIELD: agriculture and soil science, in particular, methods for determining of soil properties.
SUBSTANCE: method involves placing soil suspension into pycnometer; adding liquid and removing blocked air from soil by vacuum supplying. Liquid is solution tending to destruct soil aggregates. Air is removed from fluidized soil bed.
EFFECT: simplified process for determining density of soil solid phase and reduced probability of occurrence of error in test results.