Electric heat accumulating heater
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering and can be used for heating and temperature control. An electric heat accumulating heater comprises a casing, heat accumulating substance and an electric heater connected to a power supply source. Novelty is that the electric heater is made as a conductive layer interacting with a movable electrode and comprising carbon nanomaterial above which a heat accumulating dielectric layer is provided. The device is characterised by highly efficient heat accumulation and possibility of changing the power with the step of 2 W and a wide control range from 10 W to 20 W.
EFFECT: invention allows for reduced power losses and increased heating rate control efficiency.
4 cl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to energy and can be used for heating and temperature control of the premises.
Known svobodnokonvektivnye electric heat accumulator containing a heat-insulated casing, is provided in the bottom of the hole for the air inlet and the regulator heat-retaining nozzle heaters with vertical channels therein for passage of the heated air, as well as additional teploizolirovannykh non-heated vertical channel for measuring the movement of air, is placed outside the housing and connected at the top to the channels of the heated air in the nozzle and provided with a bottom outlet pipe. The battery supplied with the output aperture, placed in the upper part of the channel, and installed additional regulating valve with fins, the regulator at the inlet of the heated air in the form of dampers placed in front of each channel in the nozzle, the additional channel is made with fins, In the case before the additional vertical channel set regulating valve (Patent RF №2063585, IPC F24H 7/02,. 1996).
The disadvantage of the presented device is the complexity of the regulation.
Also known electric heater cumulative type containing the drive is aloway energy, including an electrical heating element placed in the main vessel, the cavity of which is entirely filled with liquid and vapor to the liquid, an auxiliary vessel, the lowest point of the cavity which is hydraulically connected with the bottom of the main vessel, and the top is in communication with the atmosphere, and a heat transfer element in contact with the storage of thermal energy, and the connected piping hot and cold water. The storage of thermal energy additionally includes a heat accumulator, which is located a heating element and temperature sensor, whose signal through the logic device controls the operation of the electric heating element, and a mixer that is connected through flow regulators piping hot and cold water and output water, and heat exchange element is made in the form of a recuperative heat exchanger (Patent RF №2135904, IPC F24H 1/20, F24H 7/02, 1999).
The disadvantage of the presented device is the design complexity and system control.
Known electric heater, comprising a housing, inside which is placed a capsule filled with 95% of the volume of the heat storage substance with the phase transition in the area of operating temperatures, and electric heating elements connected to a power source, as teploakkumuliruyushchikh the substance use of eutectic mixture of chloride salts of sodium and calcium. In this design on the capsule relief valve connected with the air volume of the capsule, around which is placed one or more electric heaters (RF Patent No. 2103618 F24H 7/02, F24D 15/02, 1998).
The disadvantage of this device is the design complexity and the need to use protective elements, which may themselves be the cause of an emergency in case of contact with molten salts as a safety valve when the cold start device reset pressure will become impossible. Such a device requires the introduction of additional regulatory systems to maintain rational temperature regime and eliminate overheating of heating Elements.
The invention aims to reduce energy losses and increase the efficiency of regulation of the heat output.
The solution of this problem is achieved by the fact that in electricalautomotive heater, comprising a housing, a heat storage substance and a heater connected to the power source, the heater is made of interacting with a movable electrode conductive layer containing carbon nanomaterial, above which is located thermal storage dielectric layer.
The movable electrode is made in the form of a cone, mounted on a spring loaded piston, equipped with the om hollow rod with an adjusting nut.
Between the conductive layer containing carbon nanomaterial, and thermal storage dielectric layer is placed a layer of silicone.
The body is enclosed in a jacket provided with a nozzle inlet and outlet protection and insulation.
Perform heater cooperating with a movable electrode conductive layer containing carbon nanomaterial, above which is located thermal storage dielectric layer, reduces energy losses and improving the efficiency of regulation of the heating power due to the use of ohmic properties of the conductive layer and simplify and improve the reliability of the regulatory process heating power. This provides increased functionality of the device, since the heating capacity depends on the contact surface of a movable electrode and a conductive layer that is provided with the conical shape of the movable electrode. When reaching the set temperature automatically allocating a movable electrode forces volume expansion conductive and heat-retaining materials and re-enable when they are cooled to a predetermined temperature.
Performing a rolling electrode in the form of a cone, mounted on a spring loaded piston, fitted flooring is a rod with an adjusting nut, allows for easy application of the device by eliminating complex regulatory device that improves the efficiency of regulation of the heating power
The space between the conductive layer containing carbon nanomaterial, and thermal storage dielectric layer is a layer of silicone provides the ease of use of the device is still operational at any position.
Conclusion corps shirt, equipped with a nozzle inlet and outlet protection and insulation, reduces energy loss and increase ease of use - as for the various tasks it is enough to connect to the nozzles supplying environment.
Electrochemically heater provides adaptive power with such fluids as air and water, with the possibility of accumulation of heat and maintain the temperature rational mode.
The essence of the invention is illustrated by specific example, in which figure 1 shows a General view electroaccumulating apparatus.
The list of positions indicated on the drawing:
1 - body;
2 - conductive layer;
3 - layer;
4 - layer thermal storage dielectric material;
5 - electrode;
6 - piston;
7 - washer;
8 - spill the spacecraft;
9 - stock;
10 - conduit;
11 - elastic element;
12 - casing;
13 - pipe supply environment;
14 - pipe outlet protection
15 - insulation;
16 - Bush;
17 - adjusting nut;
18 - contact electric;
19 - grounding.
Electrochemically heater (figure 1) contains a finned housing 1 in which is placed a conductive layer 2, for example, carbon nanomaterial, mixed with paraffin, impermeable elastic layer 3 of silicon bulk layer with thermal storage dielectric material 4 with a phase transition, for example paraffin, the electrode 5 made in the form of a cone, whose base is fixed to the piston 6 through the washer 7, made of dielectric, pin 8, is placed in the channel of the hollow shaft 9 and enclosed in a tube 10 of a dielectric material (fiberglass, PTFE f-4 etc). Between the housing 1 and the piston rod 9 is placed elastic element 11 made in the form of conical springs. The housing 1 is enclosed in a casing 12 with pipe supply environment 13, the pipe outlet environment 14 and the insulation 15. The upper part of the housing 1 provided with a sleeve 16, in which is mounted a rod 9 and interoperates with adjusting nut 17 mounted on the threaded end of the rod 9. The power supply to the heater is supplied through the electrical contact 18 on the end of the stud 8 and grounded the e 19 of the housing 1.
Electrochemically heater works as follows. When applying an electric voltage to the electrical contact 18 a voltage insulated from the piston 6 washer 7, the electrode 5 is supplied to pin 8, isolated from the rod 9 and the piston 6 of the insulating tube 10. The electric current flows in the volume between the electrode 5 and the conductive layer 2 on the housing 1 with the ground 19, resulting in a volumetric heat generation. The heat is transferred into the environment through the fins of the housing wall 1 and the upper heat-retaining layers 4. Heat is removed from elektroteploenergiju heater by filing environment (air or water) through pipes inlet and outlet of the medium 13 and 14 in the cavity between the housing 1 and the casing 12, enclosed in thermal insulation 15. When the temperature of the phase transition in the conductive layer 2 and layer with thermal storage dielectric material 4 is increase that accompanied the rise of the piston 6 and the moving electrode 5 beyond the impermeable layer 3 in the dielectric layers 4, which leads to the unlocking of the supply chain. In this case stops power from an external source until, until the cooling layers 2 and 4, causing a decrease in the volume of the layers 2 and 4, and the elastic element 11 will return electrode 5 in the switching-mode power is Badawi layer 2. This will cause a re-current flow and heat dissipation. With the adjusting nut 17 rod 9 can move relative to the sleeve 16, this changes the height of immersion of the electrode 5 in the conductive layer 2, which allows you to change the output device.
Comparative tests elektroteploenergiju heater with traditional means of electric heating (heating Elements and nichrome coils) showed a decrease in energy loss by 30% when transferring heat to such fluids as air and water. This is due to the high teplokomunenergo and the ability to change power in increments of 2 W and a wide adjustment range from 10 W to 20 kW.
1. Electrochemically heater, comprising a housing, a heat storage substance and a heater connected to a power source, characterized in that the heater comprises interacting with a movable electrode conductive layer containing carbon nanomaterial, above which is located thermal storage dielectric layer.
2. Electrochemically heater according to claim 1, characterized in that the movable electrode is made in the form of a cone, mounted on a spring loaded piston, provided with a hollow rod with an adjusting nut.
3. Elektroteploenergiju the second heater according to claim 1, characterized in that between the conductive layer containing carbon nanomaterial, and thermal storage dielectric layer is placed a layer of silicone.
4. Electrochemically heater according to claim 1, characterized in that the housing is enclosed in a jacket provided with a nozzle inlet and outlet protection and insulation.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of power engineering, more specifically, to facilities for accumulation, storage and release or conversion of heat energy. The heat energy accumulator comprises at least one control element and a working body, providing for accumulation of thermal energy and capable of releasing thermal energy as a result of action of at least one control element. At the same time according to the invention, the working body represents amorphous particles of refractory material, providing for accumulation of thermal energy when in condition of metastable highly destabilised defect-saturated condensed phase and release of thermal energy during phase transition from the defect-saturated destabilised condensed condition into condition of crystalline order.
EFFECT: proposed accumulator has higher energy intensity in comparison with analogues available at the current level of engineering.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger includes casing with through openings on its opposite sides, phase transient working medium and heat carrier. Phase transient working medium is made in the form of frameless heat exchange elements from form-stable composite heat accumulating material, which are fixed inside casing with possibility of their being freely streamlined with heat carrier. In order to improve heat carrier to the space between adjacent heat exchange elements, elastic corrugated metal ribbed plates are installed. When using the heat exchanger as electric heating device, electric heaters are added to its composition.
EFFECT: improving mass and dimensions parameters of heat exchange devices at simultaneous increase of their power capacity, simplifying the design, increasing energy saving level and improving energy characteristics of the systems operating in peak actuation modes.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for water heating and can be used in power engineering. Device includes boiler, expansion tank, heat exchanger, hydraulic air heat exchanger, pipelines, including pipeline connecting the upper part of boiler to the bottom of expansion tank, safety valves, capacity and tank. Boiler, tank, expansion tank and pipeline connecting the upper part of boiler to bottom of expansion tank have common longitudinal axis in vertical plane, heat exchanger and capacity are coaxial, and their axis is parallel to axes of tank, pipeline connecting the upper part of boiler to bottom of expansion tank and expansion tank; at that, heat exchanger is connected through the cock to pipeline connecting the upper part of boiler to bottom of expansion tank; in space between boiler internal walls and external walls there located are heat energy sources and heat-accumulating matters.
EFFECT: invention provides use of heat of phase transition of heat-accumulating matter.
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to heat exchange devices used for heat or cold transfer in the processes using liquid or gas flows, and can be used in heating and ventilation systems, in chemical, food and other industries. Heat exchange method in gaseous and liquid media consists in transfer of heat or warm liquid (gas) from upper layers of medium to lower ones by means of capsules consisting of cover with heat insulation in which there is tank filled with heat-absorbing material or liquid (gas) and flotation chambers with movable partition brought into operation with temperature drive in the form of bi-material. Capsules are retained on bottom till heat transfer is completed owing to magnet or thermomagnetic material installed in capsule, and electric magnet installed in lower layers; at that, current for electric magnet is generated when capsule with magnet passes along current-conducting spiral located along capsule movement.
EFFECT: proposed invention will allow, by using internal heat, performing heat exchange between upper and lower layers of liquid (gas), as well as producing electric power.
5 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: heat engineering, namely accumulator type gas heaters, possibly used at developing hot blast gas heaters for aerodynamic tubes.
SUBSTANCE: gas heater includes cylindrical heat accumulating adapter sealed in housing near end of gas outlet. Novelty is that heater includes rod arranged along axis of heat accumulating adapter, supporting grid and cylindrical gas-tight casing. Heat accumulating member of adapter is made of thin corrugated strip whose one end is secured to rod. Corrugated strip is twisted around rod in the form of compact coil arranged together with supporting grid in casing. Height of strip corrugation is equal to thickness of strip.
EFFECT: improved design of heater due to its lowered hydraulic resistance.
FIELD: heat engineering, namely accumulator of gas heaters, possibly used for constructing Cowper and ohmic gas heaters for aerodynamic tubes.
SUBSTANCE: heater includes heat accumulating adapter arranged in housing with gas-tight cylindrical outer surface and electric current supply leads of resistive heating member. Heat accumulating member of adapter is zigzag-shaped and it is made of thin strip of sheet material; said member has vertically arranged lamellae mutually spaced by the same distance and placed along axis of heater. Ends of said strip are connected to electric current leads. Annular mutually joined flanges are arranged on ends of adapter. The last has rods arranged between flanges on cylindrical surface; said rods are electrically isolated from flanges and they serve as supports for lamellae of heat accumulating member. Each flange of adapter has three parts (upper ring-half and two lower ring quadrants). There are gaps between parts of rings and casing for providing displacement of ring parts one relative to other and relative to casing by value of length change of lamellae of heat accumulating member at heating and cooling them.
EFFECT: enlarged using range of hot-blast heater due to its simplified design and lowered hydraulic resistance.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises successive culturing in the growth and storage media where the growth medium comprises 5.0 wt % cattle serum and nutrient medium Igla MEM, and the storage medium comprises 49.0-80.0 mg/L proline, 40.0-60.0 mg/L glycine, and a mixture of equal parts of DMEM and F-12 media. Based on thus obtained substance of recombinant erythropoietin its nanocapsular form is prepared.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a substance of erythropoietin with increased specific activity and free from extraneous protein impurities and suitable for nanocapsulation, to simplify the technology of its production.
3 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl, 12 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to semiconductor engineering and specifically to photoelectric converters for direct conversion of solar energy to electrical energy. The invention can be used in the field of renewable energy sources. The semiconductor photoelectric converter consists of monocrystalline silicon plates with vertical thread crystals on the surface thereof, said crystals being obtained by deep plasma-chemical etching and having diffusion coaxial p-n junctions passing through portions of the surface of the substrate without thread crystals and connected into a single horizontal structure by metal gaskets, with current-conducting contacts, with a light-receiving surface with a dielectric antireflection coating. The thread crystals are in form of regular right-angle prisms whose height is greater than the optical depth of absorption of solar radiation in silicon, and the length of the edge of the base is not greater than the diffusion length of minority charge carriers in the silicon microstructure. A method of making the photoelectric converter is also disclosed.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the photoelectric converter due to reduced recombination losses by shortening the transportation path of nonequilibrium charge carriers and absence of impurity centres with deep energy levels.
3 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: radiation detector is provided with transparent contact elements and contact elements of the base, between which the array of nanoheterostructural elements is located, formed by donor semiconductor layers between which the absorbing semiconductor layer is located. The array of the nanoheterostructural elements is formed in the pores of the aluminium oxide matrix with a pore diameter of 40 to 150 nm. The donor semiconductor layers and the absorbing semiconductor layer form a structure of narrow-gap semiconductor/wide gap semiconductor/narrow-gap semiconductor. The donor semiconductor layers are made of Ge, the absorbing semiconductor layer is made of ZnSe(1-x)Sx. The contact elements of the base are used as nickel, or silver, or indium-tin oxide, the transparent contact elements are used as the film indium-tin oxide. The base is used as the substrate of Si. The distance between the contact elements of the base is from 1 to 10 microns.
EFFECT: improving the accuracy of the positioning devices in which ultra-small movements are implemented: scanning atomic-force and tunnelling microscopes, micro-and nanoeducators, high accuracy of recording the movement.
7 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: conduit wall is presented by a material of random micro- and nanofibres of a bioresorptive polymer of poly(ε-caprolactone), and the content is presented by a self-assembled nanostructured hydrogel of acetyl-(Arg-Ala-Asp-Ala)4-CONH2(PuraMatrix™) oligopeptide. The above conduit is implanted in a complex with the direct local delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) genes to be introduced into the proximal and distal nerve segments, while the formed conduit is implanted into a nerve rupture, and its ends are fixed with epineural sutures.
EFFECT: invention provides a stimulating effect on the invasion of regenerative medullated fibres, on the recovery of motor and sensitive nerve function, and enables improving the effect of the recovery of the nerve structure and function after the extended ruptures.
SUBSTANCE: in canal matrix in addition to plate of monocrystalline silicon of hole type with opened canals and deposited material on frontal surface of this plate intermediate dielectric layer of silicon dioxide is created and metal film is applied on the frontal surface of plate with opened canals which have specified diametrical dimension.
EFFECT: improvement of exploitation characteristics by introduction of electrodes and application of electrokinetic and electrophysiological control, which makes it possible to extend nomenclature of membrane equipment products based on biocompatible and highly technological silicon.
8 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanostructures with high thermoelectric properties. The one-dimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) nanostructure is proposed, which is a nanowire of silicon, prepared by the method of non-electrolytic etching or grown by the method of VLS (vapour-liquid-solid). The nanostructure has a rough surface and comprises a doped or undoped semiconductor. The variants of the method of generation of electric power using the claimed nanostructures are proposed, as well as variants of devices for thermoelectric conversion using them.
EFFECT: proposed nanostructure can be located between two electrodes, and used effectively for thermoelectric power generation or for thermoelectric cooling.
48 cl, 9 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of physical and colloidal chemistry and can be used in obtaining polymer compositions. Finely-disperse organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures is obtained by interaction of nanostructures and polyethylene polyamine. First, powder of carbon metal-containing nanostructures, representing nanoparticles of 3d-metal, such as copper, or cobalt, or nickel, stabilised in carbon nanostructures, are mechanically crushed, after which, mechanically ground together with introduced in portions polyethylene polyamine until content of nanostructures not higher than 1 g/ml is reached.
EFFECT: invention ensures reduction of energy consumption due to the fact that obtained finely-disperse organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures is capable of recovery as a result of simple mixing.
2 cl, 5 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of immobilising protein molecules on the surface of magnetically controlled iron nanoparticles coated with a carbon coating. The method involves reacting powder with 4-carboxybenzene diazonium tosylate dissolved in water to form a covalent bond between organic functional groups and the surface of the powder of iron nanoparticles coated with a carbon coating. Carbodiimide activation is then carried out using the following systems: dicyclohexylcarbodiimide with N-hydroxysuccinimide in dimethyl sulphoxide (DCC/NHS in DMSO) or 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride with N-hydroxysuccinimide in water (EDC/NHS in H2O) or a phosphate buffer solution. Covalent linking of protein molecules with the activated COOH group is then carried out in an aqueous or buffer medium.
EFFECT: invention enables to immobilise biomolecules on the surface of magnetically controlled iron nanoparticles coated with a carbon coating.
3 dwg, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to luminescent photovoltaic generator (1) and waveguide to be incorporated with said generator. Photovoltaic generator comprises photovoltaic element (4) and waveguide including transparent matrix (2) containing particles of inorganic luminescent material distributed therein and/or inorganic luminescent material located on at least one its side. Waveguide is associated with photovoltaic element (4) so that at using a portion of light emitted from luminescent materials is fed to photovoltaic element (4) to generated voltage therein. Note here that said inorganic luminescent material features, in at least one of UV, visible and IR bands, the absorption line width of 50 nm or larger, emission line width of 20 nm of smaller and Stokes shift of 50 nm or larger.
EFFECT: alternative to or perfection of known photovoltaic generators.
14 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method to strengthen an asphalt road surface with a carbon nanomaterial includes usage of an asphalt concrete mix containing crushed stone, crushed stone siftings, sand and oil bitumen of "БНД" 90/130 grade. Besides, the oil bitumen is modified by carbon nanotubes in the amount of 0.005% from the bitumen mass, and modification of the oil bitumen with carbon nanotubes is modified under ultrasonic effect.
EFFECT: increased strength and elasticity of a produced asphalt surface, higher water resistance, heat resistance and frost resistance and expansion of temperature range of its laying in the field of negative temperatures.
FIELD: magnetic materials whose axial symmetry is used for imparting magnetic properties to materials.
SUBSTANCE: memory element has nanomagnetic materials whose axial symmetry is chosen to obtain high residual magnetic induction and respective coercive force. This enlarges body of information stored on information media.
EFFECT: enhanced speed of nonvolatile memory integrated circuits for computers of low power requirement.
4 cl, 8 dwg