Device for measuring dynamic action of rain in soil
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a housing, a porous measuring plate which pores are filled with water, a flexible screen with sensors which are electrically connected to the display device. The novelty is that the lateral inner surface of the housing is provided with microcells hydraulically interconnected and filled with polyacrylamide.
EFFECT: possibility of measuring the dynamic action on the soil of rain with the addition of polyacrylamide, due to the presence of microcells filled with polyacrylamide.
The invention relates to agriculture and can be used to assess the risk of water erosion.
There are many devices for measuring the dynamic action of rain on the soil (Methods of analysis water soil erosion. - Chisinau: 1976. - P.129-136) and (Hydraulic engineering and land reclamation. - 1983. No. 7. - P.21-23).
Devices include measuring plate, which captures the dynamic pressure drop fluid flow.
A disadvantage of the known devices is the low accuracy of the measurements. Flat, dense surface of the measuring plate is different from the porous surface of the soil, which introduces error in the measurement results.
The closest to the goal and the essential technical characteristics of the proposed technical solution is a device for measuring the dynamic action of rain on the soil, comprising a housing, a porous measuring plate, the pores of which are filled with water, elastic screen with the sensors described in the as of the USSR 1362418 published 30.12.1987, bull. No. 48.
A disadvantage of the known device is limited functionality in the measurement of dynamic effects on the soil of the rain with the addition of polyacrylamide.
The aim of the invention is the extension of functionality.
This goal is achieved by the fact that lateral internal surfaces shall be casings are provided with microwells, hydraulically interconnected and filled with polyacrylamide.
The casing is a frame for connection of the machine. It limits with the sides closed cavity. Porous plate with pores filled with water, simulates the pore space of the soil surface. When getting drops into the pores of the measuring plate in a porous moisture occurs hydrodynamic pressure that deforms the elastic screen. Deformation screen capture sensors and displays an indicating instrument. The inner side surface of the housing is equipped with a micro-cells. The average diameter of the microwells is from 2 to 5 mm. In diameter less than 2 mm increases the complexity for uniform filling of the polyacrylamide of microwells. When the diameter of the microwells more than 5 mm increases the likelihood of runoff polyacrylamide to the base of the housing. The depth of the cells shall not be less than 3 mm, With the smaller depth of the cell increases the likelihood of runoff polyacrylamide. Cell punching walls are hydraulically interconnected. This ensures an even distribution of polyacrylamide on the surface of the housing. The microwells filled with polyacrylamide in the gel state. Polyacrylamide, gradually dissolving in the water filling the pores of the measuring plate, creates a solution corresponding to drops of rain with the addition of polyaki the amide.
The unit explains the figure. In Fig. shows a section of a device for measuring the dynamic action of rain on the soil. In the porous body 1 is installed, the measuring plate 2, the pores of which are filled with water 3. The inner side surface of the housing 1 is equipped with a micro-cells 4, which is filled with polyacrylamide 5. The bottom surface of the porous plate 2 equipped with a flexible screen 6, which is fixed to the sensor 7 is electrically connected with the indicating device 8.
The device operates as follows. Fill the microwells 4 polyacrylamide 5. The pores of the porous measuring plate 2 is filled with water 3. Polyacrylamide 5 flows into the water 3 and creates the solution corresponding to drops of rain with the addition of polyacrylamide. It is put in a drip flow of rain with the addition of polyacrylamide fluid (Fig. not shown). The porous plate 2 is placed perpendicular to the axis drip of fluid flow. The drop of rain hits at the right time. In the pore fluid 3 is formed hydroshock pressure that deforms the elastic screen 6. The sensors 7 fix the amount of elastic deformation of the screen 6 and transmit the information to the display device 8.
Deflection is proportional to the magnitude of the dynamic action of drip flow on the ground. The measurement device tazrout intensity of sediment from runoff is grounds for drip fluid flows with different intensity and size of droplets.
The porous plate is made of water-stable material: polymers, composites, cement stone, the thickness of the porous measuring plate take from 3 to 8 mm Square porous plate shall not be less than 10 cm2. For smaller plates increases the duration of measurements. As the elastic screen used white rubber with a minimum thickness of 300 microns. The length measurement is taken from 6 to 10 minutes Reduced measurement period is less than 6 min reduces the accuracy of measurements due to insufficient number of drops falling on the plate. Increasing the measurement duration more than 10 minutes increases labor costs, without increasing the measurement accuracy. The device made of a solid polymer material, for example polycarbonate. When stamping on the inner side of the case create a microcell, hydraulically interconnected punching walls.
As sensors use strain gauges, gauge - tantostanze.
Compared to similar proposed device provides a measurement of the dynamic action on the soil of the rain with the addition of polyacrylamide, due to the presence of microwells filled with polyacrylamide.
Device for measuring the dynamic action of rain on the soil, comprising a housing, a porous measuring plate, p is the market which is filled with water, elastic screen with sensors electrically associated with the indicating device, characterized in that the lateral internal surface of the housing is equipped with a micro-cells that are hydraulically interconnected and filled with polyacrylamide.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises phytoindication on age of woody vegetation. Determination of the upper limit of affection of a mountain valley with avalanche stream, at which avalanching no vegetation is left on the slopes of the valley, is carried out by measuring the difference in height between the bottom of the valley and the lower limit of the phytometer - autochthonous birch forests, which grow over the affected slope; assessment of date of affection is determined by measuring the amount of annual rings on wood cores drilled by the age-related borer, or on transverse saw cuts at the base of trunks at the level of root collar of the largest trees in the newly formed growing stocks, renewable in the affected area lower the autochthonous birch forests.
EFFECT: method enables to improve efficiency of detection of signs of hazardous natural phenomena.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: soil sample is passed through a stream of water. On the surface of the soil sample a load is placed. Beginning of dipping of the load is fixed. The parameters of the sample and the water flow are measured. The coefficient of soil filtration is calculated from the measured parameters. The value of the concentration of fulvic acid in the water stream, passed through the soil sample, is recorded. In reducing the concentration value by 10% of the initial value the fulvic acid solution is added into the stream of water directed into the soil sample, restoring the value of the fulvic acid concentration in the stream of water passed through the soil sample, to the initial value.
EFFECT: use of the claimed method extends functional capabilities of determining the filtration coefficient of soil, enables to determine quickly and accurately the filtration coefficient of soil exposed to fulvic acids, in the zone of prevalence of podzolic soils.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the device of cuts, power measurement of layer of membranes of soil biological organisms in the beginning and end of the observation period and the calculation. At that the power of the packed layer of membranes of testate amoebas is measured. The amount of change in the power of peat layer is calculated by the formula Hsrab=a·h, where Hsrab is reduction value of the peat layer power, cm; h is the power of packed layer of membranes of testate amoebas, cm; a is a coefficient. The coefficient a is determined by the formula a=(H1-H2)/(h1-h2), where H2, H1 is the power of the peat layer and h2, h1 is power of the packed layer of membranes of testate amoebas, respectively at the end and the beginning of the observation period.
EFFECT: method enables to determine quickly and accurately the amount of change of power of the peat layer on reclaimed land.
SUBSTANCE: controlled area in the planting is chosen and prepared, the procedure for controlling of soil respiration is carried out in the chosen controlled area in the planting by measuring the amount of accumulation (loss) of gaseous respiratory substrate CO2 (O2) in a sealed chamber, with which the controlled area is covered. Preparation of controlled area additionally includes such sowing seeds when a part of the area is left unsown. For measurement two different sealed chambers are used separately and alternately, with one of which the part of controlled area of the planting just sown with plants is covered entirely, and with another one additionally to the above area the unsown part of the controlled area of the planting is covered partially or completely. At that the amount of soil respiration attributable to the square of the controlled area of planting is calculated by determining the difference between the measurement results obtained with the above sealed chambers, multiplied by the ratio of the square of the controlled area of planting to the difference of squares of bases of above two sealed chambers.
EFFECT: ability to study in the field, and at the same time the interaction integrity of the root and ground parts of plants is not violated.
SUBSTANCE: samples of uncontaminated background soil and contaminated with heavy metals or crude oil and oil products are taken, and for each pair of samples of soil the number of ammonifying bacteria, the number of microscopic fungi, the abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, the catalase activity, the invertase activity, the germination of radish is determined. IRS of the soil is calculated as follows: IRS =Σ( Pconti/Pfoni)×100%/n, where Pconti is the value of i-th index (number of ammonifying bacteria, million/g, the number of microscopic fungi, million/g, the abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, %, catalase activity, ml O2/min, the invertase activity, ml, glucose/24 h, the germination of radish, %, for contaminated soil; Pfoni is the value of i-th/min, the indicator for uncontaminated soil; n is the number of indicators (n=6). The environmental condition of the soil is determined according to reduction of the IRS. If the IRS value in the contaminated soil is over 95%, the normal ecological condition of the soil is stated. In reduction of the IRS to 90-95% the satisfactory condition is stated. In reduction of the IRS to 75-90% the poor condition is stated. In reduction of the IRS below 75% the catastrophic condition is stated.
EFFECT: method enables to assess quickly and accurately the environmental condition of the soil.
17 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method to determine frost heave of soil during freezing of a seasonally thawing layer includes drilling of a well before start of its thawing, sampling of soil, measurement of depth of seasonal thawing ξ, definition of dry soil density in samples ρd,th. In addition wells are drilled after freezing of the seasonally thawing layer, on the samples they additionally define density of dry soil after freezing of the seasonally thawing layer ρd,f, and the heave value is determined in accordance with the given dependence.
EFFECT: reduced labour intensiveness of works, increased accuracy of determination of heaving value, provision of material intensity reduction.
SUBSTANCE: method involves probing an underlying surface having test areas with a multichannel spectrometer mounted on a space vehicle to obtain images on each channel; calculating, through zonal ratios of signal amplitude values in channels, partial degradation indices, specifically percentage content of humus (H), salinity index (NSI) and moisture loss index (W); determining the integral degradation index D based on a multi-parameter regressive relationship of the type:
EFFECT: faster and more reliable determination of degree of degradation of soil cover.
5 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes installation of a device into a vertical position, and the device is a metal hollow cylinder enclosed into the body, along the inner and outer wall of which there is a cutting element welded in the form of a spiral, lowering of the cylinder to the specified depth during its rotation with cutting of a soil sample of cylindrical shape.
EFFECT: simplification and increased reliability in production of samples.
SUBSTANCE: method includes device of cutting, measurement of parameters of soil layer and calculation. In the layer of peat ash the mass of diatomic algae shells is measured per one unit of plot area. The value of pyrogenic change of peat layer thickness is calculated by the following formula: H=α·m, where H - is the value of pyrogenic change of peat layer thickness, cm; α - is the coefficient, cm·m2/g; n - is mass of diatomic algae shells per unit of plot area, g/m2. The coefficient α is evaluate according to the formula: α=H1/m1, where H1 - is the peat layer thickness of the analogue plot, cm; and m1 - is the mass of diatomic algae shells per unit of analogue plot area, g/m2.
EFFECT: method enables calculate quickly and accurately the pyrogenic change value of peat layer thickness.
SUBSTANCE: method involves biotesting based on the number of organisms at optimum soil moisture. Soil toxicty is determined from the nitrogen-fixing activity legume bacteria which form tubercles on the root system of legume grasses in the 15-20 cm layer of the soil 2-3 weeks after spring aftergrowing and before the flowering period. Soil toxicity is determined from the inner colour of the nitrogen-fixing tubercles (pink or red); if more than 50% of the tubercles are coloured, the state of the soil is considered satisfactory, if 20-50% of the tubercles are coloured, the state of the soil is considered an environmental risk and if less than 20% of tubercles are coloured, the state of the soil is considered an environmental disaster.
EFFECT: method enables rapid and accurate evaluation of the degree of environmental pollution.
1 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises application of macrofertilisers, plowing with soil overturning, early spring harrowing, preplant cultivation, equiplanation, sowing seedlings in soil layer, vegetation irrigation, inter-row treatments, additional fertilising, protection of plants and fruits from agricultural pests and diseases, and harvesting. Sweet pepper is grown on flood embedded sandy loam soils. The macrofertilisers N120P80K120 are applied once before plowing. Sowing seedlings in soil layer with temperature of 15-18°C is carried out, with the planting density of 71 thousand units per hectare, the arrangement diagram of 90+30×25 cm. The macrofertilisers N120P80K120 are applied in fractional manner with the irrigation water: in the stage of the third and fourth true leaf 18-22% N, 10-14% P, 14-18% K, in the budding stage 30-38% N, 28-38% P, 30-32% K, in the flowering stage 12-20% N, 16-22% P, 36-48% K, in the fruiting stage 20-40% N, 26-46% P, 6-16% K, while maintaining in the soil layer of 0-0.8 m of 80% moisture content of field moisture capacity during the whole growing period. In total 16 irrigations are carried out with the total flow rate of 260 m3/ha, while the nitrate content in biologically ripe fruit up is no greater than 16 mg/kg.
EFFECT: obtaining of yield of sweet pepper with low nitrate content on flood embedded sandy loam soils using the drip irrigation system.
2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: weed plants are preliminarily mowed in discharge canal to water level and is left to dry. After drying reed and rush plants are selected. Selected plants are used as sorbent. Filtering cassette net of cassette-holding device is filled with sorbent. Sorbent-containing device is fixed in discharge canal bed in monolithic manner and drainage outflow is passed through it. Plant mowing and replacement of filtering cassette are carried out when rice plant passes from one vegetation stage into another.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve reclamation state of soil and ecological situation on rice fields due to reduction of suffusion and removal of nutrients from soil.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device for irrigation driven by solar energy. The device comprises an air chamber and a water storage unit connecting by means of the pipeline, which is connected integrally to the sinker. In the source of water supply there is a water storage unit, a steep section of suction pipeline and U-shaped troughs of a number of drainage pipelines. The outlet end of the suction pipeline and the inlet ends of the drainage pipelines are put in the water storage unit, with the installation of inlets of drainage pipelines below the outlet of the suction pipeline.
EFFECT: technical result is in the root irrigation of plants grown on small land plots, located on an artificial floating means (floating island) or in containers that are installed on one or several levels above the surface of the pond, at that in the proposed device the friction parts are absent, it does not subject to clogging associated with deposits of salts and bacterial slime when taking water from the pond, it has simple design and is easy to operate.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: drip irrigation system for fruit and berry and forest nurseries comprises a hydraulically connected water source (1), a pumping station (6), a filter, a pressure gauge (15), a shut-off valve, the main pipeline, a network of distribution (17) and irrigation pipelines (18), and droppers. The water source (1) of the pumping station (6) is provided with a diversion chamber-collector (5) equipped with a trash screen (3) and a fish protection structure (4). Pumps of the pumping station (6) are connected to a water-driven tower-collector (7) hydraulically connected to the module of water electroactivation, including a DC generator (8) or rectifier in all-mains operation and flowing electric activator (10), behind which through the connecting pipes the fertiliser injector (12) is mounted, and the distribution network (17) is connected by the irrigation pipelines (18), equipped with injectors-metering units-droppers (19). The flowing water electric activator (10) comprises a supply pipe (21) made of dielectric material which is resistant to galvanic corrosion, in the threaded part of the supply pipe (21) the slip ring (26) is mounted with the output for connection of the electric potential. The slip ring (26) is isolated from the outer electrode (22) of the electric activator (10) with the dielectric spacer (27), the outer cylindrical electrode (22) is formed of a stainless steel resistant to galvanic corrosion. Inside the outer electrode (22) the inner electrode (23) is mounted with the ability of mounting and dismounting, consisting of a central rod (31) with lobes fixed to it. The inner electrode (23) is separated from the outer electrode (22) by semipermeable shell (24) of microporous plastic, on the front side of the inner electrode (23) a guide device (25) is arranged having the blades of a left-hand direction, the inlet and outlet part of the central rod (31) are made conical, all parts of the inner electrode (23) are made of stainless steel resistant to galvanic corrosion. Supply of the electric potential to the outer electrode (22) is made through the terminal (29) disposed on the electrode housing, and to the inner (23) through the contact washer (26) having an input terminal (28). The injector-metering unit-dropper (19) mounted in the pan of trees, comprises mounting tip, inside of which a shim is fixed, designed for a given flow rate, the inner cavity of the injector-metering unit-dropper (19) has a water outlet openings on the horizontals of soaking, the outer edges of the water outlet openings are closed by dished deflectors.
EFFECT: improving the quality of planting material of fruit and forest plants.
1 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for automatic watering of plants. The device for automatic watering comprises an air chamber (1) and the water storage unit (2) with the inlet end of the drain pipe (5) inserted in it and the outlet end of the suction pipe (4), a drain end of the drain pipe is installed above the level of free surface of the water source (12), the suction end of the suction pipe is lowered into the water source. The air chamber and the water storage unit are spaced, the air chamber is connected with the upper part of the water storage unit through the pipe, in the water storage unit the opening (6) of the inlet end of the drain pipe is located below the opening (7) of the outlet end of the suction pipe, the outer part of the suction pipe is provided with water-air lock, which is a steep section (8), the outer part of the drain pipe is provided with a water-air lock which is a U-shaped bending (9). The air chamber can be made in the form of a decorative element; it can also comprise a thin-walled shell. The lower part of the steep section of the suction pipe can be located below the lower part of the U-shaped bending of the drain pipe.
EFFECT: improvement of reliability of operation and reduction of material consumption of the device.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reclamation and can be used for irrigation of greenhouse and other agricultural crops. The method of irrigation is carried out by automatic periodic flooding. Water is formed by condensation of vapour in the pressure tank. Part of the time the tank is filled to the desired level, and then opens and actuates. The perforated tube with openings is used as the humidifier. The tube is mounted vertically in the area of root habitable plant mass, and the water is fed to it from droppers. The droppers are attached to the distribution pipe. The pressure tank is attached to the cooling radiator for heating greenhouse premises with simultaneous cooling and condensing vapour.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of irrigation with simultaneous removal of salts from water and heating the greenhouse premises is provided.
4 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method comprises supplying water to irrigated land of the irrigation rate, providing moistening of the estimated soil layer without the flow of irrigation water into the groundwater. At that, between moistened layer and groundwater a layer is formed of granular hydrophobic material with grains of not less than 5 mm. The upper layer of soil in the irrigated area during the inter-irrigation period is maintained in moistened condition by finely sprinkling irrigation.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce the risk of soil salinisation with close level of occurrence of mineralised groundwater in the absence of the ability of making drainage by breaking the capillary pores and stopping the movement of groundwater to the root-zone soil layer, and to prevent desiccation of the upper layer of soil in the inter-irrigation period.
SUBSTANCE: method includes intermittent flooding of rice checks, water supply to rice crops is carried out in the form of asymmetrical triangular impulses regulated in space and time, reducing the bare soil moisture between the impulses is not allowed below 85% of the total water capacity (TWC), the program distribution of water in the irrigation network between the consumers is carried out on schedule by assigning time intervals of water supply to each of them on the parameters of the regulated impulse, which are determined by the following formulas: - The height of the impulse (water layer), hL;hL=σ+Δh, mm, where: σ is mean-square deviation of the roughness on the surface of checks, mm; Δh is a layer of water, ensuring flooding of high areas on the check and creating a favourable thermal regime of the soil, mm, it is assigned equal: in a phase of the "shoots-tillering" - 60 mm, in the phase of formation of the embryonic panicle - 100 mm; - The duration of the water supply to create a given impulse height, t1: t1=(hL/q)·α, day, where: q is a hydromodule of flooding equal to 100 mm/day; α is coefficient taking into account evaporation losses equal to about 1.05; - Duration of drawdown of the water layer in a natural way through evapotranspiration (E) and filtration (F) t2: t2=hL/(E+F), day; - Duration of bare soil between impulses t3:
EFFECT: increased efficiency of use of water resources.
1 cl, 4 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to reclamation. The method includes planting seeds or seedlings of vegetable crops and their vegetative irrigation with electroactivated aqueous solutions - anolyte and catholyte. The first irrigation after planting is carried out with the activated aqueous solution of anolyte and catholyte at their ratio (70:30)-(80:20). The subsequent irrigations are carried out with the activated aqueous solution of with the ratio of anolyte and catholyte (30:70)-(20:80). At that after the first irrigation with the activated solution one irrigation with light water is carried out, and the subsequent irrigations with the said solutions are alternated with irrigations with light water so that one irrigation with the activated aqueous solution is accounted for two irrigations with light water with the predetermined irrigation norm. Prior to mixing the components of the activated water the anolyte pH is 3.2-4.7, and the catholyte pH is 10.5-12.0.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the quality of vegetable produce and increase productivity, reduce energy consumption and improve the environmental friendliness of the process, and also reduce the consumption of activated aqueous solutions during irrigation.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method includes division of sloping areas to at least two levels, performing the preparatory works associated with digging and displacement the soil to create the limited amounts on the areas of different levels. And on the sloping and divided to sections areas the diking is made with the creation of the reservoir for moisture collection located upward the irrigated areas. Then in spring period of thawing of soil to the depth of 0.5-0.8 height of topsoil the water is released from the reservoir into the lower irrigated diked areas with its uniform distribution on the irrigated areas. The moisture collection in the reservoirs located at a higher level is carried out throughout the year with use of underwater channels and trays made in the soil.
EFFECT: method provides long-term conservation of water and physical soil properties when used effectively.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: forestry, particularly for fighting fires in high-capacity and medium-capacity peat beds.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system includes a number of water drainage channels with control-and-shutoff valves, manifold with drain lines connected thereto and intercepting channel located above drained peat bed and communicated with water inlet. Intercepting channel is provided with control-and-shutoff means to accumulate surface water flow and to create water reserve. Intercepting channel is connected with manifold head part by means of pipeline having valve gate. Manifold is provided with movable partition. Intercepting channel has antifiltering shield.
EFFECT: possibility of fire localization without operation stoppage and without underflooding surrounding territories and, as result, reduced economic losses.