Method of determining affection of mountain valley with avalanche stream
SUBSTANCE: method comprises phytoindication on age of woody vegetation. Determination of the upper limit of affection of a mountain valley with avalanche stream, at which avalanching no vegetation is left on the slopes of the valley, is carried out by measuring the difference in height between the bottom of the valley and the lower limit of the phytometer - autochthonous birch forests, which grow over the affected slope; assessment of date of affection is determined by measuring the amount of annual rings on wood cores drilled by the age-related borer, or on transverse saw cuts at the base of trunks at the level of root collar of the largest trees in the newly formed growing stocks, renewable in the affected area lower the autochthonous birch forests.
EFFECT: method enables to improve efficiency of detection of signs of hazardous natural phenomena.
1 dwg, 1 ex
The invention relates to a method of detecting signs of natural disasters and can find application in assessing hazard areas.
There is a method of predicting a landslide, which uses the method of phytoindication on old sick trees (application No. 99107239, IPC A01G 7/00, publ. 20.01.2001,).
However, in the known method is not sufficient indicators for determining lesion mountain valley avalanche stream only for old sick trees, which reduces the efficiency of the method.
The closest technical solution is the way to detect changes in the landscapes areas of impact debris flows, determine the nature and rate of succession on debris flow deposits, which can be used as one of indicators of debris flow activity (Petrushin, M.N., Suslov EVGENIY Indication of debris flow activity in the landscapes of the Northern Caucasus // Modern problems of Geology, Geophysics and Geoecology of the North Caucasus. Fearsome: the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 2012. - S-640. Source No. 1, attached).
The objects of study were the landscapes of river basins Baksan, Chegem and Cherek Bezengi (Central Caucasus) and R. Teberda (Western Caucasus). Used complex methods - large-scale landscape mapping and profiling, phytoindication and lichen-indications, analysis of the data di is distance sensing. The main attention was paid to studying debris cones as part of a functional-dynamic geosystems formed by the mudslide.
The conclusion is made that in the early successional stages more informative indicators of the age of the debris flow deposits are the species composition of the grass, the projective cover of grass, the age and the height of trees, at a later increases the role of the soil, the diameter of the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum.
The disadvantage of the prototype method is that although it allows you to identify the age of the debris flow deposits, this method remains the possibility that there were no deposits on the sides of the valley, as well as assessment of the scale of the defeat of the mountain valley avalanche stream, which reduces the efficiency of the method.
The technical result - increasing the efficiency of the method of detecting signs of dangerous natural phenomena.
The technical solution of the declared object is that unlike the prototype method is a method of determining the upper boundary of the lesion mountain valley avalanche stream, with the gathering on the slopes of the valley remains vegetation, by measuring the difference in height between the valley floor and the bottom of phytoindication (indigenous birch), growing over the affected slope, and assessment date lesion measured is set by the I number of annual rings in the cores of wood, drilled age borer, or on the transverse saw cuts at the base of the stem at the root level of the cervix) are the largest trees in newly established stands, continuing in the affected area below the indigenous birch.
The method is as follows.
Mountain birch forests (birch) is widely distributed in the upper part of the forest belt. These indigenous communities, firmly holding its position in the vegetation cover, are characterized by their resistance to the effects of the natural environment and human activities.
The visually determined by the lower boundary of indigenous birch grown over the affected area. Next is measured using an altimeter height above sea level of the valley floor and lower bounds of indigenous birch. The difference between these values gives us the upper boundary of the lesion mountain valley avalanche flow (power avalanche flow). Valuation date preceding the accident is established by measuring the number of annual rings in the wood cores, drilled age borer, or on the transverse saw cuts at the base of the stem at the root level of the cervix) are the largest trees in newly established stands, continuing in the affected area below the indigenous birch.
Example. In the valley of the R. Genaldon (Appendix 1) after Assembly l is penoobraznogo flow was measured using altimeter height above sea level of the lower border of indigenous birch (point 1, mark 1560 m above sea level) and the bottom of the valley (point 2, mark 1435 m above sea level). It follows that the upper boundary of the lesion mountain valley avalanche flow above the level of the bottom of the valley is 1560-1435=125 m
In the autumn of 2012 in the newly established stands (below point 1) cut down 15 of the largest trees at the base of the trunk (at the level of the root collar). The number of annual rings on the cuts ranged from 8 to 10.
Thus, the maximum age of trees newly formed stand is 10 years, which implies that the defeat of the valley avalanche stream dates back to the autumn of 2002.
The proposed method of phytoindication improves the efficiency of the method of assessment of natural hazards monitoring plots for the construction, establishment of agro-ecosystems, recreation.
The method of determining the defeat avalanche stream mountain valleys, including phytoindication age of woody vegetation, characterized in that the determination of the upper boundary of the lesion mountain valley avalanche stream, with the gathering on the slopes of the valley remains of vegetation is carried out by measuring the difference in height between the valley floor and the bottom of phytoindication - indigenous birch grown over the affected slope; assessment date lesion is established by MEAs the rhenium number of annual rings in the cores of wood, drilled age borer, or on the transverse saw cuts at the base of the trunk, at the level of the root collar of the largest trees in newly established stands, continuing in the affected area below the indigenous birch.
SUBSTANCE: soil sample is passed through a stream of water. On the surface of the soil sample a load is placed. Beginning of dipping of the load is fixed. The parameters of the sample and the water flow are measured. The coefficient of soil filtration is calculated from the measured parameters. The value of the concentration of fulvic acid in the water stream, passed through the soil sample, is recorded. In reducing the concentration value by 10% of the initial value the fulvic acid solution is added into the stream of water directed into the soil sample, restoring the value of the fulvic acid concentration in the stream of water passed through the soil sample, to the initial value.
EFFECT: use of the claimed method extends functional capabilities of determining the filtration coefficient of soil, enables to determine quickly and accurately the filtration coefficient of soil exposed to fulvic acids, in the zone of prevalence of podzolic soils.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the device of cuts, power measurement of layer of membranes of soil biological organisms in the beginning and end of the observation period and the calculation. At that the power of the packed layer of membranes of testate amoebas is measured. The amount of change in the power of peat layer is calculated by the formula Hsrab=a·h, where Hsrab is reduction value of the peat layer power, cm; h is the power of packed layer of membranes of testate amoebas, cm; a is a coefficient. The coefficient a is determined by the formula a=(H1-H2)/(h1-h2), where H2, H1 is the power of the peat layer and h2, h1 is power of the packed layer of membranes of testate amoebas, respectively at the end and the beginning of the observation period.
EFFECT: method enables to determine quickly and accurately the amount of change of power of the peat layer on reclaimed land.
SUBSTANCE: controlled area in the planting is chosen and prepared, the procedure for controlling of soil respiration is carried out in the chosen controlled area in the planting by measuring the amount of accumulation (loss) of gaseous respiratory substrate CO2 (O2) in a sealed chamber, with which the controlled area is covered. Preparation of controlled area additionally includes such sowing seeds when a part of the area is left unsown. For measurement two different sealed chambers are used separately and alternately, with one of which the part of controlled area of the planting just sown with plants is covered entirely, and with another one additionally to the above area the unsown part of the controlled area of the planting is covered partially or completely. At that the amount of soil respiration attributable to the square of the controlled area of planting is calculated by determining the difference between the measurement results obtained with the above sealed chambers, multiplied by the ratio of the square of the controlled area of planting to the difference of squares of bases of above two sealed chambers.
EFFECT: ability to study in the field, and at the same time the interaction integrity of the root and ground parts of plants is not violated.
SUBSTANCE: samples of uncontaminated background soil and contaminated with heavy metals or crude oil and oil products are taken, and for each pair of samples of soil the number of ammonifying bacteria, the number of microscopic fungi, the abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, the catalase activity, the invertase activity, the germination of radish is determined. IRS of the soil is calculated as follows: IRS =Σ( Pconti/Pfoni)×100%/n, where Pconti is the value of i-th index (number of ammonifying bacteria, million/g, the number of microscopic fungi, million/g, the abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, %, catalase activity, ml O2/min, the invertase activity, ml, glucose/24 h, the germination of radish, %, for contaminated soil; Pfoni is the value of i-th/min, the indicator for uncontaminated soil; n is the number of indicators (n=6). The environmental condition of the soil is determined according to reduction of the IRS. If the IRS value in the contaminated soil is over 95%, the normal ecological condition of the soil is stated. In reduction of the IRS to 90-95% the satisfactory condition is stated. In reduction of the IRS to 75-90% the poor condition is stated. In reduction of the IRS below 75% the catastrophic condition is stated.
EFFECT: method enables to assess quickly and accurately the environmental condition of the soil.
17 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method to determine frost heave of soil during freezing of a seasonally thawing layer includes drilling of a well before start of its thawing, sampling of soil, measurement of depth of seasonal thawing ξ, definition of dry soil density in samples ρd,th. In addition wells are drilled after freezing of the seasonally thawing layer, on the samples they additionally define density of dry soil after freezing of the seasonally thawing layer ρd,f, and the heave value is determined in accordance with the given dependence.
EFFECT: reduced labour intensiveness of works, increased accuracy of determination of heaving value, provision of material intensity reduction.
SUBSTANCE: method involves probing an underlying surface having test areas with a multichannel spectrometer mounted on a space vehicle to obtain images on each channel; calculating, through zonal ratios of signal amplitude values in channels, partial degradation indices, specifically percentage content of humus (H), salinity index (NSI) and moisture loss index (W); determining the integral degradation index D based on a multi-parameter regressive relationship of the type:
EFFECT: faster and more reliable determination of degree of degradation of soil cover.
5 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes installation of a device into a vertical position, and the device is a metal hollow cylinder enclosed into the body, along the inner and outer wall of which there is a cutting element welded in the form of a spiral, lowering of the cylinder to the specified depth during its rotation with cutting of a soil sample of cylindrical shape.
EFFECT: simplification and increased reliability in production of samples.
SUBSTANCE: method includes device of cutting, measurement of parameters of soil layer and calculation. In the layer of peat ash the mass of diatomic algae shells is measured per one unit of plot area. The value of pyrogenic change of peat layer thickness is calculated by the following formula: H=α·m, where H - is the value of pyrogenic change of peat layer thickness, cm; α - is the coefficient, cm·m2/g; n - is mass of diatomic algae shells per unit of plot area, g/m2. The coefficient α is evaluate according to the formula: α=H1/m1, where H1 - is the peat layer thickness of the analogue plot, cm; and m1 - is the mass of diatomic algae shells per unit of analogue plot area, g/m2.
EFFECT: method enables calculate quickly and accurately the pyrogenic change value of peat layer thickness.
SUBSTANCE: method involves biotesting based on the number of organisms at optimum soil moisture. Soil toxicty is determined from the nitrogen-fixing activity legume bacteria which form tubercles on the root system of legume grasses in the 15-20 cm layer of the soil 2-3 weeks after spring aftergrowing and before the flowering period. Soil toxicity is determined from the inner colour of the nitrogen-fixing tubercles (pink or red); if more than 50% of the tubercles are coloured, the state of the soil is considered satisfactory, if 20-50% of the tubercles are coloured, the state of the soil is considered an environmental risk and if less than 20% of tubercles are coloured, the state of the soil is considered an environmental disaster.
EFFECT: method enables rapid and accurate evaluation of the degree of environmental pollution.
1 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: in the device containing a tubular furnace equipped with a heater and a temperature control - the temperature programmer unit, located vertically and provided with cylindrical container with a soil sample, which is coaxially located in it. the inlet of the above furnace is connected to a pipeline with an activator of inert gas flow rate, and the outlet is connected through a quick-detachable connection to a hydrocarbon sensor represented with a flame ionisation detector, at the inlet of which a quartz capillary is installed, and the soil container is made in the form of a thin-wall shell from stainless steel with a porous bottom facing the tubular furnace inlet.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and informativity of analysis.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the method they cultivate callus cultures from sterile explants of stem segments, leaves, leaf stakes. Basic nutrient media are used, such as Murasige-Skuga and Woody Plant Medium with content and ratio of growth regulators: 6-benzylaminopurine - 0.2-1.5 mg/l, α-naphthyl acetic acid - 0.2-0.5 mg/l, indolebutyric acid - 2 mg/l. Further adaptation is carried out with light of 2000 lux and nutrient mode of regenerants in a greenhouse with production of planting material for forest cultures.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to produce planting material with high inherited properties.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of biotechnology and agriculture. In the method the plants are treated with a solution of a biologically active substance, which is used as 24-epibrassinolide. At that after 3 weeks of cultivation of rape plants on a liquid nutrient medium the subsequent two weeks the plants are subjected to chloride salinification of 125 mM with a single introduction into the solution of 24-epibrassinolide at a concentration of 10-8 M at the beginning of salinification.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the rape plant resistance to the damaging effect of intensive chloride salinification and environmental safety of manufactured products.
4 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method relates to the field of agriculture, in particular fruit growing and selection. The method comprises the freezing of annual shoots in the dormant period in the environmental chamber. At that the evaluation of damaged shoots is carried out not visually but according to the size of the maximum quantum efficiency of photochemical reactions of the photosystem II and the relative velocity of the electron transport by the photosystem II in the cambium tissue and buds, which are determined by the microbial cell adsorption reaction fluorometer. The minimum level of fluorescence and changes in this index under the action of actinic light with density of 190 mcmol/(m2s) are recorded, and after exposure to the object of high intensity light pulse (10 000 mcmol/(m2s), 450 nm).
EFFECT: method enables to accelerate the evaluation of damage of fruit plants with frost.
2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, mainly to the agricultural chemistry. The method comprises a leaf analysis on need in mineral elements by sampling of leaves, determining the response in the form of the difference of photochemical activity of the chloroplasts suspension from the middle sample of fresh leaves by adding to it of the diagnosed element at the concentration of 10-4-10-10 M and without adding the element. The need of the plant in nutrition elements is determined depending on the value of activity level of chloroplasts, calculated as the difference in optical density values of chloroplast suspension of the control sample of the leaves before and after the illumination by the light source. When the level of activity of chloroplasts having a negative value, the plants are treated with preparations containing in its composition free L-amino acids of vegetable origin, obtained by hydrolysis of the vegetable protein. At the level of activity of chloroplasts equal to 0-10 units, the plants are treated with growth stimulators containing the phytohormones in its composition. At the level of activity of chloroplasts equal to 11-70 units, the plants are treated with complex fertilizers containing in their composition macro- and micronutrients, and also chelated correctors together with preparations containing amino acids of vegetable origin for the chelating effect. At the level of activity of chloroplasts of more than 70 units the plants are treated with complex fertilizers containing in their composition macro- and micronutrients and chelated correctors. The subsequent determination of the values of the level of activity of chloroplasts and processing with the relevant nutrient is carried out after 10-14 days. The foliar plant processing can be carried out.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the efficiency of diagnosis of need of plants in nutrition elements, prior to the onset of visual signs of stress and loss of productivity of plants.
3 cl, 20 dwg, 5 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to soil microbiology. The method comprises inoculation of seeds with crushed roots of the same species and mixing them with mineral water. At that the seeds before sowing are treated with crushed roots of leguminose grasses after the resuming of vegetation of 2-3rd year of life, wetting them with a mixture of dried after-distillery stillage and mineral water such as Tamisk in the ratio of 1:2. In the budding phase the feeding with dried stillage is carried out in the amount of 20-30 kg/ha, dissolved in water in an amount of 200-250 L/ha.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the symbiotic efficiency of nodule bacteria of leguminose grasses, to increase biological nitrogen content in soil and seed yield.
1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method includes optimizing of nutrition area. At that planting of varieties of oats is carried out on autumn fallow using row seeding. Crop protection is carried out by effective planting of oats variety Talisman with the seeding rate of 5.0-6.0 million sprouting grains/ha, variety Sayan with the seeding rate of 3.0 million sprouting grains/ha, and the variety Tyumen huskless with the seeding rate of 3.5 million sprouting grains/ha.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the resistance of varieties of oats to thrips without side effects.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method includes optimizing of nutrition area with planting of varieties of oats on autumn fallow using row seeding. Crop protection is carried out by effective planting of oats variety Talisman with the seeding rate of 3.0-4.0 million sprouting grains/ha, variety Sayan with the seeding rate of 5.0-6.5 million sprouting grains/ha, and the variety Tyumen huskless with the seeding rate of 3.0-4.5 million sprouting grains/ha.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the resistance of varieties of oats to intrastem pests without side effects.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and soil erosion. In the method on sloping lands oats, perennial grasses, winter rye, potatoes are cultivated. At that the cultures in the crop rotation are distributed as follows: oats with clover - clover - clover - winter rye - potato - winter wheat. At that after harvesting of winter rye vetch with white mustard are seeded, and after winter wheat - rape as green manure crop.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the output of environmentally friendly products, soil fertility and to reduce the degradation processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to fruit growing. When growing seedlings of fruit crops the intermediate weak insert is grafted at 3-4th year after the establishing of the garden. At that, the grafting is carried out on both sides of the bole with the bridge. After graft concretion the bole bark between the ends of the insert is removed.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the productivity fruiting period and duration of the garden maintenance.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of selection and primary seed breeding, in particular, to methods of reproduction of planting material. The method comprises the stimulation of growth of etiolated sprouts through cuts in the apical part and processing with the solution of thiourea. The tubers are germinated in dark at a temperature of 14-16°C and a relative air humidity of 90-95%. Detachment of apexes from basic etiolated sprouts of first order is carried out at the time of formation on the basic etiolated sprouts of the first order of 3-4 knots. During formation on the basic etiolated sprouts of the first order of 3-5 lateral etiolated sprouts of the second order and shoots of callus origin, tubers are planted in the soil. At that after planting the tubers are sprinkled with humus soil with the layer of 10 cm, and upon reaching the height of sprouts of 21-25 cm above the level of humus soil the sprouts are sprinkled with nutrient substrate of different density. The sprinkling is repeated several times upon reaching the height of sprouts of 21-25 cm above the substrate level. During sprinkling the tops of sprouts with length of 1-5 cm are left free over the substrate surface, and the substrate density is reduced with each sprinkling.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the reproduction factor of the initial material during growing the most valuable varieties as well as breeding lines.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method is provided for restoring the number of populations of common yew, based on veneer grafting the cuttings or saddle grafting, at that in the crown of male dioecious species of woody plants the cuttings if female dioecious species of woody plants are grafted.
EFFECT: invention enables to increase the dissemination and to restore artificially the number of populations of common yew.