Method of determining affection of mountain valley with avalanche stream

FIELD: ecology.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises phytoindication on age of woody vegetation. Determination of the upper limit of affection of a mountain valley with avalanche stream, at which avalanching no vegetation is left on the slopes of the valley, is carried out by measuring the difference in height between the bottom of the valley and the lower limit of the phytometer - autochthonous birch forests, which grow over the affected slope; assessment of date of affection is determined by measuring the amount of annual rings on wood cores drilled by the age-related borer, or on transverse saw cuts at the base of trunks at the level of root collar of the largest trees in the newly formed growing stocks, renewable in the affected area lower the autochthonous birch forests.

EFFECT: method enables to improve efficiency of detection of signs of hazardous natural phenomena.

1 dwg, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to a method of detecting signs of natural disasters and can find application in assessing hazard areas.

There is a method of predicting a landslide, which uses the method of phytoindication on old sick trees (application No. 99107239, IPC A01G 7/00, publ. 20.01.2001,).

However, in the known method is not sufficient indicators for determining lesion mountain valley avalanche stream only for old sick trees, which reduces the efficiency of the method.

The closest technical solution is the way to detect changes in the landscapes areas of impact debris flows, determine the nature and rate of succession on debris flow deposits, which can be used as one of indicators of debris flow activity (Petrushin, M.N., Suslov EVGENIY Indication of debris flow activity in the landscapes of the Northern Caucasus // Modern problems of Geology, Geophysics and Geoecology of the North Caucasus. Fearsome: the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 2012. - S-640. Source No. 1, attached).

The objects of study were the landscapes of river basins Baksan, Chegem and Cherek Bezengi (Central Caucasus) and R. Teberda (Western Caucasus). Used complex methods - large-scale landscape mapping and profiling, phytoindication and lichen-indications, analysis of the data di is distance sensing. The main attention was paid to studying debris cones as part of a functional-dynamic geosystems formed by the mudslide.

The conclusion is made that in the early successional stages more informative indicators of the age of the debris flow deposits are the species composition of the grass, the projective cover of grass, the age and the height of trees, at a later increases the role of the soil, the diameter of the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum.

The disadvantage of the prototype method is that although it allows you to identify the age of the debris flow deposits, this method remains the possibility that there were no deposits on the sides of the valley, as well as assessment of the scale of the defeat of the mountain valley avalanche stream, which reduces the efficiency of the method.

The technical result - increasing the efficiency of the method of detecting signs of dangerous natural phenomena.

The technical solution of the declared object is that unlike the prototype method is a method of determining the upper boundary of the lesion mountain valley avalanche stream, with the gathering on the slopes of the valley remains vegetation, by measuring the difference in height between the valley floor and the bottom of phytoindication (indigenous birch), growing over the affected slope, and assessment date lesion measured is set by the I number of annual rings in the cores of wood, drilled age borer, or on the transverse saw cuts at the base of the stem at the root level of the cervix) are the largest trees in newly established stands, continuing in the affected area below the indigenous birch.

The method is as follows.

Mountain birch forests (birch) is widely distributed in the upper part of the forest belt. These indigenous communities, firmly holding its position in the vegetation cover, are characterized by their resistance to the effects of the natural environment and human activities.

The visually determined by the lower boundary of indigenous birch grown over the affected area. Next is measured using an altimeter height above sea level of the valley floor and lower bounds of indigenous birch. The difference between these values gives us the upper boundary of the lesion mountain valley avalanche flow (power avalanche flow). Valuation date preceding the accident is established by measuring the number of annual rings in the wood cores, drilled age borer, or on the transverse saw cuts at the base of the stem at the root level of the cervix) are the largest trees in newly established stands, continuing in the affected area below the indigenous birch.

Example. In the valley of the R. Genaldon (Appendix 1) after Assembly l is penoobraznogo flow was measured using altimeter height above sea level of the lower border of indigenous birch (point 1, mark 1560 m above sea level) and the bottom of the valley (point 2, mark 1435 m above sea level). It follows that the upper boundary of the lesion mountain valley avalanche flow above the level of the bottom of the valley is 1560-1435=125 m

In the autumn of 2012 in the newly established stands (below point 1) cut down 15 of the largest trees at the base of the trunk (at the level of the root collar). The number of annual rings on the cuts ranged from 8 to 10.

Thus, the maximum age of trees newly formed stand is 10 years, which implies that the defeat of the valley avalanche stream dates back to the autumn of 2002.

The proposed method of phytoindication improves the efficiency of the method of assessment of natural hazards monitoring plots for the construction, establishment of agro-ecosystems, recreation.

The method of determining the defeat avalanche stream mountain valleys, including phytoindication age of woody vegetation, characterized in that the determination of the upper boundary of the lesion mountain valley avalanche stream, with the gathering on the slopes of the valley remains of vegetation is carried out by measuring the difference in height between the valley floor and the bottom of phytoindication - indigenous birch grown over the affected slope; assessment date lesion is established by MEAs the rhenium number of annual rings in the cores of wood, drilled age borer, or on the transverse saw cuts at the base of the trunk, at the level of the root collar of the largest trees in newly established stands, continuing in the affected area below the indigenous birch.



 

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1 tbl, 1 ex

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17 tbl, 2 ex

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1 tbl, 2 ex

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4 tbl

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2 tbl

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1 ex

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1 ex

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1 ex

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