Method to install flexible protective concrete mat on bottom surface and universal flexible protective concrete mat (versions)

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method includes orientation of a flexible concrete mat (FCM) in respect to a bottom surface by its one or another side depending on type of soil. The method to install the FCM according to the first version includes orientation of FCM to the bottom surface with the side having higher penetration power as water flow in a water course exceeds the value of non-washing speed for this section of the water course and/or if characteristics of bottom surface soil are sufficient for FCM self-submersion into soil under gravity. Otherwise the FCM is oriented to the bottom surface with the side having the lower penetration power. The method of FCM installation according to the second version in case, if the bottom surface is formed mainly by rock, half-rock or clayey soils includes FCM orientation to the bottom surface with a side, on which blocks have bases of flat shape and larger area in plan compared to the opposite side. If the bottom surface is formed mainly by sandy or macrofragmental soils, then orientation of FCM to the bottom surface is carried out with a side, on which blocks have bases of smaller area in plan or are made without bases. If the bottom surface of the water course mainly contains sludges, sapropels, peated soils or peats, then the FCM is oriented to the bottom surface with its any side. The flexible concrete mat comprises concrete blocks, connected to each other row by row and in rows with at least one connection element. Surfaces in these blocks at the upper and lower side of the FCM are made mainly narrowing in direction from the central part of the blocks. The bases of the blocks have flat shape at one or both sides of the FCM. Ratios of average values of the base area, height of blocks and angles of inclination of the side surface of blocks must correspond to the laws given in the patent claim. The coefficient of asymmetry between FCM sides exceeds or its equal to 1.05.

EFFECT: higher reliability of FCM adhesion to protected bottom surfaces of any type.

17 cl, 5 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex

 

The invention relates to hydraulic construction, namely the means to strengthen the banks, dams, channels and surfaces of other objects of natural or artificial origin. The device may be used, in particular, during the construction of submerged crossings to protect bridge piers, the crests of the dams and dikes from erosion when the overflow of water during construction of canals, ditches and drains. In addition, the device can be used for ground protection coatings, for example, road.

The greatest distribution for the protection of various objects from the effects of water flow got the classic design of flexible concrete Mat (GFM) from symmetrical with respect to the plane of the GFM concrete blocks interconnected by rows and rows with a gap zamonolichennymi rope or ropes (patent document EN 2129635 C1 from 27.04.1999). Concrete blocks are a double-sided truncated pyramid, interconnected by plane more General grounds in a single monolithic concrete block.

Further attempts were made to improve the reliability of the clutch GFM with protected bottom surface. Thus, in the prior art (patent document EN 2364678 C2 from 20.08.2009) known GFM, which is the closest analogue of the present invention containing concrete block and, interconnected by rows and rows with a gap rope or ropes formed by two truncated pyramids and is asymmetric with respect to a plane common to the base of the pyramid to ensure, in particular, reliable bonding of the GFM with protected bottom surface. Traction GFM with protected bottom surface is of great practical importance, because under certain conditions (for example, during the spring flood) possible drift GFM or even its separation from the surface to be protected from further destruction by water flow.

However, the known GFM was created without considering the peculiarities of soils of different types and in practice can only be used on surfaces, formed a very limited list of soils, due to a poorly designed form blocks GFM, not suitable for immersion blocks in more dense dispersed soils or for a snap-in system, particularly on clay soils.

Task to resolve which is the present invention is to provide a high degree of protection of the bottom surface due to the improved fixation of GFM on a variety of protected surfaces. The problem is solved by choosing the optimal form of blocks GFM.

Provided by the invention the technical result consists in increasing the reliability of the clutch GFM is protected bottom surfaces of any type (i.e. reliability commit GFM on surfaces of any type), educated primarily as a rock, half-rock or clay soils, and sandy or macro-grained rock soils, and contains mostly silts, canapele, tatahouine soils or peat.

The technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the first embodiment of the method of laying the GFM asymmetric blocks on the bottom surface of the watercourse, including the orientation of the GFM in relation to the bottom surface of one or the other party and the subsequent placement of GFM on the bottom surface, when the excess flow of water in the watercourse value noneroding speed for this section of the watercourse and/or if the characteristics of the ground bottom surface sufficient for self immersion GFM in the soil under its own weight, the GFM Orient to the bottom surface side with greater penetrating power. Otherwise, the GFM Orient to the bottom surface side with less penetrating power.

In particular, if you implement this method, the GFM Orient to the bottom surface side with greater penetrating power when the excess flow of water in the watercourse value noneroding speed for this section of the watercourse at least 1.2 times, and/or if the characteristics of the ground bottom surface sufficient for self immersion GFM in the soil under the action of the circular is to its weight not less than 20% of the full height blocks.

Technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the second variant of the method of laying the GFM asymmetric blocks on the bottom surface of the watercourse, including the orientation of the GFM in relation to the bottom surface of one or the other side, followed by placement of GFM on the bottom surface, if the bottom surface is formed predominantly rocky, half-rock or clay soils, GFM Orient to the bottom surface side on which the blocks are the Foundation of a flat shape and a larger area in the plan compared with the opposite side. If the bottom surface is formed predominantly arenaceous or macro-grained rock soils, GFM Orient to the bottom surface side on which the blocks are the Foundation of a smaller area in the plan or made without reason. If the bottom surface of the stream contains mainly silts, sapropels, tatahouine soils or peats, GFM guide to cash the surface of any party.

In addition, the technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the first embodiment, the GFM, which contains concrete blocks, which are interconnected by rows and rows of at least one connecting element, the surface of the data blocks with the upper and lower sides of the GFM is made mostly tapering healthy lifestyles is tion from the Central part of the block, and the Foundation blocks have a flat shape on one or both sides of the GFM, if the base units have a flat shape on both sides of the GFM, the conditions (1), (2) and (3).

where- the average for the whole GFM value of the square bases of the blocks from the first side of the GFM;

- the average for the whole GFM value of the square bases of the blocks from the second (opposite) side of the GFM;

- the average for the whole GFM the value of the height of the blocks from the second side of the GFM;

- the average for the whole GFM the value of the height of the blocks from the first side of the GFM;

- the average for the whole GFM angle of inclination of the side surfaces of the blocks with the first side of the GFM;

- the average for the whole GFM angle of inclination of the side surfaces of the blocks from the second side of the GFM.

These values are calculated using expression (4), (5) and (6).

Where S1square bases of the blocks from the first side of the GFM;

S2square bases of the blocks from the second (opposite) side of the GFM;

N is the total number of blocks in the GFM.

where h1- the height of the unit, the location is Noah from the first side of the GFM;

h2- the height of the unit, located on the second hand GFM;

N is the total number of blocks in the GFM.

where- average tilt angles of the side surfaces of the block located on the first side of the GFM;

- the middle value of the angles of the side surfaces of the block located on the second side of the GFM.

If the surface of the block GFM better approximated by a pyramid than a circular cone or cones, the average tilt angles of the side surfaces of the block calculated by the expression (7), otherwise, the data value is calculated by expression (8).

where γp- the angle of the faces of the pyramid;

n is the total number of faces in the pyramid or the pyramid with one side of the block.

Where γc- angle solution cone, measured between two opposite generatrices of the cone or cones;

P is the total number of uniform rotations around the axis of the cone in the measurement of these angles;

N is the total number of blocks in the GFM.

For the GFM in the first embodiment with the bases of the blocks on one side only GFM technical result is achieved if conditions (9) and (10).

where- the average for the whole GFM led the rank of the heights of the blocks from the side of the bases of the blocks;

- the average for the whole GFM value of the heights of the blocks from the side on which the block has no basis.

where- the average for the whole GFM value of the tilt angles of the side surfaces of the blocks from the side with the ground;

- the average for the whole GFM value of the tilt angles of the side surfaces of the blocks from the side on which the block has no basis.

andcalculated similarly to the calculation ofandaccording to expression (5), andandaccordingly, the expression (6).

In the particular case of the block is formed from two bodies of pyramidal or conical shape, which is truncated and paired with its large grounds.

In another particular case:

or

In one particular case:

With these characteristics made not less than 50% of the units included in the GFM.

The technical result is also achieved due to the fact that in the second embodiment, the GFM is condition is s (16). While the GFM contains concrete blocks, interconnected by rows and rows of at least one zamonolichennymi rope or cable is formed mainly of two bodies of pyramidal or conical shape, which is truncated and paired with its large grounds.

where ξ is the coefficient of asymmetry between the parties GFM calculated by expression (17).

whereθ- the average for the whole GFM value square bases and/or angles of inclination of the side surfaces of the blocks for the first side of the GFM;

- the average for the whole GFM value square bases and/or angles of inclination of the side surfaces of the blocks for the second (opposite) side of the GFM.

θandcalculate, using expressions (4) and (6), in the same way as it is done for the first version of the GFM.

In particular, if you run the GFM in his second option:

where- the average for the whole GFM the value of the height of the blocks from the first side of the GFM;

- the average for the whole GFM of galiciavista blocks from the second side of the GFM.

andcalculated by expression (5) by analogy with the calculations for the first version of the GFM.

Also in the particular case of the second variant GFM:

In another particular case:

In one particular case:

Technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the third embodiment, the GFM condition (22). While the GFM contains concrete blocks, interconnected by rows and rows of at least one zamonolichennymi rope or cable is formed mainly of two bodies of pyramidal or conical shape, which is truncated and paired with its large grounds.

where ξα- coefficient of asymmetry between the parties GFM.

When ξαcalculated by expression (23).

where- the average for the whole GFM value square bases and/or angles of the side surfaces of the asymmetric units for the first side of the GFM;

- the average for the whole GFM value square bases and/or angles of the side surfaces of the asymmetric units for the second (opposite) side of the GFM.

andcalculated using expressions (4) and (6), in the same way as it is done for the first version of the GFM. The difference in the calculations is that the characteristics of symmetrical blocks do not take into account.

In particular, if you run the GFM on his third option:

where- the average for the whole GFM the value of the height of asymmetrical blocks from the first side of the GFM;

- the average for the whole GFM the value of the height of asymmetrical blocks from the second side of the GFM.

andcalculated by expression (5) by analogy with the calculations for the first version of the GFM.

In another particular case:

In one particular case:

Also in the particular case of the third variant GFM:

The invention is illustrated in the following graphics.

Figure 1 shows the bottom view, side view and overall view of the GFM asymmetric blocks.

Figure 2 presents an example of a fragment of the edge part of the GFM, bottom view and side view.

Figure 3 illustrated the principle of samouglubleniyu GFM.

Figure 4 shows an example of a fragment of the edge part of the GFM when performing the ne part of the block in the form of two pyramids, side view.

Figure 5 shows a side view of two blocks GFM having only one base.

GFM provides concrete blocks 1, which are interconnected by rows and rows with a gap connecting elements representing zamonolichennyj ropes (cables) 2 made of metal or synthetic material, loose parts which form mounting tabs 3.

In practice, the blocks 1 are usually composed of two truncated pyramids 4 and 5, is asymmetric relative to the plane 6 of the General Foundation of the pyramid 4 and 5, which is reflected in their different heights h1and h2and in different areas of the smaller bases of the truncated pyramids S1, S2and no equal angles α1and α2the inclination of the side faces of the pyramids 4 and 5.

The shape of the block 1 has a high penetrating power into the ground from the side of the pyramid 5, due to the relatively small area of S2its base and the acute angle α2. The block 1 has a well-developed planar surface of the base of the pyramid 1 with its opposite side, which if necessary, perform the recess sucker 7 to enhance the adhesion with the bottom surface.

Example 1. Table 1 presents information about the GFM asymmetric units (GFM) and the GFM with blocks of symmetric forms (GFM).

Table 1
Comparative characteristics of the GFM
Name characteristicsGFM-GFM-
Fully matching (external) characteristics
The length of the GFM, mm27462746
The width of the GFM, mm12261226
The height of the GFM, mm150150
The dimensions of the more common grounds, mm300×300300×300
The number of concrete blocks in the GFM, PCs3636
Not coincident (derived) features
The height of one of the truncated pyramid, mm3075
The height of the other truncated pyramid, mm12075
The weight od the th block GFM, kg22,0325,17
The dimensions of the one vertex of the truncated pyramid, mm260×260230×230
The dimensions of the other vertices of a truncated pyramid, mm200×200230×230
The cross-sectional area of one concrete block GFM, m20,03840,03975
The angle of inclination of the lateral faces of one of the pyramids33,69°25,02°
The angle of inclination of the lateral faces of the other pyramid22,62°25,02°

Blocks 1 given an asymmetric shape, the most suitable for their reliable coupling with protected bottom surfaces of any type. And for laying the GFM on the loose (legkorazmyvaemykh) surface is one side of the GFM, characterized by high penetration into the soil, and its laying on thick (hardly eroding) the surface of the opposite side, characterized by a different form forming units 1 pyramid, with a large area of their bases.

The optimal form is @ 1 GFM (GFM) is determined on the basis of hydrological calculations, as a result of which it is established that in comparison with the GFM, consisting of blocks of the symmetric form (GFM), a more reliable coupling with a loose bottom surfaces is provided in the case of performing the lower side of the GFM with the pyramids 5 having a height of h2the area of S2the base and the angle α2the inclination of the side faces, and a more secure grip with a tight bottom surfaces is provided in the case of performing the lower side of the GFM with the pyramids 4 having a height of h1the area of S1the base and the angle α1the inclination of the lateral faces.

Table 2
The calculation results of the comparative stability of the GFM laid on legalistically ground
The estimated parameterGCF-GFM-And-netGFM-And-net
The area of the fuselage mid-section, S, m20,01990,00840,030
The average length of the sunk part of the concrete block, L, m0,2650,2500,280
Depth in soil, concrete block, t, m0,0750,1200,030
Gravity concrete block, G, kg25,1722,0322,03
The Archimedes force, Pakg10,429,129,12
The power of passive resistance of the soil, Fgkg31,0051,1711,95
Maximum flow rate that can shift the GFM, Ucpm/s6,9713,33,83

Table 3
The calculation results of the comparative stability of the GFM laid on hardly eroding soil
The estimated parameterGFM-GFM-And-netGFM-And-net
The area of the fuselage mid-section, S, m20,03975 0,03840,0384
The contact area of the concrete block with the underlying soil, Scm20,05290,040,0686
Gravity concrete block, G, kg25,1722,0322,03
The Archimedes force, Pakg10,429,129,12
The force of the hydrostatic pressure of water on the concrete block with H=2 m, P, kg105,880,0to 135.2
Maximum flow rate that can shift the GFM, Ucpm/s4,033,604,54

As can be seen from table 2, the GFM And laid on the ground side with pyramid 5 (GFM-And-net), due to the form of their blocks immersed in legkorazmyvaemykh bottom surface (e.g., sandy soil) significantly more than if it were laid on the ground side of the pyramids 4 (GFM-And-nes), and the GFM-N-Dive GFM-And-net has the character of self immersion (samouglubleniyu), given the initial effect is observed in very loose soils, when the GFM almost immediately immersed in the soil under the action of its weight, but on heavier soils the effect of self immersion is associated with the process of washing away soil particles by the flow of water circulating in the free space between the blocks. Simultaneously with the leaching of soil particles occurs immersion blocks in the ground under the force of gravity. In the process of washing away soil particles and dive concrete blocks in the ground space between the concrete blocks is reduced and soil erosion is practically stopped. The process of self immersion GFM shown in figure 3. In the submerged position, the contact area of the GFM-And-nez with the ground is very large, and hence the maximum flow rate that can shift the GFM that characterizes the reliability of its grip as significantly increased compared with the GFM-C.

According to the data from table 3, the GFM And laid on hardly eroding the soil (such as clay or coated synthetic fabric that protects the surface from erosion) side with the pyramids 4 (GFM-And-nes), has the largest area of contact with the underlying soil. In this case, the effect of self immersion is not observed, however, when these conditions is the effect of the suction GFM to the bottom surface. The effect of suction due to the fact that microde armacia surface to be protected overrides all surface irregularities GFM and prevents effects of hydrostatic water pressure on the blocks GFM bottom. The manifestation of this effect is possible even on rocky soil. As a result the value of the maximum flow rate that can shift the GFM-And-nez, has the highest value compared to the GFM-And-nez and GFM-C. Thus, in this case, the GFM-And has more traction with a ground surface compared with the GFM-C. To enhance the suction effect at all or only parts of blocks 1 by reason of the greater area S perform excavation-suckers 7.

Thus, asymmetric GFM more versatile compared to symmetric GFM and apply for protection as easily-and hardly eroding the soil, providing a secure grip with the bottom surface.

The first variant of the method of laying the GFM asymmetric blocks on the bottom surface flow is as follows.

Pre-calculate the value of noneroding speed for this section of the watercourse for any known in the field of hydraulic engineering technique. Then clear the ground bottom surface flow from interfering with the stacking GFM object, if necessary, take out part of the ground bottom surface of the waterway dredge, if necessary, stack protivokorrozionnoe device of geotextile material, designed to protect the surface from erosion. Then, using vehicles per meshaut GFM to the installation site. A crane grab the GFM for mounting hinges 3, and the GFM oriented relative to the bottom surface of one or the other party, depending on the previously calculated values noneroding speed for that section of the stream.

If the rate of flow of water in the watercourse exceeds noneroding speed for that section of the stream or if the characteristics of the ground bottom surface sufficient for self immersion GFM in the soil under its own weight, the GFM Orient to the bottom surface side with greater penetrating power (pyramid 5 in the case of units 1, shown in figure 2). This orientation GFM especially useful when simultaneously meet both of these conditions.

If the characteristics of the ground bottom surface sufficient to immerse the GFM in the soil under the action of extra effort, GFM Orient to the bottom surface side with greater penetrating power (pyramid 5 in the case of units 1, shown in figure 2), attached to the outer surface of the GFM extra effort and press the GFM in the ground. Attached to the outer surface of the GFM additional force created by, for example, the construction of the vibrator, and the indentation of the GFM in the soil implement due to webreporting its concrete blocks.

If the speed of those who placed the water in the watercourse does not exceed the value of noneroding speed for that section of the stream or if the characteristics of the ground bottom surface is not sufficient for self immersion GFM in the ground under its own weight, substantial depth blocks GFM may not happen, so the GFM Orient to the bottom surface side with less penetrating power (with the pyramids 4 in the case of units 1, shown in figure 2), as this will be implemented by the effect of suction to the bottom surface.

In practice, it is advisable to Orient the GFM to the bottom surface side with greater penetrating power when the excess flow of water in the watercourse value noneroding speed for this section of the watercourse at least 1.2 times or if the characteristics of the ground bottom surface sufficient for self immersion GFM in the soil under its own weight at least 20% of the full height of the blocks, and especially with the simultaneous implementation of these conditions, as in these cases, the adhesion of the GFM bottom surface will occur relatively quickly and is quite secure.

Laying the GFM concludes that it is lowered to the bottom surface and released from the lifting means lifting crane.

In any of these cases provides a secure grip GFM bottom surface.

The second variant of the method of laying the GFM asymmetric blocks on the bottom surface of the stream is carried out in General as well as the first variant of the method, except that it does not calculate the value of closely yuusha speed for this section of the watercourse, and the decision as to which side to Orient the GFM down, toward the bottom surface, take based on the type of soil, which previously conducted his research.

If the bottom surface is formed predominantly rocky, half-rock or clay soils, GFM Orient to the bottom surface side on which the blocks are the Foundation of a flat shape and a larger area in the plan compared with the opposite side (i.e. with the pyramids 4 in the case of units 1, shown in figure 2, 4 and 5), in order to secure the GFM using the suction effect.

If the bottom surface is formed predominantly arenaceous or macro-grained rock soils, it is necessary to fix the GFM in the bottom surface using the effect of self immersion, so the GFM Orient to the bottom surface side on which the blocks are the Foundation of a smaller area in the plan or executed without reason (i.e. pyramids 5 in the case of units 1, shown in figure 2, 4 and 5), that is, have greater penetrating power.

If the bottom surface of the stream contains mainly silts, sapropels, tatahouine soils or peats, GFM Orient towards the bottom surface of any party. Characteristics of these soils will allow the GFM enough zaglubitelja at any position and have the ü traction with a ground surface.

As a result, traction GFM bottom surface is also provided for any type of soil.

The first option GFM is as follows.

GFM provides concrete blocks 1, which are interconnected by rows and rows of at least one connecting element, and the surface of the block 1 with the upper and lower sides of the GFM is made mostly tapering in the direction from the Central part of the blocks and base blocks have a flat shape on one or both sides of the GFM (figure 4 and 5).

In private cases, the connecting elements are zamonolichennyj ropes (cables) 2 made of metal or synthetic material, loose parts which form mounting tabs 3. In the manufacture between blocks 1 left the gap, providing GFM flexibility.

The running surfaces of the block 1 with the upper and lower sides of the GFM mostly tapering in the direction from the Central part of the blocks is achieved, for example, if blocks 1 consist of two conical bodies (circular cone) or more than two bodies of pyramidal shape with sharp or rounded edges, paired with its large grounds in the plane 6 (figure 4). The blocks formed from the pyramids 4 and 5 are asymmetric relative to the plane 6 of the General bases of the pyramids 4 and 5. The Foundation of the data blocks have a flat shape with obey the parties GFM thanks that pyramid 4 and 5 are truncated. Figure 5 shows an example block 1 having only one basis due to the fact that one of the two forming unit of the pyramids, and 5 is not substantially truncated (small rounding the top of the pyramid, almost no effect on the penetrating ability of the blocks of the GFM in the ground, perform for the safe operation GFM).

The asymmetry of the blocks 1 is required for secure coupling with protected bottom surfaces of any type: for laying the GFM on loose surfaces by self-absorption in them is the side of the GFM with high penetrating power into the ground, and for laying the GFM on the solid surface with suction to them, is the side with the larger bases of the blocks 1.

Moreover, optimal asymmetric form must be many blocks in the GFM, otherwise achievement reliable coupling blocks optimal forms with the ground may not be achieved due to the improper form of the neighbouring blocks, or even if good adhesion of such blocks with the ground is achieved, the total clutch GFM bottom surface may be weak because of the small number of points a good grip. To determine adhesion GFM with the ground must be based on averages characterizing the shape of the blocks, and not a single block, as GFM formed their sovocool the Yu, and the shape and the size of all blocks 1 in the GFM in practice do not always coincide.

The high reliability of the clutch GFM with protected bottom surfaces of any type is achieved, if block 1 with the bases flat shapes on both sides of the GFM conditions (1), (2) and (3), and when the blocks by reason only one side of the GFM high reliability clutch GFM with protected bottom surfaces of any type is achieved if conditions (9) and (10).

The most reliable clutch GFM bottom surface is achieved if the condition (11) or (12).

Maximum reliability clutch GFM bottom surface is achieved when the conditions (13), (14) and (15).

With these characteristics should be performed not less than 50% of the units included in the GFM, for the reasons mentioned previously.

In the following examples, given the explanation of the sequence of calculations, and specific numerical values of quantities are provisional and are for illustration purposes only and does not limit the possible design of the device.

Example 2. GFM contains 20 units of three types with inclined faces and a slight rounding of the edges. This form is well approximated by the pyramids.

The dimensions of the tops of the blocks with one hand GFM accounted for the amount of approximately 200×200 mm for blocks of the first type (10 units), 220×190 mm for blocks of the second type (5 PCs) and 180×190 mm for blocks of the third type (5 pieces).

The dimensions of the tops of the blocks on the opposite side of the GFM approximately 260×260 mm for blocks of the first type, 280×250 mm for blocks of the second type and 240×250 mm for blocks of the third type.

Take the first side of the GFM other side, where the dimensions of the tops of the blocks are the greatest.

The inserted values in the expression (4):

The result is:

Similarly perform calculations for the opposite side GFM:

Calculated the ratio of these values:

Thus, for a given GFM condition (1) is executed.

Blocks with the first side of the GFM have the following height (mm): 30, 28, 25, 31, 29, 30, 35, 35, 34, 30, 30, 30, 31, 27, 30, 29, 26, 33, 31 and 25.

On the other hand GFM blocks have the following height (mm): 120, 121, 118, 117, 120, 122, 119, 188, 120, 120, 120, 125, 130, 122, 123, 119, 118, 120, 122, 121.

Using the expression (5), we obtain:

Prepare a similar expression for the opposite side of the GFM and solve it.

Then we determine the ratio of these values:

That is, for a given GFM condition (2) is also executed.

To verify condition (3) compute the average DL is just GFM values of angles of inclination of the side surfaces of the blocks on each side of the GFM.

First consider the first block.

This Unit has a complex shape and fitted to the two pyramids with the first side of the GFM and one pyramid with its second side (figure 4).

Each of the two pyramids with the first side of the GFM has 4 faces. The first pyramid has the following angles of their faces: 33,69°, 33,0°, up 33.1° and 32.5°. The second pyramid is faces with angles: 33,9°, 33,2°, 32,1° and 32.4°.

Using the expression (7), we obtain:

Similar calculations hold for all blocks of the GFM and the resulting values offor each side of each block.

(degrees): at 32.99, 32.74, 32.90, 33.01, 33.00, 32.90, 33.9, 32.69, 32.89, 33.12, 32.92, 33.21, 32.94, 32.98, 33.03, 33.08, 32.78, 33.06, 32.82, 32.97.

Then we use the expression (6):

Similarly, we find many

In the result set that the

Substitute these values in the expression (3).

Thus, this GFM meets all the conditions necessary for its firm grip on the bottom surface of any Tina.

However, for this GFM are also conditions(11), (13)-(15), so the reliability of its coupling with the bottom surface of any type close to the maximum value of blavod the Secretary-General optimality form blocks GFM.

Example 3. GFM contains blocks streamlined form without Express flat side faces. Specifically for this form is most suitable approximation on each side of a round cone.

The difference in the calculations for this case is only in the method of finding the values of.

Measure the angle of a solution of a cone between two opposite generatrices of the cone. This measurement is performed in the plane in which lie the two forming a cone and its axis.

If the cone has the correct form, then one dimension is enough. In practice, however, it is advisable to carry out additional measurements to improve the accuracy of the result.

The surface of the cone in this case, we believe, close to the right shape, so we will limit ourselves to only three additional dimensions. Measure the angle of the solution cone offset by 45°, 90° and 135°, relative to the plane in which the first dimension.

In the measurement result obtained the following values (degrees): 65,18, 65,44, 65,88 and 66.6.

Substitute the measured values in the expression (8) and we obtain the following.

Then just find the values offor the second part of this block and repeat this operation for all other blocks of the GFM.

The calculation of appropriate Velich is N. in the case of complete blocks with only one base, and for the second, third and fourth variants of the GFM are similar. If the result is established under the GFM conditions (16), (22) and (28), such GFM should be considered suitable for use in conditions that require high reliability clutch GFM with protected bottom surfaces of any type. And if it is established under the GFM conditions(18)-(21), (24)-(27) or (31)-(34), the degree of reliability of the clutch of this GFM with protected bottom surfaces of any type, as shown by studies, close to most of its length.

1. The method of laying flexible concrete Mat (GFM) with asymmetric blocks on the bottom surface of the watercourse, including the orientation of the GFM in relation to the bottom surface of one or the other party and the subsequent placement of GFM on the bottom surface, characterized in that
when the excess flow of water in the watercourse value noneroding speed for this section of the watercourse and/or if the characteristics of the ground bottom surface sufficient for self immersion GFM in the soil under its own weight, the GFM Orient to the bottom surface side with greater penetrating power,
otherwise, the GFM Orient to the bottom surface side with less penetrating power.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the GFM landmark the Ute to the bottom surface side with greater penetrating power when the excess flow of water in the watercourse value noneroding speed for this section of the watercourse at least 1.2 times, and/or if the characteristics of the ground bottom surface sufficient for self immersion GFM in the soil under its own weight at least 20% of the full height blocks.

3. The method of laying flexible concrete Mat (GFM) with asymmetric blocks on the bottom surface of the watercourse, including the orientation of the GFM in relation to the bottom surface of one or the other party and the subsequent placement of GFM on the bottom surface, characterized in that
if the bottom surface is formed predominantly rocky, half-rock or clay soils, GFM Orient to the bottom surface side on which the blocks are the Foundation of a flat shape and a larger area in the plan compared with the opposite side,
if the bottom surface is formed predominantly arenaceous or macro-grained rock soils, GFM Orient to the bottom surface side on which the blocks are the Foundation of a smaller area in the plan or executed without reason,
or, if the bottom surface of the stream contains mainly silts, sapropels, tatahouine soils or peats, GFM Orient towards the bottom surface of any party.

4. Flexible concrete Mat (GFM), containing concrete blocks, which are interconnected by rows and rows of at least one connecting element, and the surface of the data blocks of the upper and lower sides of the GFM is made mostly tapering in the direction from the Central part of the block, and the Foundation blocks have a flat shape on one or both sides of the GFM, characterized in that if the base units have a flat shape on both sides of the GFM,



where- the average for the whole GFM value of the square bases of the blocks from the first side of the GFM;
- the average for the whole GFM value of the square bases of the blocks from the second (opposite) side of the GFM;
- the average for the whole GFM the value of the height of the blocks from the second side of the GFM;
- the average for the whole GFM the value of the height of the blocks from the first side of the GFM;
- the average for the whole GFM angle of inclination of the side surfaces of the blocks with the first side of the GFM;
- the average for the whole GFM angle of inclination of the side surfaces of the blocks from the second side of the GFM;
defined as

where S1square bases of the blocks from the first side of the GFM;
S2square bases of the blocks from the second (opposite) side of the GFM;
N is the total number of blocks in the GFM;

where h1- the height of the unit, located on the first side of the GFM;
h2- the height of the unit, located soverei side GFM;
N is the total number of blocks in the GFM;

where- average tilt angles of the side surfaces of the block located on the first side of the GFM;
- average tilt angles of the side surfaces of the block located on the second side of the GFM;
if the surface of the block approximate the pyramids, then

where γp- the angle of the faces of the pyramid;
n is the total number of faces in the pyramids on one side of the block;
if the surface of the block approximate circular cone or cones,

where γc- angle solution cone, measured between two opposite generatrices of the cone or cones;
P is the total number of uniform rotations around the axis of the cone in the measurement of these angles;
N is the total number of blocks in the GFM;
and when the blocks by reason only one side of the GFM

where- the average for the whole GFM value of the heights of the blocks from the side of the bases of the blocks;
- the average for the whole GFM value of the heights of the blocks from the side on which the block has no basis;
and

where- the average for the whole GFM value of the angles of inclination of the side surface is the surface of the blocks from the side with the bases;
- the average for the whole GFM value of the tilt angles of the side surfaces of the blocks from the side on which the block has no basis;
and

where h3- the height of the unit, located on the first side of the GFM;
h4- the height of the unit, located on the second hand GFM;
N is the total number of blocks in the GFM;

where- average tilt angles of the side surfaces of the block located on the first side of the GFM;
- average tilt angles of the side surfaces of the block located on the second side of the GFM;
if the surface of the block are approximated by a pyramid or pyramids,

where γp- the angle of the faces of the pyramid;
n is the total number of faces in the pyramid or the pyramid with one side of the block;
if the surface of the block approximate circular cone or cones,

where γc- angle solution cone, measured between two opposite generatrices of the cone or cones;
P is the total number of uniform rotations around the axis of the cone in the measurement of these angles;
N is the total number of blocks in the GFM.

5. Mat according to claim 4, wherein the block is formed from two bodies of the pyramidal or cone-shaped the form, which is truncated and paired with its large grounds.

6. Mat according to claim 4, characterized in that

or

7. Mat according to claim 4, characterized in that



with these characteristics made not less than 50% of the units included in the GFM.

8. Flexible concrete Mat (GFM), containing concrete blocks, interconnected by rows and rows of at least one zamonolichennymi rope or cable formed from the bodies of conical form, which is truncated and paired with its large grounds, characterized in that
ξ≥1,05
where ξ is the coefficient of asymmetry between the parties GFM;
and

where- the average for the whole GFM value square bases and/or angles of inclination of the side surfaces of the blocks for the first side of the GFM;
- the average for the whole GFM value square bases and/or angles of inclination of the side surfaces of the blocks for the second (opposite) side of the GFM;
defined as

where Sθ,δsquare opposite the bases of the block;
N is the total number of blocks in the GFM;
and/or

where βθ,δthe CPE is of the magnitude of the angles opposite side surfaces of the block, defined for blocks in the form of circular cones in expression

where γc- angle solution cone, measured between two opposite generatrices;
P - uniform number of turns around the axis of the cone in the measurement of these angles;
N is the total number of blocks in the GFM.

9. The Mat of claim 8, characterized in that

where- the average for the whole GFM the value of the height of the blocks from the first side of the GFM;
- the average for the whole GFM the value of the height of the blocks from the second side of the GFM;
calculated by the expression

where hθ,δ- height opposite parts of the block;
N is the total number of blocks in the GFM.

10. The Mat of claim 8, characterized in that
1,1≤ξ≤1,75.

11. The Mat of claim 8, characterized in that
1,2≤ξ≤1,5.

12. The Mat of claim 8, characterized in that
a 1.75≤ξ≤2,5.

13. Flexible concrete Mat (GFM), containing concrete blocks, interconnected by rows and rows of at least one zamonolichennymi rope or cable is formed mainly of two bodies of pyramidal or conical shape, which is truncated and paired with its large grounds, characterized in that
ξα≥1,05
where ξα- coefficient of asymmetry between the parties GFM;
and

g is e - the average for the whole GFM value square bases and/or angles of the side surfaces of the asymmetric units for the first side of the GFM;
- the average for the whole GFM value square bases and/or angles of the side surfaces of the asymmetric units for second hand GFM;
defined as

wheresquare opposite the bases of the asymmetric block;
Nα- total number of asymmetric units in the GFM;
and/or

where- average values of the angles opposite side surfaces of the asymmetric unit defined for blocks in the form of pyramids expression

where γp- the angle of the faces of the pyramid;
n is the total number of faces in the pyramid asymmetric block;
and for blocks in the form of circular cones in expression

where γc- angle solution cone, measured between two opposite generatrices;
P - uniform number of turns around the axis of the cone in the measurement of these angles;
Nα- total number of asymmetric units in the GFM.

14. The Mat according to item 13, wherein

where- the average for the whole GFM the value of the height of asymmet the ranks of the blocks from the first side of the GFM;
- the average for the whole GFM the value of the height of asymmetrical blocks from the second side of the GFM;
calculated by the expression

where- the height of the other parts of the asymmetric block;
Nα- total number of asymmetric units in the GFM.

15. Mat on p. 13, characterized in that
1,15≤ξα≤1,8.

16. The Mat according to item 13, wherein
1,25≤ξα≤1.55V.

17. The Mat according to item 13, wherein
1.8V≤ξα≤2,55.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering and nature conservation construction and may be used to protect coastal areas, roads and other facilities against landslides and collapses of soil massifs. The anti-landslide system comprises a stepped arrangement of gabions and heavy fascines at the foot of the collapsed slope. Along the foot of the first stage made of three rows of heavy fascines 4, there is a pile grid 13. The pile grid 13 is made of a group of piles 14, driven into the base at a certain distance from each other along one line, and a metal lathing 15. The lathing 15 is arranged on top of piles at the height of the first step. Gabion mats 5 with drainage devices that create sites of steps 1, 2, 3, are made as cut into a collapsed soil massif and with an inclination towards the retaining walls. On top of the last step the gabion mat 6 of the site is arranged further than the line of possible massif collapse, to its stable soils.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability of system operation as an anti-slide structure.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering construction and may be used to protect coastal areas, roads and other facilities against landslides and collapses. The method includes laying of gabions onto the collapsed slope. At first on the base of the collapsed slope they arrange a preparation from flexible mats 2, made from tight rows of light fascines, laid normally to the line of the slope inclination. Then on top of the flexible mats 2 they arrange a fixture from gabion mats 3 with drainage devices, made of light fascines and perforated pipes laid in alternating rows and rolled into a gabion net. Flexible mats 2 in the base and gabion mats 3 on top of them are connected to each other with a galvanised metal wire with diameter of 2.5-3 mm. Along the foot of the collapsed slope they arrange a drainage prism 6 from drop-fill rock. Reliable protection is provided for different facilities located under slopes, where there are landslides and collapses of soil massifs. The method may be most effectively used, when the height of the possible collapse of the soil massif does not exceed 10-12 m.

EFFECT: protection of coastal areas, roads and other facilities against landslides and collapses.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering and nature conservation construction and may be used to protect coastal areas, roads and other facilities against landslides and collapses of soil massifs. The method includes stepped installation of gabions and heavy fascines neat the foot of the collapsed slope. Along the foot of the first step a pile grid 13 is arranged, made of a group of piles 14, driven into the base at a certain distance from each other along one line. A lathing 15 is attached to the upper parts of piles from metal profiled beams, which form the pile grid 13. The lathing is arranged along the height of the first step. Behind the pile grid 13 along the length of the first section they put at length three rows of heavy fascines 4 and connect them to each other. Then on top of rows of heavy fascines 4 perpendicularly to it they lay gabion mats 5. Gabion mats 5 with drainage devices that form sites of steps 1, 2, 3, are made as cut into the collapsed soil massif and with an inclination towards the steps. On top of the last stage the gabion mat 6 of the site they build further along the line of possible collapse of the massif to its stable soils.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability of system operation as an anti-landslide structure.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: connection device intended for joint fixation of two long cellular localisation structures includes a lead-in element having the first and the second opposite lead-in ends and an elongated part of the lead-in element between them. The lead-in element has the first length between the first and the second lead-in ends, which is combined into a housing located mainly perpendicular from the elongated part of the lead-in element and displaced from each of the first and the second lead-in ends, a combined handle located mainly perpendicular from the housing on the end of the housing, which is equally spaced from the lead-in element. The handle has the first and the second ends and an elongation between them. The housing is displaced from the first and the second ends of the handle. The handle has the second length between their first and second ends. The housing has the third length between the lead-in element and the handle; with that, the second length is larger than the first length, and the third length is less than the half of the first and the second lengths.

EFFECT: improving connection operation efficiency; reducing material consumption and increasing durability of connections.

15 cl, 15 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to strengthen slopes of an earth bed includes making of drainage wells, forced removal of water from cavities of the earth bed outside its borders via drainage wells through directed injection of a hardening mortar towards the drainage wells. Previously reinforcing anchor elements are installed into the body of the earth bed, besides, their installation is carried out in tiers and at the angle to each other to form a spatial lattice.

EFFECT: increased quality and efficiency of performed works, increased resistance of soil massif to compressing and shifting loads.

2 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: flexible concrete mat comprises concrete blocks connected to each other by rows and in rows with a gap by an embedded rope. In concrete blocks of the flexible mat according to the first version there are two partially embedded metal elements, made as capable of creation of a welded joint with an additional common stiff metal element for fixation of their mutual position. Embedded metal elements are connected with concrete blocks so that they are capable to withstand at least the double weight of the concrete block. The partially embedded metal element has thickness of more than 1.5 mm and length and/or width of at least 10 mm in its non-embedded part. The second version of the flexible concrete mat comprises at least two metal plates, partially embedded in adjacent concrete units. The plates have thickness from 1.5 mm to 5 mm, length and width of the non-embedded part is at least 10 mm. Mutual position of concrete blocks is fixed by means of at least one straight or bent stiff metal element, welded to embedded plates.

EFFECT: excluded arbitrary shifts of concrete blocks relative to each other after placement of a flexible concrete mat on a protected surface.

5 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device to fix slope soil comprises geogrids, anchors, crushed stone and/or other loose material. Cells of the geogrid arranged on the surface of the slope and on the central part of the slope are filled with foam concrete, and cells of geogrids arranged in the slope base are filled with crushed stone.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of existing devices of slope reinforcement, which will result in less occurrences of hazardous geological phenomena.

1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: landslide protection structure includes Reno mattresses and wooden stakes (piles). It comprises fixed anchors installed and concreted in a section that is not prone to landslide phenomena connected with retaining lengths arranged at the required distance under Reno mattresses and beams arranged above Reno mattresses that connect the retaining lengths to each other.

EFFECT: provision of development of a reliable landslide protection structure with higher stability at steep slopes and evenly perceiving load.

1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method includes arrangement of antifiltration elements from flexible sheets 5 of a spent polymer material on a structure slope 1. Antifiltration elements are fabricated from recycled car tyres in the form of flexible sheets by means of their processing into rubber crumb of fraction from 1.0 to 3.0 mm and its mangling in the form of sheets of specified size. Flexible sheets 5 are laid onto the bottom 2 and slopes 1 of the canal or the water reservoir along the entire perimeter with glueing of seams and fixation of sheets for stability of the coating onto the slopes with metal pins 3 and in the upper part at the ledge 4 of the structure edge. Flexible sheets for convenience of transportation and arrangement are made with the following size: thickness - 1.0-2.0 cm, width - 1.0-1.5 m, length - 5.0-10.0 m, and rolled into rolls with the diameter of up to 0.5 m and weight of up to 500 kg. Application of flexible sheets from spent tyres due to their considerable thickness and high resistance to damage excludes the necessity to arrange protective coatings.

EFFECT: antifiltration coating has high repairability, and high flexibility of a coating provides for reliability of its operation under conditions of possible base deformations.

6 cl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: cover comprises concrete blocks connected to each other and in rows by means of flexible links and having a shape of double-sided truncated pyramids with a common base. The lower part of each concrete block is made in the form of a slant truncated pyramid with smaller and larger end sides to form an acute-angled ledge-tooth between the larger end side and the lower base-foot of each concrete block. Height of the smaller end side and height of the larger end side of each concrete block are set with the ratio of 1:2-1:7, accordingly, with the possibility to produce an acute angle between the larger end side and the lower base-foot of each concrete block, and this angle forms an acute-angled ledge - tooth. Concrete blocks are arranged as identical along the chosen shape of the surface of their lower base-foot and evenly aligned relative to end sides of the flexible concrete cover, having a toothed lower base. Smaller end sides of each concrete block of each row, apart from the extreme row, installed in the upper part of the slope or bank, are connected by means of flexible links with larger end sides of each overlying concrete block in the adjacent row.

EFFECT: increased strength of mechanical coupling of a flexible concrete cover with soil, which increases stability of its position on a soil coastal slope or bank of different steepness.

4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering and nature conservation construction and may be used to protect coastal areas, roads and other facilities against landslides and collapses of soil massifs. The anti-landslide system comprises a stepped arrangement of gabions and heavy fascines at the foot of the collapsed slope. Along the foot of the first stage made of three rows of heavy fascines 4, there is a pile grid 13. The pile grid 13 is made of a group of piles 14, driven into the base at a certain distance from each other along one line, and a metal lathing 15. The lathing 15 is arranged on top of piles at the height of the first step. Gabion mats 5 with drainage devices that create sites of steps 1, 2, 3, are made as cut into a collapsed soil massif and with an inclination towards the retaining walls. On top of the last step the gabion mat 6 of the site is arranged further than the line of possible massif collapse, to its stable soils.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability of system operation as an anti-slide structure.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering construction and may be used to protect coastal areas, roads and other facilities against landslides and collapses. The method includes laying of gabions onto the collapsed slope. At first on the base of the collapsed slope they arrange a preparation from flexible mats 2, made from tight rows of light fascines, laid normally to the line of the slope inclination. Then on top of the flexible mats 2 they arrange a fixture from gabion mats 3 with drainage devices, made of light fascines and perforated pipes laid in alternating rows and rolled into a gabion net. Flexible mats 2 in the base and gabion mats 3 on top of them are connected to each other with a galvanised metal wire with diameter of 2.5-3 mm. Along the foot of the collapsed slope they arrange a drainage prism 6 from drop-fill rock. Reliable protection is provided for different facilities located under slopes, where there are landslides and collapses of soil massifs. The method may be most effectively used, when the height of the possible collapse of the soil massif does not exceed 10-12 m.

EFFECT: protection of coastal areas, roads and other facilities against landslides and collapses.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering and nature conservation construction and may be used to protect coastal areas, roads and other facilities against landslides and collapses of soil massifs. The method includes stepped installation of gabions and heavy fascines neat the foot of the collapsed slope. Along the foot of the first step a pile grid 13 is arranged, made of a group of piles 14, driven into the base at a certain distance from each other along one line. A lathing 15 is attached to the upper parts of piles from metal profiled beams, which form the pile grid 13. The lathing is arranged along the height of the first step. Behind the pile grid 13 along the length of the first section they put at length three rows of heavy fascines 4 and connect them to each other. Then on top of rows of heavy fascines 4 perpendicularly to it they lay gabion mats 5. Gabion mats 5 with drainage devices that form sites of steps 1, 2, 3, are made as cut into the collapsed soil massif and with an inclination towards the steps. On top of the last stage the gabion mat 6 of the site they build further along the line of possible collapse of the massif to its stable soils.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability of system operation as an anti-landslide structure.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in using a device to prevent erosion of a shore edge. The device comprises elements installed to form braces and arranged with a long side across the flow motion. Elements are netted webs made of flexible material having positive buoyancy. Netted webs are equipped with a float in the upper part and a weight in the lower part and are deepened into the shore edge with attachment to the bottom by means of pins, the length of which is selected to prevent tear-off of the lower edger of the netted web from the bottom with sharp increase of flow speed, variation of its direction or sharp increase of surface level. Netted webs are installed in rows. Side netted webs entering the row stretch from the central one to the opposite side. Rows of netted webs are arranged as different by height for availability of an upper edge on the surface of water and tracking of the profile of the lower edge bottom. The distance between rows is selected so that the distance between adjacent webs shall not be less than two heights of the netted web in this point. Due to flexibility of the netted web, loads are reduced at the structure and places of fixation.

EFFECT: prevented erosion of a shore edge and provides for the possibility of formation of a new shore line.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: flexible concrete mat comprises concrete blocks connected to each other by rows and in rows with a gap by an embedded rope. In concrete blocks of the flexible mat according to the first version there are two partially embedded metal elements, made as capable of creation of a welded joint with an additional common stiff metal element for fixation of their mutual position. Embedded metal elements are connected with concrete blocks so that they are capable to withstand at least the double weight of the concrete block. The partially embedded metal element has thickness of more than 1.5 mm and length and/or width of at least 10 mm in its non-embedded part. The second version of the flexible concrete mat comprises at least two metal plates, partially embedded in adjacent concrete units. The plates have thickness from 1.5 mm to 5 mm, length and width of the non-embedded part is at least 10 mm. Mutual position of concrete blocks is fixed by means of at least one straight or bent stiff metal element, welded to embedded plates.

EFFECT: excluded arbitrary shifts of concrete blocks relative to each other after placement of a flexible concrete mat on a protected surface.

5 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to raise a water level in small watercourses after dredging works includes erection of a retaining dam upon completion of dredging works. The main dam body is created from soil. At least one flexible concrete mat is arranged in the outer part of the dam. The height of dam is by 10÷80% less than the height of the dredged riverbed wall. The second version of the method includes erection of a cascade of retaining dam. The second dam of the cascade is erected by 0.1÷0.3 m below at the elevation from the sea level. To erect a retaining dam, dredging works are carried out in separate sections of the riverbed. The distance between sections is selected as equal to the width of the main dam body. Then the height of the main dam body is adjusted, and it is coated with a flexible concrete mat. The retaining dam comprises the main body. The outer part of the dam comprises at least one flexible protective mat. The flexible concrete mat comprises concrete blocks connected to each other row-by-row and within with a gap by flexible elements. The mat comprises an anti-suffosion element and/or elements for complete closure of gaps between all concrete blocks or between their part. The width of gaps between at least 75% of the blocks in the mat makes from 1 mm to 25 mm in the length of at least 80% of the dimensional length of blocks adjacent to each other. Concrete blocks have height from 50 mm to 350 mm.

EFFECT: raising water level in small watercourses after dredging works, simplified dam design, increased manufacturability of its creation, high extent of protection of a soil main body of the dam.

22 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method includes arrangement of antifiltration elements from flexible sheets 5 of a spent polymer material on a structure slope 1. Antifiltration elements are fabricated from recycled car tyres in the form of flexible sheets by means of their processing into rubber crumb of fraction from 1.0 to 3.0 mm and its mangling in the form of sheets of specified size. Flexible sheets 5 are laid onto the bottom 2 and slopes 1 of the canal or the water reservoir along the entire perimeter with glueing of seams and fixation of sheets for stability of the coating onto the slopes with metal pins 3 and in the upper part at the ledge 4 of the structure edge. Flexible sheets for convenience of transportation and arrangement are made with the following size: thickness - 1.0-2.0 cm, width - 1.0-1.5 m, length - 5.0-10.0 m, and rolled into rolls with the diameter of up to 0.5 m and weight of up to 500 kg. Application of flexible sheets from spent tyres due to their considerable thickness and high resistance to damage excludes the necessity to arrange protective coatings.

EFFECT: antifiltration coating has high repairability, and high flexibility of a coating provides for reliability of its operation under conditions of possible base deformations.

6 cl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: flexible protective concrete cover is formed from flexible protective concrete mats. The mat comprises concrete blocks. Between each other the blocks are connected with a gap to reinforcement ropes. An additional rope with diameter from 6 mm to 8 mm is embedded into at least one of the blocks. Besides, the additional rope is embedded to form a free end. The length of the free end is sufficient to bind a knot on it. Mats are connected to each other with a gap by the additional rope. Besides, at least two additional ropes have higher elasticity that reinforcement ropes. Additional ropes have identical elasticity between each other.

EFFECT: increased strength of fixation of flexible protective mats between each other.

7 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: cover comprises concrete blocks connected to each other and in rows by means of flexible links and having a shape of double-sided truncated pyramids with a common base. The lower part of each concrete block is made in the form of a slant truncated pyramid with smaller and larger end sides to form an acute-angled ledge-tooth between the larger end side and the lower base-foot of each concrete block. Height of the smaller end side and height of the larger end side of each concrete block are set with the ratio of 1:2-1:7, accordingly, with the possibility to produce an acute angle between the larger end side and the lower base-foot of each concrete block, and this angle forms an acute-angled ledge - tooth. Concrete blocks are arranged as identical along the chosen shape of the surface of their lower base-foot and evenly aligned relative to end sides of the flexible concrete cover, having a toothed lower base. Smaller end sides of each concrete block of each row, apart from the extreme row, installed in the upper part of the slope or bank, are connected by means of flexible links with larger end sides of each overlying concrete block in the adjacent row.

EFFECT: increased strength of mechanical coupling of a flexible concrete cover with soil, which increases stability of its position on a soil coastal slope or bank of different steepness.

4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in making and laying onto an underwater surface of a water reservoir a mat of a synthetic water-resistant non-woven water-permeable material, one end of which is tightly sewn, and by stitching of the upper bed of the mat with the lower one, longitudinal channels are formed for their further filling with a ballasting material from a dispensing hopper. In process of making the mat is corrugated and gathered with fixation. The ballasting material is made in the form of a movable concrete mix with a hydraulic binder. The dispensing hopper is installed on a deck of a floating craft with the possibility of displacement of the latter along the protected underwater surface. The dispensing hopper is connected by a pipeline with a distributing header, onto outlet nozzles of which mat channels are tightly put, and the mat with the distributing header is lowered overboard, stopping lowering at a certain distance from the water reservoir bottom. Afterwards a portion of the ballasting material is sent from the dispensing hopper along a pipeline via the distributing header and the mat channels to its protective end, providing for mat anchoring. Afterwards the floating facility is put in motion along the protected underwater surface, and simultaneously the ballasting material is being supplied into channels of the mat, straightening its gathered volume and providing for gradual displacement of the mat on the area of the protected underwater surface. After complete filling of mat channels with the ballasting material its further supply and continued motion of the floating facility initiate removal of the mat from outlet nozzles of the distributing header. A concrete beam is laid crosswise on the open end of the mat, preventing leakage of the ballasting material.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to erect a protective cover on an underwater surface of a water reservoir, having low prime cost and high strength.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly hydraulic structure reinforcement.

SUBSTANCE: method is performed in two-stages. The first stage involves forming vertical elongated flat ground massifs secured by hardening material. Massifs are created in crest embankment area and in upper area of embankment slope so that massifs are spaced minimal available distance from crest and pass through embankment body, including land-sliding upper embankment slope area. Massifs are anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and are arranged at least in three rows and there are at least three massifs in each row. Method for massifs forming involves driving double-slotted injectors directly in embankment ground or in wells formed in embankment and having plugged wellhead; orienting injector slots perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced; injecting hardening material under increased pressure across horizons from top to bottom or in reverse direction, wherein injection is initially performed under 5-15 atm pressure and at minimal rate in each second injector of one outermost row beginning from extreme ones; feeding hardening material in previously missed injectors in this row; supplying injectors of another extreme row with hardening material in the same way; feeding hardening material to ejectors of medium rows under 10-20 atm pressure; performing the second reinforcement stage as material hardens to obtain 70% strength. The second reinforcement stage involves forming vertical elongated flat massifs of secured ground anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and arranged at least in three rows, wherein each one includes at least three massifs. Massifs extend at the angle exceeding embankment slope angle to horizontal line. Massifs are formed with the use of double-slotted injectors in remainder embankment area. Injector slots are directed perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced. Hardening material is ejected in above succession, wherein hardening material pressure is equal to design process pressure enough for direction of feeding hardening material through injector slots and lesser than hardening material injection pressure of the first reinforcement stage.

EFFECT: increased reliability of structure reinforcement; prevention of land-slide on structure slopes.

3 cl, 3 dwg

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