Drainage device with spacer screen
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to land reclamation construction and may be used in construction of drainage systems on heavy grounds. The drainage device with the spacer screen comprises a perforated pipe laid onto a drainage cushion, a water impermeable screen made as interrupted in length and a drainage filler from filtering material in areas of screen break. The screen is made as arched from elastic plastic rectangular plates by means of elastic curve and fixation of their edges on walls of the trench at the level of the height of the drainage cushion laid at the bottom of the trench.
EFFECT: increased reliability of device operation during deformations of structurally unstable soils.
The invention relates to the reclamation construction and can be used in the construction of drainage systems on heavy soils.
Known drainage device comprising a perforated pipe with waterproof screen and filter material (see asssss No. 1209763, IPC E02B 11/00, 1984).
The disadvantages of the known devices are excessive costs for material of screen and limited vodasoivata capability.
Known technical solutions closest to the claimed is a drainage device comprising a perforated pipe laid on the drain pad, and the screen is made closed around the perimeter of the cross section and intermittent along the length, and drainage backfill of the filter material in places of rupture of the screen (see asssss No. 1442605, IPC E02B 11/00, 1987).
The drawback of the prototype are relatively large cost of the screen that runs from pipes, limited drainage capacity due to the closure of the bottom of the perforated pipe and the need to improve the rigidity of the screen when the deformation of a structurally unstable soil.
The technical result of the invention is to reduce the cost of the device and increase its reliability with deformation of a structurally unstable soil.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that the drainage of the second device, including a perforated pipe laid on the drainage pillow, waterproof screen made discontinuous in length, and drainage backfill of the filter material in places of rupture of the screen, the screen according to the invention is made of an arched resilient plastic rectangular plates by the elastic curvature and fixing their edges on the walls of the trench at the height of the drainage pillows laid on the bottom of the trench.
The novelty of the invention lies in the fact that waterproof arched screen is made of elastic plastic plates by their curvature and fixing their edges on the walls of the trench. These new features make it possible to achieve new properties, namely, that allow the lowest cost material to form an arched screens due to mechanical elastic properties of the screen material and the natural elements of the closed drainage, i.e. the walls of the trench. The above new features and properties are missing in the known technical solutions and allow the proposed technical solution to achieve positive effects, which consists in reducing the cost of the device and increase its reliability with deformation of a structurally unstable soil.
The above allows to conclude that the proposed solution meets the criteria of the invention of "novelty" and "inventive the level".
1 shows a drainage device with spacer-screen, cross section; figure 2 is a longitudinal section.
Drainage device with the spacer screen includes a perforated drainage pipe 1, laid in trench 2 on the drainage cushion 3, a screen 4, made of an arched resilient plastic plate by its curvature and fixation of its edges to the walls of the trench drain backfill of the filter material 5 to the arable layer 6.
The device operates as follows.
Excess water from the arable layer 6 enters the drainage backfilling of the filter material 5, whence it flows through the screen 4 and further into the pipe 1, is laid in the trench 2 on the drainage cushion 3. The inside of the screen water intake capacity of the drainage pipe is increased, because the water from above washes its surface, and the bottom gets it through the drain cushion 3. Water passes freely into the holes of the pipe to provide rapid transport it from the screen and does not create back pressure in the upstream layers. With deformation of the swelling of the soil above the screens last, made of elastic material, elastic perceive them, thereby protecting the drainage line.
Drainage device with the spacer screen, perform the following way. Excavator lifts the trench 2, the bottom of which is placed drainage cushion 3 of the filter material is a, then drain the cushion 3 is placed a perforated drainage pipe 1. Take a rectangular elastic plastic plates that are curved in the form of an arch and down into the trench branches of the arch down, and the edges of these arches at the height of the drainage cushion 3 elastically abuts the wall of the trench 2, which do not allow elastically curved plates screens to appear. After this trench is a tractor with pricipales and falls asleep plots between screens filter material 5 to the arable layer 6. Bulldozer spend backfill of the trench.
Technical and economic efficiency of the proposed device, as compared with the device-prototype (see A.S. USSR №1442605), is that it significantly reduced the price because for the manufacture of screens instead of pipes are relatively cheap plastic elastic plate, which due to the specific mechanical properties and the natural walls of the trench to form an arched screens at the construction site, increases vodasoivata the ability of the pipes, as proposed screens do not close the perforation in the lower part of the tube, and the proposed screens due to its flexibility and elasticity can be reliably perceive deformation swelling of the soil above the screens.
Drainage device with the spacer screen comprising a perforated pipe laid on Dre is most important pillow, waterproof screen made discontinuous in length, and drainage backfill of the filter material in places of rupture of the screen, characterized in that the arched screen is made of elastic plastic rectangular plates by the elastic curvature and fixing their edges on the walls of the trench at the height of the drainage pillows laid on the bottom of the trench.
SUBSTANCE: drainage device with a ring screen comprises a perforated pipe with a screen made as closed along the perimeter of the cross section and interrupted along length, and filtering material sprinkled in areas of screen break. The screen is made of identical elastic metal cord recycled car tyres connected to each other at the ends by means of a mechanical link.
EFFECT: improved water drainage capacity of a device due to automatic self-regulation of screen permeability and prevention of pipe lower part closure with screens.
SUBSTANCE: evaporation pond of drainage flow is connected to a supply channel 1, equipped with partitioning 2, 3 and input 4, 5 regulatory structures, and is divided by bridges into sections 6, 7 of intensive evaporation, hydraulically connected to each other and to the supply channel. Each section 6, 7 of intense evaporation comprises floating evaporative plates 26, placed across the water surface at a certain distance from each other, with through holes and evaporation accelerators of hydrophilic capillary-porous material inserted in them. In the corners of the floating plates the holes are made, through which the vertical rods are passed, mounted into the bottom of the sections, with the length exceeding the depth of maximum filling of the sections, equipped with the locks of the upper and lower position of the plate. The evaporation pond is equipped with additional section 10 for accumulation and evaporation of the wash water, as well as section 8 for collection of desalinated drainage flow with a pump station 9 for feeding it to the consumer.
EFFECT: recovery of adsorptive capacity of the accelerators of evaporation by washing without their dismantling, which increases the efficiency of the evaporation pond, the efficiency of the desalination process of drainage flows increases significantly.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering construction, namely, to water intake structures, and may be used to take water from underground sources in case of shallow ground water. The underground horizontal water intake comprises a water-collecting trench 1 and a water-collecting well 7. On the bottom of the water-collecting trench 1 there are gabion mats 2 with drainage devices laid in longitudinal rows. Gabion mats 2 comprise light fascines and perforated pipes laid in alternating rows and rolled into a gabion net. On top of gabion mats 2 along the trench there are flexible mats 5, made of a draining filler, which is made of tight rows of light fascines, rolled into a geonet. In the head part of the trench there is a rigid tray 6 of rectangular section, the cantilever part of which with a slope enters into a water-collecting well 7. Gabion mats with drainage devices are laid from the trench to the middle of the tray 6. The underground horizontal water intake most effectively may be used in coastal and flood-plain sections of waterlogged soils with depth of soil water free-flow level up to 7 m. The water-intake is designed for water supply of a small settlement, an agricultural enterprise, a farm and an individual household.
EFFECT: reduced labour intensiveness of construction and higher efficiency of operation of a water intake structure.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering construction, namely, to water intake structures, namely, to water intake structures, and may be used for water intake from underground sources with shallow beds of underground water. The method of erection of an underground horizontal water intake of a combined structure, including a water receiving trench 1 and a water collection well 7, consists in laying of gabion mats 2 in longitudinal rows on the bottom of the water receiving trench 1 with drainage devices. Gabion mats 2 are made of light fascines and perforated pipes, laid in alternating rows and rolled into a gabion net. On top of gabion mats 2 along the trench they lay flexible mats 5, made of a drainage filler, which is made of tight rows of light fascines rolled into a geonet. In the end part of the trench there is a rigid tray 6 of rectangular cross section, the cantilever part of which with an inclination enters into a water collection well 7. Gabion mats with drainage devices are laid from the trench to the middle of the tray.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of operation of a water intake structure and reduced labour intensiveness of construction.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and land reclamation and can be used in laboratory and production testing, design, construction, reconstruction, repair and maintenance of closed horizontal pipe drainage on lands intended for agriculture in the implementation of precision agriculture, as well as in industrial, municipal, townsite and other territories. The method consists in increase the service life of closed horizontal pipe drainage, comprising the elements hidden under a layer of soil-ground: drainage pipes with standard service life, connecting parts, protective filter materials, padding the pipes, volume filters and backfilling. The closed horizontal pipe drainage is carried out using elements which standard service life is not lower than the standard service life of the main element - the drainage pipes.
EFFECT: project intensity of soil-ground drying and expanded reproduction of soil fertility during the service life of the drainage pipes is provided, the costs of the current and general maintenance of elements of horizontal pipe drainage or reconstruction of the drainage system as a whole are reduced, as well as the restoration of soil fertility, disturbed during performance of these works, the conditions for implementation of precision agriculture in a particular field are provided.
SUBSTANCE: mole-drainage pipe is made with the projection inverted inside the pipe and located along its length. The pipe consists of two parts. The parts of the pipe are connected via a flexible element. The flexible element provides the ability of folding the pipe in the vertical plane. On the inner projection of the pipe there are straightening ribs. There is a slit between the ribs along the entire length of the pipe.
EFFECT: invention enables to increase the outflow of ground water and to simplify the process of laying the pipes in the ground.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system under galega herb on mineral soils with varying degrees of gleying includes subsurface drainage to collector drains and providing for, due to the distance between them, their depth and diameter of the pipe laying, required to grow plants with glei normal drainage of soils in the period of research, with the water load rated probability exceeding. The closed drainage arranged in sandy loam (option 1) or loamy (option 2) soils with intensive gleying horizons of the soil profile , lies no deeper than 60 cm (option 1) or no deeper than 70 cm (option 2) from the surface of the soil, with the depth of drains of at least 1.3 m (option 1) or at least 1.5 m (option 2), and the change in its drain length not exceeding 0.2 m (option 1) or not more than 0.3 m (option 2). Drainage lines are made without local areas with a reverse bias on the longitudinal profile, and the length of their incline-free areas does not exceed 5 m distance between drains, their diameter and length of the pipe and the pipe diameter of the closed water reservoir correspond to a load of 5% probability of exceeding, providing for the drainage rate on the date of galega herb vegetation resumption as at least the capacity of the topsoil (humus layer), plus 10 cm (option 1) or + 15 cm (option 2), at the beginning of pre-sowing period - at least 60 cm (option 1) or at least 70 cm (option 2) for sowing and growing periods, and in the late autumn harvest - at least 80 cm (option 1) or at least 100 cm (option 2).
EFFECT: intensity of drainage, which guarantees successful cultivation of galega herb in one place without replanting for 30 years or more in sandy loam and loamy soils of varying degrees of waterlogging, and prevention of the possibility of formation of root plugs of plants in hollow drainage pipes, damage to plant from fungal diseases, root rot and loss of plants from excessive moisture content, which provides for a multi-year period of high yield of galega herb.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system includes drainage pipes of higher strength installed with a drainage inclination in an earth bed. Drainage pipes are arranged inside the earth bed body using a method of horizontal directional drilling. End sections of pipes protrude beyond limits of earth bed slopes and are connected to each other in a closed system, the outlet of which is made as capable of connection of compressor equipment. Sections of the drainage pipes arranged in the bed body are made as evenly perforated.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve draining properties of a system and bearing capacity of a road base by increasing a drying zone, realisation of the possibility to regulate drying process, and also reinforcement of an earth bed.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises k experimental drainage systems - versions of R replication with n number of experimental drains, connected with a closed header k-R, made of pipes with water impermeable walls without joints and water receiving holes and entering an inspection drop hydrometric manhole. M number of parallel pipes of closed headers enter the inspection drop hydrometric manhole at the same time and are made with a section with entering drains and an idle part. As the experimental drainage system version is moved away from the inspection drop hydrometric manhole, the idle part of the closed header of the previous experimental drainage system-version is shorter than the idle part of the closed header of each subsequent experimental drainage system version. Pipes of closed headers entering the inspection drop hydrometric manhole are equipped with a cantilever water outlet and are laid in one trench in tiers in different parallel vertical planes.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve conditions for mechanisation of field works, to perform reconstruction and repair of each header and its drains, without interfering with other headers, to reduce number of weed seed pilots.
SUBSTANCE: connection of drain pipes 1 and 2 includes a coupling placed onto end sections of pipes, in the form of a flexible toroid-shaped chamber 4 with a filler 5 from an elastic compressible material having a toroid shape, the surface of which is coated with an anti-friction lubricant. The toroid-shaped chamber 4 is made from a non-elastic shell, and end sections of drain pipes are made with longitudinal rounded corrugations 6. The outer perimeter of cross section of the corrugated part of pipes is equal to the perimeter of the cross section of the outer surface of the chamber shell, and length of corrugations on each end section of pipes is equal to the coupling length.
EFFECT: invention achieves required density of connection of drainage pipes and simplified coupling design.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly to consolidate slopes or inclinations to be eroded by ground waters.
SUBSTANCE: method for slope protection against landslide by diverting ground water with the use of drainage mine tunnel, through filters and upward dewatering wells involves excavating mine tunnel beginning from lower point of original ground under water-bearing horizons with tunnel elevation for water gravity flow, wherein mine tunnel extends parallel to direction of water flow from water-bearing horizons; excavating mine tunnel in different directions perpendicular to above flow direction; performing drilling vertical venting wells at tunnel ends beginning from original ground; drilling upward dewatering wells in water-bearing horizons; drilling vertical wells from original ground used as through filters crossing all water-bearing horizons; connecting thereof with cross-headings excavated from mine tunnel; installing valves at through filter ends; providing filtering members at place of intersection between upward dewatering wells and vertical wells with water-bearing horizons; forming water removal channel in mine tunnel and connecting thereof with original ground; drilling hydraulic observing wells beginning from original ground along line of through filters to control water level in water-bearing horizons.
EFFECT: increased reliability; possibility of diverting 85-90% of water contained in water-bearing horizons.
FIELD: land-reclamation, particularly drainage building in flooded irrigated lands.
SUBSTANCE: method involves digging out channel in a single drainage machine pass by plow-type ditcher; dumping dug out fertile ground on channel brows in banks; digging out trench by operative tool of drainage machine; laying drainage pipe and covering thereof with ground; filling channel with fertile ground. Fertile ground layer is loosened before trench digging out along drainage pipe laying axis, wherein width of loosened ground strip is not less than operative tool width. Loosened ground is laid on channel brows. Trench is dug out by chain operative tool of narrow drainage machine performing reverse rotation and extracted ground is placed between trench walls and drainage machine bunker to cover drainage pipe moved into trench by guiding means. Trench is backfilled with ground with the use of two pairs of banks, which provides successive filling trench with ground and loosened fertile ground.
EFFECT: increased efficiency due to prevention of trench wall compaction, reduced power inputs.
FIELD: hydraulic and reclamation building, particularly in permafrost zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating planned embankment on territory to be developed; performing surface water drainage from embankment. Embankment slope provide water flow to water receiving means and drainage of surface water from adjoining areas. Ground water flowing from adjacent areas are drained during and/or after embankment erection and removed from embankment body. Motor roads and in-territory water draining channel systems are used as water receiving and draining means within the boundaries of territory to be developed. Water diversion ditch system is used for water removal from outside the territory to be developed. Water diversion ditch system are formed along embankment perimeter and above slopes reinforced from embankment side. Motor roads are built on embankment top, wherein motor road pavements are located beneath embankment surface. Embankment has slopes directed towards roads. Motor roads have longitudinal and transversal slopes providing surface water flow along roads to water draining channel system, which drains water into water diversion ditch system. Surface water flows into water diversion ditch system from embankment areas located at a distance from motor roads due to inclining above areas towards water diversion ditch system, which directs water to purification system or to natural temporary or permanent water channels. For ground water removal from embankment body drainage layer is placed in embankment so that drainage layer diverts accumulated water to water diversion ditch system, which is also used to remove ground water entering from areas located adjacent territory to be developed.
EFFECT: simplified structure, reduced labor inputs, provision of stable and effective protective system operation.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: irrigation building, particularly for laying collector-and-drainage system in the case of high ground water level (which is below plough-layer).
SUBSTANCE: method involves erecting pits along drain lines having inclined walls, wherein pit wall inclination is less than natural filtering material slope; filling the pits with filtering material along drain-installing machine travel so that filtering material volume is equal to that of blinding material; laying drain lines along pit axes with narrow-trench drain-installing machine after drain-installing machine bin is filled with filtering material up to level above ground water one, wherein drain laying rate exceeds rate of water percolation from watered ground of trench backfill; maintaining constant filtering material level in the bin due to supplying thereof from pit; additionally leveling and compacting upper filtering material surface. Device comprises main machine, active working tool with reverse operating chain rotation, guiding draining pipe chute and bin. Bin has front cutting part, expandable transversal walls and longitudinal walls bending in vertical plane. Receiving windows are formed in longitudinal walls. Splitter located in front of working tool is mounted on working tool frame and may perform vertical displacement. Splitter comprises plough and side wings enclosing working tool from two sides and connected to plough in front wing parts and to hinges in rear parts thereof. The hinges are connected to bin in front of receiving windows having additional wings installed behind receiving windows to allow installation angle change. Device has gate extending at 3°-4° angle to drain line and located in lower bin part.
EFFECT: increased capacity and drain laying quality, as well as following drainage operational efficiency.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building and irrigation and drainage construction, for agricultural land, underground building parts, roads, and slopes reclamation.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises perforated drainage pipe connected to drain web having extensions, filtering diaphragm and thickened parts in joint areas. The thickened parts are provided with through orifices for bolts receiving. Nuts are screwed on the bolts. Drainage pipe has horizontal slot with bent upwards ends in which drain web in installed.
EFFECT: improved draining efficiency and increased speed of excessive water draining from ground.
FIELD: land reclamation, particularly to lay drain collection system in zones having ground water level above drainage laying level.
SUBSTANCE: method involves loosening fertile ground layer along drain laying axis; digging out channel; forming kerbs of excavated fertile ground; developing trench with chain working tool performing reverse rotation without ground lifting to surface; laying drainage pipe; backfilling the trench and the channel. Pulp consisted of crashed ground and water is extracted from lower trench part during drainage laying and the extracted pulp is supplied into channel or to surface of material used for trench backfilling. Device comprises basic machine, active working tool rotated in reverse direction, drainage pipe tray, box-like hopper with front cutting part, namely knife including post and plowshare. Suction dredge is installed inside the plowshare. Suction dredge has suction line communicated with zone between active working tool and knife through windows formed in front plowshare section. Pressure supply pipeline is communicated with distribution pipelines through intermediate pipeline and bypass gate operated by lever mechanism.
EFFECT: increased productivity and quality of drainage laying in water-saturated ground.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to protect building structure built of clay ground against flooding in the case of bedded mineral deposit mining under the structure.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting dewatering wells in maximal ground subsidence zones over breakage heading center; drilling horizontal drainage wells from dewatering wells at depth, which is less than distance to neutral line at ground layer bent, but is greater than structure foundation erection depth. Well lengths are determined from mathematical expression with taking into consideration parameters of layer cutting and ground shifting process characteristics.
EFFECT: increased clay ground dewatering and structure protection against flooding.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises lying the drain system with the converging drains on the control section, making observation gates within the converging drains, observing the parameters of the operation of the drain system, and comparing the parameters with the permissible values. The drains are provided with mouth and source sections of parallel drains. The lengths of the source and mouth sections of the parallel drains are chosen to be no less than the half of maximum distances between the sources and mouths of the converging drains, respectively.
EFFECT: enhanced precision of control.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises making diverging drainage canals in the area to be drained. The mouths of the bed sections are connected with the collector through the underground pipelines. The flow rates are measured and water is sampled in the mouths of the underground pipelines and in the mouths of the canal section beds connected to the collector. The concentrations of contaminants in the samples is measured, and the results are compared with the permissible values.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumptions.
FIELD: mining, particularly to protect objects to be developed and located in shifting basing against flooding with ground and surface water.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming water-receiving excavations made as drains, pits or wells; draining and removing water; predicting ground surface relied after ground deformation before underground work performing; marking out flat shifting basin bottom and zone characterized by maximal relief depression; forming pit in area of maximal relief depression; arranging water drain at shifting basin boundary; forming ground water removing wells. Pit volume, well depth and well pitch are determined from mathematical relations.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.