Film, method for production thereof and use

FIELD: physics, optics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a film (1), designed to protect and decorate articles. The film includes at least one transparent replicating layer (2), having a diffracting relief structure (3) and a reflecting layer. The reflecting layer is formed from at least one layer (4) of pigmented lacquer, which is placed in the immediate vicinity of the diffracting relief structure (3). Refraction indices n1 of at least one lacquer layer (4) and n2 of the replicating layer (2) assume values whose difference is in the range from 0.05 to 0.7. Luminosity L* of at least one lacquer layer (4) is in the range from 0 to 90. Disclosed also is a method of producing said film and use thereof to coat car number plates and other articles to protect from forgery, coupled with an optically variable decorative effect.

EFFECT: improved properties of the film.

21 cl, 6 dwg

 

The invention relates to a film which includes at least one transparent replicating layer having a diffracting relief structure, and a reflective layer, to a method for producing such film to film.

Film of the type mentioned at the beginning, known and used for protection and decoration products, documents, packages and the like. For optimal allocation of optically variable effect produced diffracting relief structure, use of metallic or non-metallic inorganic reflective layers. Such optically variable effect manifests itself in the fact that the observer perceives a different appearance of the film at various angles of view, as in the case of different wetproofing and/or graphics images and/or characters and/or Mat. In addition they recognize holograms, holographic image with the kinematic effects and the like.

In specific application areas known film was not very well suited for use as obtained optically variable effects are too visible, characterized by excessively strong reflection and/or irritate the human eye. This is the case, for example, in the case of interior components of the vehicle, the cat is who are in line of sight of the driver, in the case of license plates of vehicles or in the case of furnishing, packaging, certain valuable papers and the like.

Therefore, in these applications rely on films that include other protection or decorative elements.

Example of use in the field of license plates of vehicles, which, however, basically also applicable in other above-mentioned fields of application, in order to illustrate in more detail next.

License plates of vehicles as a rule, consists of a carrier plate, which usually consists of aluminum or steel sheet. On the carrier plate by way of a mechanical stamping squeeze convex symbols marking. Symbols markings usually consist of alphanumeric characters, which, for example, in Germany indicate the place of registration of the vehicle and form a private room. To ensure easy visibility of symbols marking embossed on the license plate of the vehicle convex parts stamping provide painted finish. For this purpose usually spend the appropriate transfer of ink by means of a blocking film which consists of a carrier film, which is associated with a painted decorative layer, which is separated from it. what about the time of the transfer of ink carrier film lead in mechanical contact with the convex parts of the embossing plate of the vehicle and under the action of pressure, optional under pressure and at elevated temperature, to produce the transfer to them of the decorative layer.

To improve the recognizability of the characters marking the carrier plate in the General case laminated on the entire surface of the reflective film is formed with a color contrasting with the color of the symbols marking. in the case of license plates of vehicles, a regular for Germany, for this purpose, the front side bearing plates laminated white reflective film at that time, as symbols marking zapressovyvajut black decorative film.

Due to the increasing requirements for protection from counterfeit license plates of vehicles reflecting film laminated on the carrier plate license plate of the vehicle or decorative films, already equipped with additional security features, which are not recognized directly by the naked human eye and therefore does not impair the appearance of the license plate of the vehicle and its readability. For this purpose, protective signs form, for example, especially small and administered so that they would be visible only under special angles.

Thus, in the document DE 10241803 A1 describe a blocking film comprising a carrier film and separated from the n the e a decorative layer and intended for stamping license plate of the vehicle on the plot symbols marking. The blocking film individualiziruyut due to the introduction of security features by removing sections of the decorative layer, discoloration mentioned areas or permanent binding of the mentioned areas with the carrier film.

However, such additional security features turned out to be relatively easy to copy, so there is still a need for anti-counterfeit film, intended for application in the form of a coating on the characters of the marking. In particular, optical variable effects, which created one of the films mentioned at the beginning, which include at least one transparent replicating layer having a diffracting relief structure, and a reflective layer, would be of special interest as additional protection due to its high level of protection against forgery and/or impressive decorative effect.

This applies not only to their license plate numbers of vehicles, but also to the aforementioned components of the interior of the vehicle, components, packages, and certain valuable documents, such as in the field associated with the magnetic stripe Bank cards and the like. Therefore, in the General case, there is a need to protect against forgery and/or decorative films, is the quiet data in specific application areas essentially retain a normal appearance, having a coating of them.

Therefore, the aim of the invention is to offer film that has a diffracting relief structure, creating an optically variable effect, with optically variable effect is recognizable or becomes recognizable to the observer only upon closer viewing of the film, and the method of its receipt.

This goal is achieved in the case of a film which contains at least one transparent replicating layer having a diffracting relief structure, and a reflective layer, upon receipt reflecting layer using at least one layer of pigmented lacquer, which is placed directly adjacent to the diffracting relief structure, and the refractive index of n1at least one layer of varnish and a refractive index of n2replicating layer is chosen so that the contribution of the difference between the imaginary parts of the refractive indices n2and n1would be in the range from 0.05 to 0.7, and the lightness L*of at least one varnish layer is in the range from 0 to 90, while the film shows the existence of a latent optically variable effect produced diffracting relief structures.

"Hidden" optically variable effect is understood as optionsobesity effect is recognizable to an observer, considering the film only under certain external conditions. In comparison with the optically variable effects that are recognizable in films including a metal reflective layers, the film corresponding to the invention, showing the presence of only weak or discrete optically variable effect, which is not necessarily visible only when illuminated with an appropriate for use of the light source.

Thus, the observer recognizes not only the color effect, at least one layer of varnish, but also optically variable effect, which creates a diffracting relief structure, which enhances the protection against forgery and/or has a decorative properties, preferably only in the evaluation of the film corresponding to the invention, on the side of the replicating layer that is facing away from the diffracting relief structures under standard lighting and the first distance is not greater than approximately 0.5 m from the film, and/or when covering film using suitable for use source light or point light source, where in this light, the readability is also possible at an even greater distance.

However, at the same time essentially only color effect layer of varnish will be recognizable the La observer in normal lighting conditions and from the second distance, greater than approximately 0.5 m from the film, in particular, from a distance in the range of at least 1 m to 2 m from the film. Optically variable effect created by the diffracting relief structure is no longer recognizable, or essentially no longer recognizable, so that the visual appearance of a product having a coating of film corresponding to the invention, will not deflect or deviate only slightly from what is the case for normal dyed products.

Looking at the standard lighting in this document is understood as, in particular, the emergence of film corresponding to the invention, in a device for comparing the color characteristics of the paint with the standard, such as for example, "byko-spectra version 2", for lighting use standard light D65.

Therefore, the use of a layer of pigmented lacquer instead of metallic or non-metallic inorganic reflecting layer makes it possible to obtain a film, which shows the existence of a latent optically variable effects that are invisible or only slightly noticeable under normal viewing and completely or almost blind and doesn't irritate my eyes.

The refractive index of the material formed from the real part and m is the ima part, this imaginary part is responsible for the absorption of light by the material. In the case of at least one layer of varnish instead of the usual reflective layer imaginary part of the refractive index of the layer of lacquer is also partly determines the diffraction of light when reflected. The effectiveness of the relief diffraction structures in the form of diffraction gratings of the first order in this case are typically in the range from 0.2 to 2%. The real part of the refractive index of the layer of varnish is usually slightly different from the real part of the refractive index replicating layer. In light dragirovaniya when the reflection diffracting relief structure due to the difference of refractive indices, at least one layer of varnish and replicating layer, additionally superimposed light scattered by the layer of lacquer, resulting in the effect of diffraction is weakened. The agreement of the light diffracted at the boundary between the at least one layer of varnish and replicating layer, and light backscattering, at least one layer of varnish makes it possible for latent optically variable effect. In principle, for dyeing, at least one layer of varnish can be used all the colors, but the superposition of the diffracted light and light backscattering is the weaker, the greater will be the degree of absorption of the pad is the future of light by a layer of varnish.

Film corresponding to the invention has the advantage that when viewed the film with a certain distance and/or at a cursory glance, the observer will not notice the presence of anti-counterfeiting or particularly attracted the attention of film, and only the presence of simple colored coating only at a closer viewing of the film with a small distance from the film and/or special illumination of the film or, put more strongly, due to the special lighting film optically variable effects generated by diffracting relief structure, become clearly recognizable, while e this case it is necessary to assume the presence of diffraction effects, which have a tendency to not very high visibility or are characterized by relatively low visibility in comparison with the strong color effect layer of pigmented lacquer.

The lightness L* used coats of varnish determine, in particular, by means of a measuring system of the CIE-LAB Datacolor SF 600, which is based on the spectrophotometer. When the colorimetric determination of colour differences in accordance with the Formula CIELAB L*a*b*, case colors of the surfaces of the value L* represents the axis of the light/dark value and* represents an axle red/green, and the value b* represents the yellow axis/g is loboi. thus, the color space L*a*b* is described as a three-dimensional coordinate system, the axis L* describes the lightness and can take values in the range from 0 to 100.

In this case, the measurement of the lightness L* is carried out in the following conditions:

Geometry measurements:The diffuse/8 in accordance with DIN 5033 and ISO 2496
The diameter of the measuring openings:26 mm
Spectral range:360-700 nm in accordance with DIN 6174
Standard illuminator:D65

In particular, suitable for use as light sources for illumination of the film in accordance with the invention and for visualizing optically variable effects are point light sources in the form of lamps, halogen lamps or headlights of motor vehicles. However, suitable for use as a light source is also optional and direct sunlight.

The preferred configuration of the film corresponding to the invention, are described below.

In this case, the layer of varnish is understood as a designation not then what are layers, derived from colored lacquers, but also colored layers of glue or plastic. To replicate the layer is applied at least one layer of varnish, in particular, when using the application by printing, application filling, application using a doctor knife, spraying, application in the extrusion and the like.

The layer thickness for the layer of lacquer, in particular, is in the range from 1 μm to 50 μm, preferably in the range of from 2 μm to 10 μm.

Upon receipt of replicating layer preferably uses layers of the coating, in particular, including radiation-slivaushiesia coating (such as UV coating or a thermally-slivaushiesia coverage. However, it can also be used thermoplastics or conventional positive or negative photoresists.

The thickness of the layer to replicate the layer, in particular, is in the range from 0.1 μm to 50 μm, preferably in the range from 0.2 μm to 1 μm. However, replicating layer can also be used as the carrier film, intended for the deposition of additional layers, such as at least one layer of varnish, and can be much thicker, for example, while the thickness in the range that goes up to 3 mm.

Depending on the material selected for replicate layer, the relief structure in the replicating layer is injected, cha is in the surrounding area, using the tool properly profiled on its surface, such as a plug or rag, using a lithographic method or laser ablation. Possible option involves UV-replication, in which a shaped transparent tool is introduced into contact with the replicating layer containing a UV coating, and at the same conduct curing UV coatings using a source of UV radiation. Particularly preferred is a thermal replication, in which the heated shaped instrument introduced into contact with the replicating layer containing a thermoplastic material.

As for the film, suitable for use was the choice of pigment, at least one layer of varnish so that the number of pigmentation PN would be in the range from 1.5 to 120 cm3/g, in particular in the range from 5 to 120 cm3/g, while the number of pigmentation PN calculated in accordance with the formula

PN=1x(mp×f)x(mBM+mA) andf=ONd

thus, the following applies:

mP= mass of the pigment in the layer of varnish in the city,

mBM= constant; weight of the binder in the layer of varnish in the city,

mA= constant; weight of solid additives in the layer of varnish in the city,

ON = the amount of oil absorption of the pigment (in accordance with DIN 53199),

d = density of pigment (in accordance with DIN 53193),

x = variable variable corresponding to the number of different pigments in the paint layer.

Thus, on the basis of the recognized suitable for use in the layer of varnish, quickly and in a simple way can be calculated subsequent possible pigmentation different from it.

Profitable choice pigmentation, at least one layer of varnish so that the throughput T of the visible light for at least one layer of varnish would be <75%.

Throughput T, that is, the degree of transmission for at least one layer of varnish, determine, in particular, using a spectrophotometer, for example, related to the type of Hitachi U-2000, when this measurement is performed in the wavelength range from 360 to 700 nm.

Than greater throughput T for the layer of pigmented lacquer, the less pronounced Bud is t optically variable effect, and the less will be the degree of its recognizability.

In addition, the best was getting the throughput T of the visible light for at least one layer of varnish in the range from 1 to 75%, in particular in the range from 1 to 50%, particularly preferably in the range from 1 to 25%.

Particularly advantageous for the observer is the recognition optically variable effect, created a diffracting relief structure, when viewed film on the side of the replicating layer that is facing away from the diffracting relief structures under standard illumination from the first distance is not greater than approximately 0.5 m from the film, and additional coverage of the film by means suitable for use of the light source. The use of a simple point source of light available for each, for example, in the form of a flashlight is suitable for use in a simple and cost-effective monitoring of the authenticity of the film, held even by an unskilled person.

Optically variable effect, concealed created diffracting relief structure manifests itself, in particular, that film when viewed under different angles of view will show different colors and/or different graphics images and/or different alphanumeric symbols is s and/or different levels of opacity and the like. In particular, it is preferable to obtain optically variable elements, which have the form of holograms, holographic images with the kinematic effect, lenses or frosted structures that are created by the diffractive relief structure. Suitable for use also was optically variable elements, created using linear or cross-diffraction gratings.

Diffracting relief structure determine, in particular, parameters such as spatial frequency, azimuth, profile shape, profile height h and the like. Film corresponding to the invention may include two or more different types of diffractive relief structures, which differ according to the settings.

In General suitable for use as a diffracting relief structures are symmetrical or asymmetrical relief structure, in particular, characterized by a sine, square, sawtooth, and similar profile. The relief structure can form a diffraction grating, such as a linear diffraction grating, cross diffraction grating, concentrating diffraction grating, the lens structure comprising concentric concentrically ring structure, and the like.

prostranstvennuyu frequency of the diffraction grating is preferably chosen in the range from 50 to 4000 lines/mm, while the preferred range is from 100 line/mm to approximately 3000 lines/mm

The geometrical profile height h for diffracting relief structures, in particular, has a value in the range from 50 to 5000 nm when viewed replicate layer in cross section, with the preferred values are in the range of from 75 to 2000 nm. The profile height h determined by determining the difference between the highest point and adjacent to its lowest point in the relief structure. The highest point, if I may say so, determines the top peak and the lowest point defines the bottom of the trench, forming a relief structure.

Also possible is the use of a diffracting relief structures, which are characterized by a complex surface profile with locally different heights of the profile. Such surface profiles can also be a stochastic surface profiles, which form a matted structure.

On a microscopic scale, frosted patterns include small elements of relief patterns, which determine the scattering ability and can only be described by statistical characteristics, such as, for example, the arithmetic mean deviation of the profile from the mean line Ra, correlation lengths of the lc and the like, the value of the arithmetical mean deviation of the profile from the mean line Ra is in the range from 20 nm to 5000 nm, with preferred values are in the range from 50 nm to 1000 nm, while the correlation length lc, at least in one direction has a value in the range from 200 nm to 50,000 nm, preferably in the range of from 500 nm to 10000 nm.

Microscopically small elements embossed patterns isotropic Matt structure does not have any preferred azimuthal direction, and for this reason, the scattered light having an intensity greater than a predefined limit, for example, asked the visual recognizability, is uniformly distributed in all azimuthal directions within the solid angle, the pre-scattering ability frosted patterns, and in daylight the element surface species has a color range from white to gray. In case of change of angle of inclination relative to the vertical element surface looks dark. In strongly scattering Matt structures distribute the scattered light in a larger solid angle in comparison with weakly scattering Matt structures. If for relief elements frosted patterns of preferred direction, such as, for example, in the case of asymmetric frosted structures, the scattered light will be characterized by an anisotropic distribution.

As mentioned earlier, in the case of light in strongly scattering layers of lacquer diffraction effects appear relatively weak due to light backscattering, whereas the diffraction effects manifest themselves strongly in the case of strongly absorbing dark colors, because hardly any light is scattered back by a layer of varnish. Thus, in the case of using a layer of light-pigmented lacquer recognition of latent optically variable effects in some circumstances be so much degraded by light backscattering, at least one layer of lacquer towards the observer that the optically variable effect will become visible only under very specific angles or special lighting and/or light intensity. It is therefore suitable for use was proportional to the increase in the contribution to the difference between the imaginary parts of the refractive indices n1and n2by increasing the lightness L*of at least one layer of varnish. This means that in the case of a clear coat, painted in a dark color, the imaginary parts of the refractive indices of the layer of lacquer and replicate layer can be relatively close to each other without compromising recognizability hidden optical the variable effect of the film from a short distance and optional special illumination. On the other hand, in the case of a clear coat, painted in a light colour, from the point of view of the recognizability of the latent optically variable effect of the film from a short distance and optional special best lighting was not so great proximity to each other the imaginary parts of the refractive indices of the layer of lacquer and replicate the layer.

Suitable for use was the hit of the contribution of the difference between the imaginary parts of the refractive indices n1and n2in the range from 0.05 to 0.7 in the case of the lightness L*of at least one layer of varnish in the range from 0 to about 50, which corresponds to a dark hue, and penetrating contribution to the difference between the imaginary parts of the refractive indices n1and n2in the range from 0.3 to 0.7 in the case of the lightness L*of at least one layer of varnish in the range from approximately 50 to 90, which corresponds to light shade.

The relationship between the lightness L* of the layer of lacquer and the contribution of the difference between the imaginary parts of the refractive indices n1and n2which is preferred for film, in the example shown in figure 1.

The film can provide additional levels of protection, allowing to increase its protection against counterfeiting. Thus, suitable for use was included in the film mash the NGO-readable code. The code is preferably used to bring the film information in encoded form, where this information can be evaluated, for example, for monitoring purposes.

Thus, for example, using the algorithm secret coding to encode alphanumeric characters that make up the characters of the marking plate of the vehicle, for example, in relation to place of registration, and to use the result of this encoding as a code. After that, in the course of investigation by the police, for example, to determine whether or not the existing code contains information about the license plate of the vehicle related to the characters of the marking.

How the information can also be encoded and the data to be protected, such as, for example, information about the owner of the vehicle or on the vehicle in the case of a license plate of the vehicle. As a result, data will be outside of open access. Then in the course of investigation by police available information can be decoded and evaluated using a suitable for the use of the equipment.

Machine-readable code may be provided, for example, a diffracting relief structure and may be, for example, in the form of one - or two-dimensional barcode, the microtext itomo similar.

Machine-readable code in an additional or alternative embodiment, can be provided due to the presence of pigment, at least one layer of varnish, obtaining mentioned layer, for example, partly in different ways and/or with special properties. Thus, a separate layer of varnish may contain conductive pigments and/or magnetic pigments and/or fluorescent pigments and/or thermochromic pigments, and the like, which form or type code.

Can easily be used many different layers of lacquer side by side with a transparent replicating layer. Thus, different layers of varnish can be used in any combination with each other. Different layers of varnish can contain a variety of pigments, including materials that have different color, or which have the same color, but distinguishable in other ways. Thus, the lacquer layers having the same color will be visible on specific pigments that can be recognized only in specific conditions, such as, for example, fluorescent pigments, magnetic pigments, electrically conductive pigments, thermochromic pigments, and the like.

The first layer of varnish can only contain colored pigments, and an additional layer of varnish can have the same coloring, but in addition contain, at IU is e, one specific pigment. Two coats of varnish having the same color in each case can contain specific pigments that differ in their properties, such as wavelength excitation, magnetic properties, and the like.

At least one layer of varnish can be used all colored pigments that are commonly used in gravure printing. They usually have a particle diameter in the range from 20 nm to 5 μm.

In the case of using different layers of lacquer, it is possible to obtain the required drawings, for example, in the form of gilotynowy, MICRODIA, symbols, logos, one - and two-dimensional bar codes and the like. These drawings can be seen under standard lighting and/or recognizable under specific conditions, such as UV irradiation, heating and the like.

Suitable for use was the placement of at least two different layers of lacquer on different parts of the diffracting relief structures when viewed perpendicular to the plane of the transparent replicating layer, where data lacquer layers differ in their refractive indices and/or its lightness L* and/or number pigmentation PN and/or transmittance T. the result can be set up areas, in particular areas, such drawings, in which when satelina viewed latent optically variable effects diffracting relief structures will be more noticeable than on the other sites.

Also suitable for use was the presence of at least one additional layer is colored or colorless coating whose refractive index n3no different or differs less than 0.05, the refractive index of n1transparent replicating layer on one portion of a transparent replicating layer, in particular, in one section of a diffracting relief structures, when viewed perpendicular to the plane of the transparent replicating layer. Such a layer of colored or colorless coating results in complete quenching of the optically variable effect diffracting relief structures, since the boundary surface between the replicating layer and a layer of colored or colorless coating of the incident light is not refracted or not refracted substantially.

Therefore, it is possible to obtain films which demonstrate the presence of latent optically variable effect only on sites such as drawings, that is, from plot to plot, despite the widespread presence of the relief structure. Thus, the contour plots similar to the drawings on which there is a latent optically variable effect, may constitute an additional read a protective sign for the film.

Alternatively, for whom stijene the same effect relief structure may be present only in areas of replicating layer.

The film, in particular, has the form of a self-laminated films or tapes for migration, which includes a carrier film and separated from a layer of transfer, including replicating layer and at least one layer of varnish. Laminated film, in particular, includes a transparent carrier film, on which place the replicating layer, at least one layer of varnish and optional adhesive layer. However, in the case of self-replicating layer laminated film may include only replicate layer, at least one layer of varnish and optional adhesive layer. Bearing films are usually obtained with a layer thickness in the range from 4.5 μm to 100 μm, preferably in the range of from 12 μm to 50 μm.

The aim of the invention is to provide a method of producing a film, comprising the following steps:

get a transparent replicating layer, characterized by a refractive index of n1,

obtaining diffracting relief structures on one side of the replicating layer,

obtaining at least one layer of pigmented lacquer, characterized by a refractive index of n2and the lightness L*, replicating layer and directly adjacent to the diffracting relief structure using at least one pigmented it is notizie, in this case, at least one pigmented composition is applied in a fluid state and it does not impair replicate the layer.

Pigmented composition was prepared, in particular, so that it does not affects replicating layer, partially does not dissolve or is not fully dissolved would replicate the layer, so that the relief structure would be kept. Thus, the composition intended for receiving at least one varnish layer, can neither destroy nor to mitigate or worsen the other way diffracting relief structure obtained by replicating layer. The shape of the relief structure satisfactorily preserved.

On the hardened replicate the layer on which you receive diffracting relief structure, receive at least one coat of varnish. No matter whether to achieve solidification of the replicating layer by means of chemical curing in the cooling or the result of simple drying, not necessarily when the air supply and/or heat input, optional while obtaining relief structure.

Preferably transparent replicating layer produced by applying a transparent replicate coating in the form of a thermoplastic coating, a thermally-slivaushiesia coating or chemically-sshi is ashegoda coverage, in particular, UV-slivaushiesia or two-component coating system coating containing a resin and a hardener.

It is preferable that, when the receiving layer of pigmented lacquer composition would receive from a pigmented lacquer of the following composition:

0-50% (mass.)water
1-10% (wt.)organic solvent or mixture of solvents
1-40% (mass.)colored pigment (pigment)
0.1 to 5% (wt.)additives intended to stabilize the dispersion/emulsion pigment
0.5 to 10% (wt.)dispersant additives

0.5 to 10% (wt.)inorganic filler or mixture of fillers
25-90% (mass.)polymer dispersion and/or emulsion of the polymer and/or polymer solution

In particular, pigmented varnish was prepared with the following composition:

25-35% (mass.) water
4-8% (mass.)organic solvent or mixture of solvents
5-10% (wt.)colored pigment (pigment)
0,5-1% (mass.)additives intended to stabilize the dispersion/emulsion pigment
0.5 to 2% (mass.)dispersant additives
0.5 to 3% (wt.)inorganic filler or mixture of fillers
35-60% (mass.)polymer dispersion and/or emulsion of the polymer and/or polymer solution

In this case, the polymer dispersion and/or emulsion of the polymer and/or polymer solution perform the function, in particular, a film-forming agent.

Suitable for use was used as the emulsion polymer emulsion of acrylate polymer, acrylate emulsion copolymer or emulsion anionic acrylate copolymer.

Also suitable for use was used as a polymer dispersion of the polyurethane dispersion or dispersion of the resin complex polyester or dispersion of the copolymer of vinyl acetate-ethylene./p>

As the polymer solution is preferably used water-soluble or dilutable with water macewindow resin, dissolved in water or diluted with water, the resin can be dissolved in water and an organic solvent or can be diluted with water and organic solvent. However, it can also be used and other solutions of film-forming polymers based on water and/or solvent-based.

In particular, suitable for use was the use of emulsions or dispersions, characterized by the level of solids content equal to at least 30% (mass.), and the density of d in the range from 1.01 to 1.1 g/cm3.

When receiving a pigmented varnish suitable for use as a foaming agent was, in particular, emulsion acrylic copolymer characterized by the level of solids content of 38%, a density of 1.05 g/cm3and the glass transition temperature Tgapproximately 15 C.

In an alternative embodiment, suitable for use are all the formers, which thanks to its formula does not worsen replicate layer and have good adhesion to replicate layer, such as, for example, water-based, UV-cured systems, and the like. Also can be used too, and systems-based solvents, that replicates the layer will be obtained from cross-linked plastic.

The ideal is the use of film corresponding to the invention, the coating on the license plates of vehicles upon receipt of the symbols marking, which include alphanumeric characters.

However, suitable for use also was the use of film corresponding to the invention, for coating packaging, plastic parts of the interior of motor vehicles, items of furniture and valuable documents, such as Bank cards, tickets or lottery tickets. In case of Bank cards, such as EuroCheque cards or credit cards that have a magnetic strip, the magnetic strip is preferably produced from film corresponding to the invention.

Fig. 1 to 6 are intended to illustrate the invention by way of example. Thus,

1shows a chart of the preferred relationship between the lightness L* of the layer of lacquer and the contribution of the difference Δn between the refractive indices of replicating layer and the layer of varnish, the latter corresponds to the difference between the imaginary parts of refractive indices;
2shows in cross section the first film;
3shows in cross section the second film in the form of laminated films;
4shows in cross section a third film in the form of a film for transfer;

5shows the cross-section Y-Y' license plate of the vehicle corresponding to figure 6; and
6shows the license plate of the vehicle in the horizontal projection.

Figure 1 shows a diagram of a preferred relationship between the lightness L* of the layer of lacquer and the contribution of the difference between the refractive indices Δn replicate layer and the layer of varnish. In this example, the real part of the refractive index n1the layer of varnish and the real part of the refractive index n2replicating layer is equal, so that the real parts of the refractive indices n1n2it is possible to neglect the contribution of Δn on the chart only gives the difference between the imaginary parts of the refractive indices n1n2. The lightness L* is shown for layers of varnish from (a) to (e), containing different about reshenie pigments.

The letters (a) to (e) in figure 1 represent the layers of varnishes with different colors:

(a) = a layer of black or grey lacquer, characterized by lightness L* in the range of 0-50,

(b) = blue layer of varnish, characterized by lightness L* in the range 10-90,

(c) = a layer of red varnish, characterized by lightness L* in the range of 20-90,

(d) = green layer of varnish, characterized by lightness L* in the range 10-90,

(e) = a layer of yellow varnish, characterized by lightness L* in the range of 50-90.

Value |Δn|, that is, the contribution to the difference between the imaginary parts of the refractive index n1replicating layer and a refractive index of n2a layer of pigmented lacquer, preferably is in the range from 0.05 to 0.7 for a layer of black lacquer (a).

This means that if a layer of black pigmented lacquer latent optically variable effect will still be recognized even when the equality of the difference between the imaginary parts of the refractive indices replicate layer and the layer of varnish just to 0.05. The more light will be the colour of the layer of pigmented lacquer, the greater should be the selected value |Δn| order latent optically variable effect would still be without problems recognizable by the naked eye.

It clearly follows from the shape of curve |Δn|min.from the lightness L* of the layer of varnish having colouring in dia is the azone from the black (a), to blue (b)red (c)green (d) yellow (e) colors.

Thus, curve |Δn|min.from L* increases with increasing lightness L* a layer of varnish. In the case of a layer of yellow lacquer value |Δn| is in the range from 0.4 to 0.7.

This means that the imaginary parts of the refractive indices replicate layer and the yellow layer of varnish should be selected so that they differed at the least, 0.4, allowing latent optically variable effect to be recognizable and not become unrecognizable or only weakly perceived due to the presence of light backscattering layer of yellow varnish in the direction of the observer.

Examples of formulations designed to replicate layers and layers of differently colored varnishes from (a) to (e)below.

Replicating layer is received, for example, of the varnish with the following composition (in g):

17000methyl ethyl ketone
1000diacetone alcohol
1500acrylic polymer based on methyl methacrylate (density d=1.19 g/cm3)
2750cellulose nitrate, uwla the United denatured ethanol, 65% (density d=1.25 g/cm3)
1500MDI-based isophorondiisocyanate

The varnish used to obtain a layer of black lacquer (a) with minimal pigmentation (g):

2500water
2500the organic solvent is isopropyl alcohol
200the main supplements, 25% in water (volatile matter)
400dispersing additives, solid: 40%
200filler of silica, average particle size: 16 nm
100filler of silica, average particle size: 7.5 μm
50pigment based on carbon black, the density of d=1.8 g/cm3, ON=230
2500binder I: acrylate emulsion copolymer, solid: 37,5%

4000Masoumeh II: emulsion acrylate copolymer, solid: 55%

This black lacquer, the following applies:

PN=1x(mP×f)x(mBM+mA)=50g×127.8with am3g3137.5g+160g=1.9with am3g

where

mp=50 g of carbon black

f=ON/d = 230/1,8 g/cm3= 127,8 cm3/g (carbon black)

mBM=(0,375·2500 g of the binder (I) + (0,55·4000 g of the binder (II) = 937,5 binder I + 2200 g of binder II=3137,5 g binder

mA=0,4·400 g of dispersant additives = 160 g solids dispersant additives

The varnish used to obtain a layer of black lacquer (a) at maximum pigmentation (g):

2500water
2500organic rastvorosmesiteljah alcohol
200the main supplements, 25% in water (volatile matter)
400dispersing additives, solid: 4 0%
200filler of silica, average particle size: 16 nm
100filler of silica, average particle size: 7.5 μm
2500pigment based on carbon black, the density of d=1.8 g/cm3, ON=230

2500binder I: acrylate emulsion copolymer, solid: 37,5%
4000binder II: acrylate emulsion copolymer, solid material: 55%

This black lacquer, the following applies:

PN=1x(mP×f)x(mBM+mA)=2500 g×127.8with am3g3137.5g+160g=96.9with am3g

where

mp=2500 g of carbon black

f=ON/d=230/1,8 g/cm3=127,8 cm3/g (carbon black)

mBM=(0,375·2500 g binder 1) + (0,55·4000 g of the binder (II) = 937,5 binder I + 2200 g of binder II = 3137,5 g binder

mA=0,4·400 g of dispersant additives = 160 g solids dispersant additives

The varnish used to obtain the blue layer of varnish (b) (g):

L*=33,58, a*=0,54, b*=-30,23

2500water
2500the organic solvent is isopropyl alcohol
200the main supplements, 25% in water (volatile matter)
400dispersing additives, solid: 40%
200filler of silica, average particle size: 16 nm
100
nab is nitela silicon dioxide, average particle size: 7.5 μm
1200pigment-based phthalocyaninato blue, the density of d=1.5 g/cm3, ON=43
2500binder I: acrylate emulsion copolymer, solid: 37,5%
4000binder II: acrylate emulsion copolymer, solid material: 55%

This blue lacquer, the following applies:

PN=1x(mP×f)x(mBM+mA)=1200g×28.7with am3g3137.5g+160g=10.4with am3g

where

mp=1200 g of the pigment-based phthalocyaninato blue

f=ON/d=43/1,5 g/cm3= 28,7 cm3/g (for pigment-based phthalocyaninato blue)

mBM=(0,375·2500 g of the binder (I) + 0,55 is 4000 g of the binder (II) = 937,5 binder I + 2200 g of binder II = 3137,5 g binder

mA=(0,4·400 g of dispersant additives) = 160 g solids dispersant additives

The varnish used to obtain a layer of red varnish (C) (d):

L*=38,43, a*=44,23, b*=20,44

2500water
2500the organic solvent is isopropyl alcohol
200the main supplements, 25% in water (volatile matter)

400dispersing additives, solid: 40%
200filler of silica, average particle size: 16 nm
100filler of silica, average particle size: 7.5 μm
1200diketopiperazines pigment density d=1.35 g/cm3, ON=49
2500binder I: acrylate emulsion copolymer, solid: 37,5%
4000binder II: acrylate emulsion copolymer, solid material: 55%

This red laquer, the following applies:

PN=1x(mP×f)x(mBM+mA)=1200g×36.3with am3g3137.5g+160g=13.2with am3g

where

mp=1200 g diketopiperazines pigment

f=ON/d=49/1,35 g/cm3= 36,3 cm3/g (for diketopiperazines pigment)

mBM=(0,375·2500 g of the binder (I) + (0,55·4000 g of the binder (II) = 937,5 binder I + 2200 g of binder II = 3137,5 g binder

mA=(0,4·400 g of dispersant additives) = 160 g solids dispersant additives

The varnish used to obtain a layer of dark green varnish (b) (g):

L*=14,52, a*=-49,34, b*=10,91

2500water
2500organic solvent from the propyl alcohol
200the main supplements, 25% in water (volatile matter)
400Dispersing additives, solid: 40%
200filler of silica, average particle size: 16 nm
100filler of silica, average particle size: 7.5 μm
1200pigment-based chlorinated copper phthalocyanine, density d=2,03 g/cm3, ON=30
2500binder I: acrylate emulsion copolymer, solid: 37,5%
4000binder II: acrylate emulsion copolymer, solid material: 55%

This dark-green lacquer, the following applies:

PN=1x(mP×f)x(mBM+mA)=1200g×14.8 m3g3137.5g+160g=5.4with am3g

where

mp=1200 g of the pigment-based chlorinated copper phthalocyanine

f=ON/d=30/2,03 g/cm3= 14,8 cm3/g (for pigment-based chlorinated copper phthalocyanine)

mBM=(0,375·2500 g of the binder (I) + (0,55·4000 g of the binder (II) = 937,5 binder I + 2200 g of binder II = 3137,5 g binder

mA=(0,4·400 g of dispersant additives) = 160 g solids dispersant additives

The varnish used to obtain a layer of yellow varnish (e) (g):

L*=86,35, a*=1.91 a, b*=89,79

2500water
2500the organic solvent is isopropyl alcohol
200the main supplements, 25% in water (volatile matter)
400dispersing additives, solid: 40%
200filler of silica, average particle size: 16 nm
100 filler of silica, average particle size: 7.5 μm
1200monoisobutyrate pigment density d=1,57 g/cm3, ON=56
2500binder I: acrylate emulsion copolymer, solid: 37,5%
4000binder II: acrylate emulsion copolymer, solid material: 55%

To this yellow lacquer, the following applies:

PN=1x(mP×f)x(mBM+mA)=1200g×35.7with am3g3137.5g+160g=13with am3g

where

mp=1200 g monoisobutyrate pigment

f=ON/d=56/1,57 g/cm3=35,7 cm3/g (for monoisobutyrate pigment)

mBM=(0,375·2500 g swiatowego) + (0,55·4000 g of the binder (II) = 937,5 binder I + 2200 g of binder II = 3137,5 g binder

mA=(0,4·400 g of dispersant additives) = 160 g solids dispersant additives

Figure 2 shows the first film 1 in cross-section, which includes a transparent replicating layer 2 having a diffracting relief structure 3, and layer 4 colored lacquer. The lacquer layer 4 is directly adjacent to the side of the replicating layer 2, on which there is a diffracting relief structure 3. Replicate the layer 2 has a thickness of 0.5 μm, while the varnish layer has a layer thickness of 3 μm.

In this case, the replicating layer 2 is thermoplastic, and it is obtained from the coating with the following composition mentioned earlier, (g):

17000methyl ethyl ketone
1000diacetone alcohol
1500acrylic polymer based on methyl methacrylate (density d=1.19 g/cm3)
2750cellulose nitrate, hydrated denatured ethanol, 65% (density d=1.25 g/cm3)
1500MDI-based isophorondiisocyanate

Diffracting relief structures is 3 stamped in replicating layer 2 in the form of linear diffraction gratings, characterized by a sinusoidal profile and the spatial frequency of 1000 lines/mm, using a heated profiled tool.

In this case, the lacquer layer 4 was made of black lacquer with the following composition (in g):

2500water
2500the organic solvent is isopropyl alcohol
200the main supplements, 25% (mass.) in water (volatile matter)
400dispersing additives, solid: 40% (wt.)
200the filler is silicon dioxide (average particle size: 16 nm)
100the filler is silicon dioxide (average particle size: 7,5 nm)
1000pigment based on carbon black, the density of d=1.8 g/cm3the oil absorption ON=230
2500binder I (emulsion acrylate copolymer, solid: 37,5% (mass.))
4000binder II (emulsion acrylate copoly the EPA, solid: 55% (mass.))

This black lacquer, the following applies:

PN=1x(mP×f)x(mBM+mA)=1000g×127.8with am3g3137.5g+160g=38.7with am3g

where

mp=1000 g of carbon black

f=ON/d=230/1,8 g/cm3=127,8 cm3/g (carbon black)

mBM=(0,375·2500 g of the binder (I) + (0,55·4000 g of the binder (II) = 937,5 binder I + 2200 g of binder II = 3137,5 g binder

mA=(0,4·400 g of dispersant additives) = 160 g solids dispersant additives

In the case of viewing the film 1 on the sides of the replicating layer 2 observed latent optically variable effect.

Figure 3 shows in cross section a second film 1' in the form of laminated films. Laminated film includes a self-sustaining transparent chosen to replace the th film 10, containing PET when the film thickness of 19 μm, neighboring replicate layer 2 having a diffracting relief structure 3, and, in addition, the lacquer layer 4. Replicate the layer 2 and layer 4 of varnish was prepared as described for figure 2. The laminated film is applied on a substrate, in this case, not shown, so that the lacquer layer 4 would be associated with the substrate, in particular, by using an adhesive layer. The adhesive layer can be deposited on a substrate and/or layer 4 of varnish. The carrier film 10 narashima associated with replicating layer 2, and it is saved as a protective layer on top of the replicating layer 2 and layer 4 of varnish on the substrate. In the case of viewing the film 1' on the sides of the carrier film 10 observed latent optically variable effect.

Figure 4 shows in cross section a third film 1 in the form of a film for transfer. Film for transfer includes a carrier film 11, which is separated from the layer transfer and containing PET and having a thickness of 19 microns.

Between the layer transfer and separating the carrier film 11 does not necessarily place the separating layer 6, which makes it possible for or promotinal separation of the carrier film 11 and layer transfer. Such separation layer 6 is usually produced from wax, silicone and the like, and often he has a thickness in the range from 1 nm to 1.5 μm, in particular in the range from 4 nm to 12 nm.

In addition, between the separated carrier film 11 and a layer of transfer or separation between layer 6 and layer transfer can be placed a layer of protective lacquer, for example, having a thickness in the range from 0.5 μm to 15 μm, in particular in the range from 1 μm to 3 μm, where the layer of protective lacquer remains on the layer transfer after separation of the carrier film 11 and protects its surface from mechanical and/or chemical effects.

This layer of protective coating can be obtained, for example, of the varnish with the following composition (in g):

2200methyl ethyl ketone
300butanol
1500acrylic polymer based on methyl methacrylate
30absorber of UV radiation
10sitosterolemia
120feldspar, the density of d=2.6 g/m3

Layer transfer film to transfer corresponding to figure 4, therefore, includes the following sequence is an optional layer of protective lacquer that replicate the layer 2, layer 4 of varnish and Gasunie layer 5, placed on the side of the layer 4 of varnish, which is facing away from the carrier film 11. He may be a layer of hot-melt glue or adhesive, cured without heating. The adhesive layer 5, in particular, has a layer thickness in the range from 0.2 to 10 μm, preferably in the range from 1 to 2.5 microns.

Film for transfer corresponding to figure 4, is placed on the substrate so that desiny layer 5 would be converted to the substrate. Then glue adhesive layer 5 activate and bind to the substrate. This can be done over the entire surface or only in some areas, so that in the case of peeling the carrier film layer 11 of the transfer would be glued to the substrate completely or only in some areas. In the case of a transfer to the substrate layer of the transfer film to transfer only in certain parts of the data plots in the layer of transfer that are not immobilized on the substrate via an adhesive layer 5 remains on the carrier film 11 and are removed along with it.

Figure 5 shows in cross-section Y-Y' of the first film corresponding to figure 2, deposited on the substrate 7 in the form of a license plate of the vehicle 100 (see Fig.6). The lacquer layer 4 with glue narashima associated with the substrate 7.

Fig.6 shows the license plate of the vehicle 100 figure 5 in the horizontal about the work. The license plate of the vehicle consists of a carrier plate 101, which provide a white reflective coating, and which usually consists of aluminum or steel sheet. Convex symbols marking 102 stamp on the carrier plate 101 by way of a mechanical stamping. Symbols marking 102 consist of alphanumeric characters 102a, 102b, 102, 102d, which, for example, in Germany indicate the place of registration of the vehicle and form a private room. To ensure easy visibility of symbols marking 102 stamped on the license plate of the vehicle 100 on the convex areas of the forging is applied to the painted floor in the form of a black film, demonstrating the presence of latent optically variable effect, the presence of the indicated by white dotted lines. Moreover, it provides and the presence of a pressed convex boundary 103 license plate of the vehicle 100, which likewise are coated with a black film, demonstrating the presence of latent optically variable effect. For this purpose, conduct appropriate transfer of colored film using film for transfer, which consists of a carrier film and separated from her layer transfer, as described, for example, in figure 4. In the case of a transfer layer of a transfer to separate the parts of the film for transferring injected into mechanical contact with the convex parts of the stamping of the carrier plate 101 license plate of the vehicle 100 and under pressure, optional under pressure and at elevated temperature, to produce the transfer layer of the transfer in the exact position of the convex sections.

However, needless to say, the best are also other previously described applications of the film, for example, on the surfaces of the elements of the situation, valuable documents, interior parts of vehicles and the like.

1. Film (1) for protection and decoration products, containing at least one transparent replicating layer (2)having a diffracting relief structure (3), and a reflective layer, wherein the reflective layer is formed by at least one layer (4) pigmented varnish, which is placed in close proximity to the scattering relief structure (3)with a refractive index of n1at least one layer (4) of varnish and a refractive index of n2replicating layer (2) is chosen so that the contribution of the difference between the imaginary parts of the refractive indices n1and n2would be in the range from 0.05 to 0.7, and the fact that the lightness L*of at least one layer (4) varnish is in the range from 0 to 90, with the film (1, 1', 1") demonstrates the presence of latent optically variable effect produced diffracting relief structures (3).

2. PL the NCA according to claim 1, characterized in that the pigmentation of at least one layer (4) varnish is chosen so that the number of pigmentation PN would be in the range from 1.5 to 120 cm3/g, while the number of pigmentation PN calculated in accordance with the formula
PN=1x(mp×f)x(mBM+mA)andf=ONd
thus, the following applies:
mp= mass of the pigment in the layer of varnish in the city,
mBM= constant; weight of the binder in the layer of varnish in the city,
mA= constant; weight of solid additives in the layer of varnish in the city,
ON = the amount of oil absorption of the pigment (in accordance with standard document DIN 53199),
d = density of pigment (in accordance with standard document DIN 53193),
x = variable variable corresponding to the number of different pigments in the paint layer.

3. The film according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the pigmentation of at least one layer (4) varnish is chosen so that the coefficient p is lowering T visible light, at least one layer (4) varnish would be less than 75%.

4. The film according to claim 3, characterized in that the transmittance T of the visible light for at least one layer (4) varnish is in the range from 1 to 75%, in particular in the range from 1 to 50%.

5. The film according to claim 1, characterized in that for an observer optically variable effect, created a diffracting relief structure (3), will be recognizable when viewed film (1) on the side of the replicating layer (4)facing away from the diffracting relief structures (3), under standard illumination from the first distance is not greater than approximately 0.5 m from the film, in particular, when the light with the right to use the light source.

6. The film according to claim 1, characterized in that the optically variable effect manifests itself in that the film (1) when viewed under different angles of view will show different colors and/or different graphics images and/or different alphanumeric characters and/or different levels of opacity.

7. The film according to claim 1, wherein the diffracting relief structure (3) forms a hologram and/or a holographic image with a kinematic effect and/or lenticular structure and/or matted structure and/or linear or cross-diffraction resh the weave.

8. The film according to claim 1, characterized in that the contribution of the difference between the imaginary parts of the refractive indices n1and n2increases in proportion to the increase of the lightness L*of at least one layer (4) varnish.

9. The film according to claim 8, characterized in that the contribution of the difference between the imaginary parts of the refractive indices n1and n2is in the range from 0.05 to 0.5 in the case of the lightness L*of at least one layer of varnish (4) in the range from 0 to 50, which corresponds to a dark hue, and the fact that the contribution of the difference between the imaginary parts of the refractive indices n1and n2is in the range from 0.3 to 0.5 in the case of the lightness L*of at least one layer of varnish in the range from 50 to 90, which corresponds to light shade.

10. The film according to claim 1, characterized in that the film (1) includes a machine-readable code.

11. The film according to claim 1, characterized in that at least two different layers of lacquer (4) are placed on different parts of the diffracting relief structures (3) when viewed perpendicular to the plane of the transparent replicating layer (2), where the data lacquer layers differ in their imaginary parts of the refractive indices and/or its lightness L* and/or number pigmentation PN.

12. The film according to any one of claims 1 and 4, characterized in that at least two different layers of lacquer (4) are placed on different parts of di is rairua relief structure (3) when viewed perpendicular to the plane of the transparent replicating layer (2), where data lacquer layers differ in their imaginary parts of the refractive indices and/or its lightness L* and/or number pigmentation PN and/or transmission of T.

13. The film according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one additional layer of colored coating whose refractive index n3no different or differs less than 0.05, the refractive index of n1transparent replicating layer (2), is present in at least one area transparent replicating layer (2), in particular, in one section of a diffracting relief structures (3), when viewed perpendicular to the plane of the transparent replicating layer (2).

14. A method of obtaining a film (1) according to any one of claims 1 to 13, containing the following steps:
forming a transparent replicating layer (2), characterized by a refractive index of n1,
forming a diffracting relief structures (3) on one side of the replicating layer (2) and
forming at least one layer (4) pigmented varnish, characterized by a refractive index of n2and the lightness L*, to replicate the layer (2) and in the vicinity of the scattering relief structure (3) using at least one pigmented composition, with at least one pigmented composition is applied vacuum condition, while specified pigmented composition has no effect on the replicating layer (2), not partially dissolves replicate the layer (2), and not fully dissolve it.

15. The method according to 14, wherein the pigment composition has the form of a thermoplastic coating or chemically-cured coatings, in particular, UV-cured coating - or two-component coating systems containing the resin and hardener.

16. The method according to item 15, wherein the pigmented composition was prepared from the following varnish:

0-50% (mass.)water
1-10% (wt.)organic solvent or mixture of solvents
1-40% (mass.)colored pigment (pigment)
0.1 to 5% (wt.)additives intended to stabilize the dispersion/emulsion pigment
0.5 to 10% (wt.)dispersant additives
0.5 to 10% (wt.)inorganic filler or mixture of fillers
25-90% (mass.)dispersion of the polymer and the emulsion polymer and/or polymer solution

17. The method according to item 16, characterized in that the varnish was prepared with the following composition:

25-35% (mass.)water
4-8% (mass.)organic solvent or mixture of solvents
5-10% (wt.)colored pigment (pigment)
0,5-1% (mass.)additives intended to stabilize the dispersion/emulsion pigment
0.5 to 2% (mass.)dispersant additives
0.5 to 3% (wt.)inorganic filler or mixture of fillers
35-60% (mass.)polymer dispersion and/or emulsion of the polymer and/or polymer solution

18. The method according to item 16 or 17, characterized in that the emulsion polymer used emulsion of acrylic polymer or emulsion of acrylate copolymer or emulsion anionic acrylate copolymer.

19. The method according to item 16 or 17, characterized in that the polymer dispersion using a dispersion of a polyurethane or a dispersion of a resin complex of the polyester or copolymer dispersion vinylic the tat-ethylene.

20. The use of film (1) according to any one of claims 1 to 13 for coating the license plates of vehicles upon receipt of the symbols marking, which include alphanumeric characters.

21. The use of film (1) according to any one of claims 1 to 13 for coating articles, such as packaging, plastic interior parts of vehicles, furnishing items, and important documents such as cards with an embedded microchip, tickets or lottery tickets.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to copolyamide, method of its obtaining, to polyamide-containing composition, application of polyamide and hypophosphorous acid or, at least, one of its salts. Copolyamide contains, at least, two links, corresponding to the following general formula: A/10.T. A is selected from the link, obtained from amino acid, link, obtained from lactam, and link, corresponding to the formula (Ca-diamine).(bibasic Cb-cycloaliphatic acid), where a stands for the number of diamine carbon atoms and b stands for the number of carbon atoms of bibasic acid. Each of a and b is in the range from 4 to 36. 10.T stands for the link, obtained as a result of polycondensatuon of 1,10-decandiamine and terephthalic acid. Copolyamide has polydispersion coefficient, measured by the method of gel permeation chromatography, denotes as lp, lower or equal to 3.5. Method of copolyamide obtaining lies in the following: stage of polycondensation of the following comonomers of monomer, resulting in A link, 1,10-decandiamine, and terephthalic acid, and optionally monomer, resulting in Z link, is carried out. polycondensation is carried out in presence of hypophosphorous acid or, at least, one of its salts in the amount in the range from 0.05 to 3.00 wt % with respect to the total weight of monomers. Application of hypophosphorous acid makes it possible to obtain polydispersion coefficient lower or equal to 3.5. Copolyamide is applied in form of powder, granulated products, monolayer structure, or, at least, one layer of multi-layer structure as additive and/or filling agent with improved thermal resistance. Such copolyamide is used in composition, which contains, at least, one additive, selected from filling agents, glass fibre, dyes, stabilisers, in particular UV-stabilisers, plasticisers, shock resistance modifiers surface active substances, pigments, bleaches, antioxidants, natural waxes, polyolefins and their mixtures.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain copolyamide with improved mechanical properties and shock resistance.

17 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to copolyamide, method of its obtaining, copolyamide-containing composition, as well as to application of copolyamide and composition. Copolyamide contains, at least, two different links and corresponds to the following general formula: A/X.T. A is selected from the link, obtained from amino acid, link, obtained from lactam, and link, corresponding to formula (Ca-diamine).(Cb-diacid), Ca stands for the number of carbon atoms in diamine. Cb stands for the number of carbon atoms in diacid. Each of a and b is in the range from 4 to 36, preferably from 9 to 18. X.T stands for the link, obtained by polycondensation of linear aliphatic Cx-diamine and terephthalic acid. X stands for the number of carbon atoms and is in the range from 9 to 36, preferably from 10 to 18. Copolyamide has content of end amino groups larger or equal to 20 milli-equiv/g, content of acid end groups lower or equal to 100 milli-equiv/g, content of non-reactive end groups larger or equal to 20 milli-equiv/g. Method of copolyamide obtaining lies in carrying out polycondensation of the following copolymers: monomers, resulting in links A and X, terephthalic acid and, optionally, monomer, resulting in link Z, and, at least, one chain growth regulator. Composition contains, at least, one said copolyamide and, at least, one additive, selected from group, including filling agents, glass fibre, dyes, stabilisers, in particular UV-stabilisers, plasticisers, modifiers of shock viscosity, surface active substances, pigments, bleaches, antioxidants, natural waxes, polyolefins and their mixtures. Composition and copolyamide are applied in form of powder, granules, monolayer structure or, at least, one layer of multilayer structure. Composition and copolyamide are used as additive and/or filling agent in production of components or parts of electric and electronic equipment, automobile equipment, equipment for transportation and transfer of gas, oil and their compounds.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase mechanical properties of copolyamides.

31 cl, 3 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing porous, film-type materials based on carboxymethyl cellulose and can be used in producing films, artificial soil or in medicine, for example, as a means of preventing formation of post-surgical adhesion or as water-absorbing materials for removing tears in ophthalmology. The method involves dissolving carboxymethyl cellulose in aqueous hydrochloric acid, followed by drying. Drying is carried out at temperature of 40-70°C or at low pressure and initial temperature of (-50)-(-30)°C and heat treatment is carried out on air at temperature of 110-150°C for 30-360 minutes.

EFFECT: method simplifies the process, improves strength and elastic properties of the film-type, porous material based on carboxymethyl cellulose, improves effectiveness of anti-adhesion action, excludes polymers which, upon decomposition, can contaminate plants with toxic products of their decomposition and improves moisture-retention capacity.

1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: film incorporates first and third layers of fluorocarbon polymer moulded from the mix with water or other solvent and powder filler. Second layer is made from polyimide, polycarbonate, titanium, steel or aluminium. Films are used in electronic devices where electronic component and film are packed together.

EFFECT: higher dielectric rigidity, water resistance, opacity and reflection capacity.

30 cl, 8 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to transparent and colourless compositions which absorb infrared radiation. The composition contains binder which contains a radiation-curable composition and not more than 500 ppm, relative the total weight of the composition, of particles of non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide of general formula WO2.2-2.999 with average size of primary particles of not more than 300 nm, dispersed in the binder. Also described are films made from the infrared-radiation absorbing composition.

EFFECT: obtaining transparent and colourless compositions which absorb infrared radiation.

14 cl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aramid polymers and products obtained therefrom. Disclosed is a cross-linked aramid polymer which includes a first aramid backbone chain which is cross-linked at the amide group through poly(meth)acrylic acid with an amide group of a second aramid backbone chain, and in which the aramid backbone chains are not modified by inclusion of monomers to obtain cross-linkable copolymers. Disclosed also is a method of producing the disclosed polymer and article from the disclosed polymer.

EFFECT: disclosed polymer enables to obtain highly oriented fibres with improved physical and mechanical properties.

11 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of translucent power-saving (heat reflection) films with protective coating used for power saving by, for example, gluing them on whatever glazing. Protective coating consists of PEPT film and heat-reflecting spectrum-selective coating applied thereon. Protective coating consists of two layers and comprises adhesive-barrier layer and fluorocarbon polymer layer. Said adhesive-barrier layer comprises polyvinyl butural with UV-absorber (nanosilver). Said fluorocarbon polymer layer comprises copolymer of tri-chlorovinyl with vinyl-butyl ether and monovinyl ether of ethylene glycol, isocyanate hardener, UV-absorber (thynuvin) and polymethyl siloxane. Adhesive-barrier layer is applied on heat-reflecting coating while second fluorocarbon polymer layer is applied thereon.

EFFECT: production of translucent power-saving (heat reflection) films with protective coating used for power saving by, for example, gluing them on whatever glazing.

3 tbl, 13 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of producing multilayer films which absorb oxygen and articles made from said films, having a coating with a well dispersed oxygen absorbent. The oxygen-absorbing composition contains iron powder particles with mean size of 1-25 mcm with a coating of at least one activating and oxidising powdered compound in form of solid organic and inorganic salts of alkali and alkali-earth metals, such as sodium chloride and sodium bisulphite. The particles are dispersed in a polymer resin by extrusion in a double-auger mixer. The composition is mixed with polymer granules in a solid state before melting. Granules of the polymer resin and iron powder with coating are preferably treated with a surfactant in dry state to ensure good dispersion. The extruded molten composition is granulated and kept in dry state to prevent premature activation.

EFFECT: obtained films are used as parts of graphic design in form of a soft container having a graphic image.

8 cl, 1 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: nanotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of preparation of polymeric nanocomposites which can be used in development and creation of new types of polymeric materials and coatings. The method consists in the fact that homogeneous sedimentation stable colloidal solutions are applied on the substrate by casting, and after casting the solvent is removed. The colloidal solution comprises a solvent, a polymer matrix - plasticised water-insoluble polyvinyl chloride, and functionalised carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The functionalised carbon nanotubes are used as purified multi-walled carbon nanotubes with grafted methacrylic groups, modified by the method of covalent functionalisation. The solvent is used as the nonaqueous organic media.

EFFECT: invention enables to extend the range of used polymer matrices, and to adjust purposefully in the quantitative and qualitative levels the complex of operational and technological properties of nanocomposites.

1 tbl, 6 ex

Perfected prepreg // 2491167

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to perfected prepregs and hardened laminates. Proposed prepreg comprises fiber matrix with multiple areas deposited thereat and lifted by, at least, five micrometers above said matrix. Lifted areas are formed by printing with deposition of materials by hardening by means of the process other than thermal treatment.

EFFECT: cured laminate with lower porosity and better mechanical properties.

16 cl, 10 dwg, 3 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: physics; control.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to traffic control devices in order to record or control movement using vehicle identification. The induction system for detecting and identifying vehicles comprises electronic identification means with electronic memory a reader for reading and/or recording information from the electronic identification means in the HF frequency range, mounted on the vehicles. The electronic vehicle identification means are in form of a resonator embedded in the vehicle registration number plate. The resonator has a multi-loop frame and a microchip connected thereto, said microchip being powered by electric current induced in the resonator by an external alternating magnetic field and having non-volatile memory. The reader is equipped with a magnetic frame mounted in a dielectric housing under the road surface at a depth of 1 m, which enables to form an alternating magnetic field around it, which makes up the coverage area of the magnetic frame.

EFFECT: simplifying the system to a single-range system, avoiding the need to build structures above or on the side of the road surface for mounting antennae, and providing reliable and safe operation of the system.

53 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry and may be used for identification of transport facilities. Proposed registration number is furnished with protective translucent shield to make, along with indicator panel and opaque sidewall, a tight chamber. Wiper is arranged at translucent shield outer side. Light source is tightly fitted inside said tight chamber, behind the ledge at side opaque side wall. Said opaque sidewall is equipped deflector arranged on wall outer side. Tight chamber with indicator panel are recessed into case to make integral streamlined body of the vehicle.

EFFECT: always-clean indicator panel to allow identify the vehicle by video cameras.

4 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry. Proposed method consists in automobile VIN identification number is stamped on body front and rear in car production to replace state registration number so that eliminates the possibility of re-stamping state numbers.

EFFECT: better protection.

1 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: set of invention relates to vehicle marking and registration means. License plate may be made from various materials, fro example, aluminium or polymer material. Light-reflecting coat, alphanumeric or other symbols and protection elements are applied on front and/or rear surface of base plate. Alphanumeric symbols designate regional and/or state affiliation and are located at different section of base plate. Protection elements represent homogeneous substances representing material able to act as optical marker or RF-mark (set of RF-marks active or passive in frequency band of 867-920 MHz or 2.40-2.45 GHz). In one version, photoluminescent phosphor is used to act as optical marker distributed uniformly or on separate sections of colour layer on alphanumeric or other symbol surface, applied by film for thermal transfer print.

EFFECT: better protection, immediate identification of counterfeit.

12 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to technique for manufacturing distinguishing signs for vehicles. The suggested numberplate for vehicle has retroreflecting surface provided with authentication marks which are recognisable from the set direction. Herewith, authentication marks is recognisable from outside of vehicle travelling zone within recognisable zone which has range of horizontal angle of 25° to 75° and range of vertical angle of 5° to 55°. Retroreflecting sheet material is preliminarily provided with authentication marks so that this authentication marks are recognisable from outside of travelling zone of a vehicle equipped with numberplate when retroreflecting sheet material is attached to vehicle numberplate.

EFFECT: group of inventions provides safety of observer and increased efficiency of recognition by surveillance camera.

13 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to vehicle identification. Proposed method comprises remote acquisition of data on vehicle license plate number and vehicle driver via interaction between outer electronic device with vehicle electronic device that stores said data. Video camera and/or mike is used to enter video and/or audio data into vehicle electronic device memory and to transmit said data to external electronic hardware. Automatic data exchange is realised between electronic device of one vehicle with those of the other vehicles. Data received from the other vehicles is stored in memory of vehicle electronic device or automatically transmitted to traffic safety control system. Vehicle electronic device receives data available for driver and/or passenger of this vehicle from external electronic hardware. Vehicle electronic device or that interacting therewith operates to call emergency in emergent situations. Data on vehicle stored in its electronic device is translated into foreign languages. If required, vehicle info including license plate number is displayed on traffic control station monitor for traffic control purposes. Note here that vehicle data variations, if any, are accompanied with sound signals.

EFFECT: safe control over transport facility and higher traffic safety.

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: set of invention relates to attachments of automotive license plates. Fastener to be secured to base sheet comprises first part with recessed surface for license plate to be secured therein, and second part with peripheral wall with such sizes and shape that allow limiting said first part and continuous face wall either adjoining peripheral wall or attached thereto. Note here that said both parts can be jointed together so that said face wall embraces at least a part of peripheral section of recessed surface of said first part.

EFFECT: better preservation of license plates.

47 cl, 29 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: bike computer (3) incorporates at least two data input devices (4, 5) to input data on at least two wheel sizes. Every of at least two bikes with different wheel sizes has receptacle (8, 9) for bike computer (3) to be fixed therein. Every receptacle (8, 9) comprises device (6, 7) to transmit data on wheel size. Aforesaid device communicates solely with data input device (4, 5) that operates with the data on adequate wheel size.

EFFECT: simple, reliable and practically automatic tuning of bike computer to correct wheel size.

14 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to vehicle registration numbers. There is a central wireless communication module, placed inside an automobile and connected to a power supply. Wireless electronic registration number plates are at the front and back of the automobile and comprise a built-in secondary wireless communication module. The system works on the wireless micro-network principle, in which data are transmitted from a computer or some other mobile device for input of data through the central wireless communication module to the secondary wireless communication modules, embedded in the registration number plates. The latter have their own power supply from solar cells. Registration data are displayed using an active display, embedded in the frame of the solar cells. The active display consists of two flexible parts. The plate of the front panel is an electronic paper, which consists of a layer of electronic ink and a plastic film on the surface, containing transparent conducting electrodes. The plate on the rear panel comprises an electronic system and a control module, providing for control of displayed information. In the electronic system, there is wireless communication module (on Bluetooth technology), meant for wireless communication and data transfer.

EFFECT: proposed system provides for obtaining electronic registration number plates of high quality.

14 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: printing industry; processes.

SUBSTANCE: printing film contains film-carrier and transfer layer, which can be separated from film-carrier and may be fixed to car number plate basis. Starting from film-carrier, transfer layer includes transparent stripping layer, non-transparent decorative layer, transparent protective layer, optically changeable layer, reflecting layer, colourful layer and adhesive layer. Decorative layer is ensured with zonal breaks, which are mutually distributed. Transparent protective layer in zonal breaks is adjacent to stripping layer. Adhesive layer is ensured for transfer layer fixing to car number plate.

EFFECT: improvement of tamper-proof number plates and simplification of their production.

31 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: textiles, paper.

SUBSTANCE: laminated article on paper or polymer substrate with optically variable structure comprises a coating in the form of printing raster and a three-dimensional raster. The coating is formed on one side of the substrate, and the three-dimensional raster is applied to the other side of the substrate. The field of printing or the three-dimensional raster is divided into two or more sectors which are displaced relative to each other. Each sector has a different colour so that when changing the view angle the colour of the sectors on the image changes. The three-dimensional raster is made in the form of elements with a symmetrical and/or asymmetrical profile to form a relief on both sides of the substrate and is positioned relative to the printing raster so that the three-dimensional raster is at least partially located above the printing raster. The width of the printing raster lines is from 50 to 200 microns, the width of the three-dimensional raster lines is 100 to 600 microns, the angle between the elements of the printing and the three-dimensional rasters is from 0° to 10°, at that they form a moire image, which when observing the data medium under the right angle is concealed, and when observing the data medium at an acute angle becomes visible.

EFFECT: improving security of articles, increased manufacturability and reducing the cost of the security element due to reduction of runs in the printing machine.

15 cl, 18 dwg, 4 ex

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