Method to wash over earth works

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to wash over earth works in the form of narrow-profiled dams consists in supply of pulp from the end of the main pulp line and dispersed release of pulp taken from the lower part of the main pulp line, from distributing pulp lines. The narrow-profiled dam is washed over with the help of a distributing device, making it possible to fractionate and wash over side prisms from sorted fractions, and the nucleus of the dam may be washed over from the remaining mass of the solid phase of the pulp. The distributing device is the end section of the main pulp line, to which via a socket rigidly fixed in its lower part there are two distributing pulp lines connected, being arranged in parallel to the main pulp line, with varied distance between them. In front of the inlet hole into the socket there is a guide element fixed rigidly with crescent shape, inclined at the angle of 25…30° towards the protective grate. The guide element is made of sheet wear-resistant steel with thickness of 8…10 mm, height of 50…70 mm, length equal to width of the inlet hole of the socket. The distributing device has four vertical stands with height of 1500…2000 mm and support elements rigidly fixed to them in the form of bent bars with size of 150 mm with horizontal sections with length of 800…1200 mm. From horizontal sections of bars in the front part along the travel of the distributing device there are diverting inclined section with an angle of inclination to the longitudinal axis 45…55°, fixed on distributing pulp lines, which provides for self-tipping out of the distributing device during movement from the washed over section.

EFFECT: lower clogging of a protective grate of a socket and higher mobility of a distributing device during relocation.

6 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of amelioration and water construction.

Known two-way method of reclamation facilities, including restrictocin the flow of slurry along both sides of the dam primary and subsequent (layer) rises with the education of the pond tank in the middle part of the construction (Malamut DL the Dredging in land reclamation and water management construction. - M.: Stroiizdat. - 1981. - S.43-44; 303 S.).

Also there is a method of reclamation narrow dams, consisting of dispersed feeding the pulp of the main pipeline on a narrow area, contentnow with two sides obalovanie (Malamut DL the Dredging in land reclamation and water management construction. - M.: Stroiizdat. - 1981. - S-209; 303 S.).

The closest way is the way of reclamation of soil in construction including simultaneous delivery of slurry concentrated release it from the end of the main pipeline and dispersed production of pulp perpendicular to the main pipeline, with the supply of pulp for the dam embankment, situated on the side of a slope facilities for reclamation of the prism of soil, preventing from entering the main flow of the pulp on the upstream surface of the dam embankment (A.S. No. 1344851, 15.10.87, bull. No. 38).

However, the application of the above methods do not depict assetsa possible for reclamation narrow dams with impervious core and stable side slopes, as the material which is used sediment.

The purpose of the invention is the narrow construction of dams upstream way to protect areas from flooding with possible use as a building material sediment and sediment extracted from the bed part of the water suction shells during dredging operations, increase channel capacity.

The invention consists in that way reclamation earthworks in the form of narrow dams, including the submission of the end of the main pipeline and dispersed production of pulp taken from the bottom of the main pipeline, distribution pipeline, with alluvium narrow dam carried out using a distribution device that allows fractionation and pan side of the prism from the sorted fractions, and the core of the dam pan from the remaining mass of the solid phase of the pulp, and the distribution unit is an end section of the main pipeline to which the socket is rigidly fixed in its lower part, connected to two distribution pipeline running parallel the main slurry pipeline, with a variable distance between them, while in front of the entrance hole of the socket is rigidly fixed to the guide element, Crescent-shaped, inclined at an angle of 25...30° to the side protective grille made of wear-resistant steel sheet thickness 8...10 mm, height 50...70 mm, a length equal to the width of the inlet socket, the distribution unit has four vertical posts of a height of 1500...2000 mm and rigidly fixed thereto the supporting elements in the form curved channels with a size of 150 mm with horizontal sections of a length of 800...1200 mm, which in the front part while moving the switchgear have ramps with a slope angle to the longitudinal axis 45...55°, mounted on a distribution pipeline, providing samouillan switchgear when moving from reclaimed land.

Method of reclamation earthworks illustrated by drawings.

Figure 1 - the General plan diagram.

Figure 2 - General view of the distribution device.

Figure 3 - cross section a-a, the transverse profile of a constructed dam.

4 is a cross-section G-G, the design elements of the switchgear, providing fractionation of soil.

5 is a cross-section b-B, the design guide element distribution device.

6 - section b-b, the design elements of the switchgear.

Name of the positions on the figures:

1 - suction equipment; 2 map of reclamation; 3rd dam primary dikes; 4 - the body of the dam; 5 - core dam; 6 - side prism; 7 - main pipeline; 8 - socket; 9 - distribution pipeline; 10 - outlet distribution pipeline; 11 - quencher; 12 - protective grille; 13 - guide element; 14 - supporting elements; 15 - gate.

The method is as follows: suction shells 1 (figure 1) are developed bottom sediments, which according to the system of slurry pipelines in the form of pulp served on a map of reclamation 2, contoured dams primary dikes 3, where the alluvium of the body of the dam 4, formed from the middle part, which is the impervious core of the dam 5, consisting of fine fractions and individual inclusions, called chaff, and simultaneous alluvium side prisms 6, consisting of large sorted fractions. Alluvium narrow dam with such a combined profile is achieved by a distribution device (2), which is a division of the solid phase of the pulp into fractions with a diameter of less than 0.75 of the diameter of the outlet 10 of the distribution pipeline 9, the fraction with a diameter of more than 0.75 of the diameter of the outlet 10 of the distribution of slurry pipelines 9 and suspended particles.

Alluvium facilities produce both primary and two distribution of coal slurry pipelines are located in the two sides of the ground and parallel to it.

This alluvial plots the distribution of slurry pipelines 9, i.e. the areas of coal slurry pipelines having outlet openings 10 for dispersed reclamation, are arranged in such a way that the cone alluvial soil formed by the silting of the end of the main pipeline 7, is formed by compression it with two lateral sides of the prisms 6, alluvial from the distribution of slurry pipelines 9. The flow of the pulp, leaving the end of the main pipeline 7, when passing through the damper 11, scatters, which reduces soil removal beyond the area of reclamation lateral prisms 6.

Inlet socket protected internal grill made in the form of longitudinal rods of smooth reinforcing steel with a diameter of 10-16 mm, fixed only on the discharge side, the distance between which is 0.75 dinin order to less clogging grille 12 of the bell plant and stony inclusions, as well as more efficient transfer of small particles through the inlet into the socket, front grille of the fixed guide element 13, Crescent-shaped, located at an angle of 25...30° to the side protective grille made of wear-resistant steel sheet thickness 8...10 mm, and a height of 50-70 mm, and a width equal to the width of the inlet socket.

To control the process of reclamation R is Opredelitel device is equipped with a system of valves 15. The thickness of alluvial soil layer is limited by the height of the support elements 14, which are the four vertical posts of a height of 1500...2000 mm and rigidly fixed thereto a support in the form curved channels with a size of 150 mm with horizontal sections of a length of 800...1200 mm in front of, in the course of movement have ramps with a slope angle to the longitudinal axis 45...55°, mounted on a distribution pipeline 9, providing samouillan switchgear when moving from reclaimed land.

All dimensions and parameters of the elements of the switchgear obtained experimentally with respect to the inner diameter of the main pipeline, equal to 300 mm, and the inner diameter distribution of slurry pipelines, equal to 150 mm

The proposed method can improve the performance of dredges with switchgear when cleaning of water bodies from sediment with simultaneous reclamation of these dams are due to less clogging guard grille bell and the increased mobility of the switchgear when perebazirovka.

Method of reclamation earthworks in the form of narrow dams, including the submission of the end of the main pipeline and dispersed production of pulp, select the second from the bottom of the main pipeline, from the distribution of slurry pipelines, characterized in that narrow alluvium of the dam is carried out at a junction device, allowing fractionation and pan side of the prism from the sorted fractions, and the core of the dam pan from the remaining mass of the solid phase of the pulp, and the distribution unit is an end section of the main pipeline to which the socket is rigidly fixed in its lower part, connected to two distribution pipeline running parallel to the main pipeline, with a variable distance between them, while in front of the entrance hole in the socket is rigidly fixed to the guide element, Crescent-shaped, inclined at an angle of 25...30° in the direction protective grille made of wear-resistant steel sheet thickness 8...10 mm, height 50...70 mm, a length equal to the width of the inlet socket, the distribution unit has four vertical posts of a height of 1500...2000 mm and rigidly fixed thereto the supporting elements in the form curved channels with a size of 150 mm with horizontal sections of a length of 800...1200 mm, which in the front part while moving the switchgear have ramps with a slope angle to the longitudinal axis 45...55°, mounted on a distribution pipeline, especiauy samouillan switchgear when moving from reclaimed plot.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and operation of earth structures under complicated natural and climatic and engineering and geological conditions and may be used in construction and reconstruction of linear structures in sections of weatherable rock soils, also permafrost ones (railway and motor roads, manifold pipelines, dams and weirs). The structure for reinforcement of slopes of earth structures in weatherable rock soils, comprises a upland ditch, made in the upper part of the slope of the groove of the railway track along the earth structure above the border of the active layer reinforced with coarse clastic soil. At the slope there are at least two alternating ledges and two rollers, at the same time the upper roller is made between the upland groove and the upper ledge, and each subsequent roller - between the adjacent ledges. Rollers are made of fine-dispersed soil coated with a gravel-crushed stone soil. The area of the cross section of ledges is comparable with the area of the cross section of rollers, the volume of finely-dispersed and crushed stone soils has the ratio of 1 to 4-6.

EFFECT: increased service life of an earth structure up to the normative life and more than that due to colmation of pores and cavities of soils in slopes of the base, lying below the depth of a layer of seasonal freezing, formation of a permanent live section of soil flow in profile and considerable reduction of water migration from soils below depth of seasonal freezing into soils of an active layer.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method of railway track reconstruction includes cutting of ledges on a slope of an earth bed, laying of gabions on them. The lower ledge is made with width equal to the width of some gabions, the width of subsequent ledges is equal to 1/3 of the width of the lower ledge, the height of all ledges, including the lower ledge, is equal to the height of a row of gabions. The produced gabion wall comprises N+1 rows of gabions. Besides, N rows of gabions are placed to the level of the main platform of the earth bed, and the upper N-first row of gabions simultaneously rests against the previous row of gabions and the main platform of the earth bed and supports the ballast prism.

EFFECT: reinforcement of a railway track earth bed, reduced material intensity and labour intensiveness.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to erect narrow-section dams is carried out by pulp supply into an inwashed structure simultaneously from the main and two distributing pulp lines. Distributing pulp lines are arranged in parallel at two sides of the main pulp line for inwash of side prisms from coarse fractions of the inwashed soil and the middle part, being the core of the dam, from fine fractions washed from the end of the main pulp line. Outlet holes in distributing pulp lines are made in their lower part and displaced by 20…30° from the vertical axis towards the main pulp line, being distant from each other at the distance of ℓ=dmain, where dmain - diameter of the main pulp line, and the diameter dv=1/3dd, where dd - diameter of the distributing pulp line providing for inwash of soil along the length of side prisms. Pulp supply from the end of the main pulp line for inwash of the dam core is carried out via a damper made in the form of longitudinal steel rods with the diameter of 10…14 mm from smooth reinforcement steel, rigidly fixed by one side along the upper outer surface in the end part of the main pulp line with arrangement of the rods in parallel to the axis of the flow, with the distance between the rods equal to 1…2 of the rod diameter and made with a protrusion by the value of 1.5…2dmain, and the bend of the end section until complete closure of the vertical projection of the end of the main pulp line. The connection of the distributing pulp lines with the main one is made in the form of a socket coupled with the main pulp line, along the line produced from crossing of two cylinders of identical diameter, equal to dmain, and with the distributing pulp lines - in the form of an oval having the size along the large axis equal to dmain, along the small one - dd. The inlet hole of the socket is protected with an inner lattice made in the form of longitudinal rods from smooth reinforcement steel with the diameter of 10…14 mm, rigidly fixed only at the discharge side with arrangement of the rods from each other at the distance of 0.75dv.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to erect protective dams with simultaneous clearing of river beds from bottom sediments and to prevent flooding of adjacent territories, which improves environmental condition in general.

4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: ground structure on a weak base comprises an embankment, trenches made at its both sides and a reinforcing system in the form of a horseshoe-shaped retaining shell with a vault and supports. The retaining shell is arranged in transverse and longitudinal direction of the ground structure from webs of a synthetic non-woven material (SNM) laid into the embankment and trenches. Webs of the SNM in trenches are filled with soil, forming supports of the horseshoe-shaped retaining shell. The retaining shell is made in the form of a closed shell, its vault is installed in the embankment body and is filled with soil. The volume weight of soil in the horseshoe-shaped retaining shell exceeds the volume weight of embankment soils.

EFFECT: provision of a reliable and durable earth structure on a weak base in process of permanent operation without drying of weak soils in area of any length.

1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: embankment includes an embankment body in the form of filled soil and a cooling system installed in the embankment in the form of a panel with channels arranged inside. The panel with channels may be arranged in the form of a net. Holes of channels arranged at the edges of the panel are connected with a transverse air intake tube. The cooling system is arranged as follows: in the form of a row of bays made of spirally wound panels or nets with channels and installed across the axis of the road route. The cooling system may be arranged as combined of at least two layers, in which the lower one comprises bays, and the upper one - from panels with channels or tubes. Inside bays there are central tubes installed.

EFFECT: possibility to use in erection of transport structures on frozen soils, both in summer and winter periods of the year.

6 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: embankment includes soil filled layerwise in horizontal layers with compaction with at least one laid flexible reinforcing element, which in the cross section of the embankment crosses the separation border between the stable central part of the non-reinforced embankment and its unstable near-slope part, and perceives stretching forces at the side of the soil. Within the stable central part of the embankment the reinforcing element is laid to form a horizontal section, and within the unstable near-slope part the reinforcing element is laid to form a sloping section. Transition of the reinforcing element from the horizontal section to its inclined section is made as the reinforcing element crosses the separation border and with formation of the curvilinear section of the reinforcing element, and the inclined reinforcing section creates with the horizon an angle β, which meets the requirement α/2≥β>3°, where α - sharp angle between the embankment slope and the horizon in the range of the height of the inclined section of the reinforcing element.

EFFECT: invention provides for retention of an unstable near-slope part of an embankment from collapse with flexible reinforcing elements without its initial displacement and without reduction of reinforced embankment stability along its deep sliding surfaces.

7 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be preferably used to erect high (more than 3 m) road embankments on collapsing soils as frozen soils thaw, in earthquake zones where high-temperature (-0.5…-1.5°C) unstable permafrost propagates of interrupted and island nature, under conditions of existing global warming, with optimal use of natural (ecological) mechanisms of permafrost formation and reinforcement. The earthwork contains an embankment and peripheral rock layers joined to each other with an underlying layer of rocky ground contacting with air in slope areas that are water impermeable at the bottom. On the surface of the soil base there is a layer of water-saturated, water-retaining material. In the peripheral rock layers there are air holes arranged that contact with the lower part of a connecting rock layer made in the bottom part from larger rock pieces or trapezoidal gabions (in the form of truncated pyramid) on a partial geotextile layer, submerged into the layer of the water-saturated, water-retaining material. The device is realised by the method of earthwork erection on permafrost soils with base reinforcement in the areas of permafrost propagation.

EFFECT: higher resistance and strength of the earthwork base on permafrost.

8 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: earthwork structure on weak base comprises earthfills, shells intended for drainage of earthfill base and arranged on high side and lower side of earthfill, every of which is erected from draining soil, besides each shell in zone of weak soils in longitudinal direction is arranged as convex with transverse alternating section of trapezoidal shape. Shells are arranged with various weights, besides shell with smaller weight is arranged on high side of earthfill and with larger weight - on lower side of earthfill. In each shell a transverse trapezoidal section with maximum area is arranged in area of maximum setting, and trapezoidal section with minimum area - in zone of stable soils, and larger base of cross section is arranged on solids of near-foot zone of earthfill.

EFFECT: increased service life and bearing capacity of earthfill, provision of continuous moisture drain from zone with weak soils in longitudinal and transverse direction.

4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: earthfill for arrangement of technological road on weak foundation comprises layer of loose material, synthetic webs, enveloping slopes, retaining case with reinforcing layer, bandage tapes made of synthetic material with width of 0.1-1.0 m, which are arranged perpendicularly to earthfill axis and envelope retaining case and synthetic webs, which envelope slopes in a horseshoe manner, besides synthetic web used to envelope slopes in a horseshoe manner is represented by web of "Geofabric" type, loose material used is represented by earthfill of mineral cohesive soils, and reinforcing layer represents solid web arranged along width of earthfill foundation made of synthetic nets with width of 0.1-1.0 m with conventional module of deformation of at least 4·102kN/m, which are laid and joined as a carpet.

EFFECT: stable earthfill of technological road arranged on weak swampy foundation in process of construction mechanisms operation under conditions of limited working area.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: building.

SUBSTANCE: in an embankment on the frozen ground including a trench, a convex layer of a frost protection material in a solid enclosure, ice-rich soil and a drainage soil layer, according to the invention, an embankment base and ramps are made of discrete impenetrable solid elements. In the base, they are layered all the way down the trench, and in the ramps - full-height embankment. The gaps between said discrete solid elements are filled with a frost-free material. In the layered discrete impenetrable solid elements of the base, there are air gaps, while the ramps are covered with antifiltration sheets. The air gaps can be discrete and located in mutually perpendicular directions, or in the form of pits staggered in the base. The discrete solid elements are appropriate to be filled with ice-rich soil produced of, e.g. trenching.

EFFECT: higher stability of the embankment ensured by higher degree of frost-bound soil condition, and reinforcement of separate areas of an embankment body, prevention of continuous water saturation, ground filtration and liquefaction in ice thawing.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method includes arrangement of intermediate seams of an antifiltration diaphragm on a ridge of filled layers of a soil dam along previously planned slopes in low soil dams with height of less than 30 m. The anti-filtration diaphragm is a bentonite mat (clay mat), with the help of which they arrange a zigzag anti-filtration diaphragm. Zigzaggedness of the diaphragm is provided by conditions for performance of works to fill support prisms in layers with thickness of at least 3 m with organisation of intermediate horizontal seams overlapping in parallel to the slope, and water impermeability of these layers is provided by a design of a jointing unit, pressure of soil of support prisms and hydrostatic water pressure. Additionally for convenience of assembly of a jointing unit of bentonite mats (clay mats) they may use 10 mm brackets.

EFFECT: usage of the invention will make it possible to reduce material and financial costs in erection of an anti-filtration diaphragm.

2 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining, namely, to methods for performance of mining works. The method includes preparation of a hydraulic dump or tailing dump, filling of banking dams and laying of pulp lines, arrangement of dam wells and removal of purified waters. At the same time at side banking dams they arrange sites, where they install tower excavators or scraper hoists, by means of which they move a part of rocks deposited in the upper part of the hydraulic dump in the direction perpendicular to the axis of inwash of the hydraulic dump or tailing dump in the direction of side banking dams.

EFFECT: separation of rocks laid into a dump into several types, provision of safety of useful properties of stored rocks, reduced time for preparation of a dump during its further mining as an anthropogenic field.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: sludge pond includes surrounding dam, warming drainage surcharge at downstream slope of the dam, and drain with drainage outlet under the surcharge. Pulp pipeline of transport system feeding slurry to the pond is positioned directly above the drain and drainage outlet. Slurry temperature is above zero as the temperature of industrial pulp waste.

EFFECT: enhanced performance and possible operation of sludge pond at temperatures below zero.

4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to erect narrow-section dams is carried out by pulp supply into an inwashed structure simultaneously from the main and two distributing pulp lines. Distributing pulp lines are arranged in parallel at two sides of the main pulp line for inwash of side prisms from coarse fractions of the inwashed soil and the middle part, being the core of the dam, from fine fractions washed from the end of the main pulp line. Outlet holes in distributing pulp lines are made in their lower part and displaced by 20…30° from the vertical axis towards the main pulp line, being distant from each other at the distance of ℓ=dmain, where dmain - diameter of the main pulp line, and the diameter dv=1/3dd, where dd - diameter of the distributing pulp line providing for inwash of soil along the length of side prisms. Pulp supply from the end of the main pulp line for inwash of the dam core is carried out via a damper made in the form of longitudinal steel rods with the diameter of 10…14 mm from smooth reinforcement steel, rigidly fixed by one side along the upper outer surface in the end part of the main pulp line with arrangement of the rods in parallel to the axis of the flow, with the distance between the rods equal to 1…2 of the rod diameter and made with a protrusion by the value of 1.5…2dmain, and the bend of the end section until complete closure of the vertical projection of the end of the main pulp line. The connection of the distributing pulp lines with the main one is made in the form of a socket coupled with the main pulp line, along the line produced from crossing of two cylinders of identical diameter, equal to dmain, and with the distributing pulp lines - in the form of an oval having the size along the large axis equal to dmain, along the small one - dd. The inlet hole of the socket is protected with an inner lattice made in the form of longitudinal rods from smooth reinforcement steel with the diameter of 10…14 mm, rigidly fixed only at the discharge side with arrangement of the rods from each other at the distance of 0.75dv.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to erect protective dams with simultaneous clearing of river beds from bottom sediments and to prevent flooding of adjacent territories, which improves environmental condition in general.

4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to erect an embank hydraulic fill dam consists in filling and tiered buildup of an embank dam 1, installation of a manifold and a distributing pulp line 2, tiered concentrated washing of tails to a beach 3 with the help of two process drains 4 and 5 of the pulp line 2. Tails are washed, being separated by their grain-size composition. To wash a section of fine fraction, they open the upper drain 4 of the pulp line 2, and to wash coarse fraction, they open the lower drain 5.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to simplify the process of dam washing and to monitor distribution of grain-size composition of tails on a beach to produce a structure with specified strength parameters.

1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: reserve spillway of an earth dam represents an artificial outlet of trapezoidal section arranged in a dam crest, with depth to the elevation of the rated level of water overflow, in the bed of which there is a protective coating from a polymer material in the form of a geomembrane fixed in sumps at the side of the upper reach and on the edges of slopes with tightening weights. On the bottom slope of the dam along the width of the artificial outlet there is a conveyance tray that changes into a deflector part of the spillway. The bottom of the conveyance and deflector parts is made of a double cloth of the geomembrane with non-matching holes designed for free discharge of the filtration flow. Walls of the conveyance tray and the deflector part and dampers of energy of the water flow are shaped from flexible shells filled with sand. The double cloth of the geomembrane is fixed to the protective coating of the artificial outlet with arrangement of a welding seam.

EFFECT: invention provides for safe passing of emergency high water preventing damage of a dam and flooding of below territory, to avoid environmental and material damage.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: sludge pond dam is built up. Pilot dam 1 is filled to sluice tails on beach 2. Then, beach zone wastes of previous layer are compacted under levee 3 planned to be constructed at beach of previous level. Then, levee material is laid on pre-rolled geotextiles 4. Note here that for levee material storage wastes are used. Wastes from accumulation beach are laid in levee body in layers and compacted. After formation of levee body, it is wrapped in web 4 to make enveloped levee. Building up of the next level, said jobs are reiterated. Note here that reinforced zone 5 is formed along sludge pond levee side.

EFFECT: levee resisting erosion and sufficient durability in emergency.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: dam of soil materials, both frozen and thawed types, is erected on a frozen base. The soil dam comprises an anti-filtration core 1, upper and lower thrust prisms 2, transition zones 3 and 4 between the core 1 and thrust prisms 2. The core 1 of the dam consists of a low-filtering cohesive soil. Thrust prisms 2 are made of stone rip-rap. The slope of the lower thrust prism is covered with a layer of fine stone 5. At the same time in the lower thrust prism with the help of an air impermeable screen 6 there is an area of seasonal active convection 7. The screen 6 is made of thin rubberised fabric or cemented stone. The area of seasonal-active convection 7 is equipped with a hangar 8 and a detachable air impermeable cover 9 arranged on the lower slope. The hangar 8 is located on the dam ridge.

EFFECT: permanent temperature mode in a core and in a transition area at the side of a lower reach, when operating both thawed and frozen soil dam under severe temperature conditions of a northern construction climate area.

6 dwg

Rock and earth dam // 2474646

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: dam comprises a core from clayey soil, upper and lower transition zones from a non-cohesive soil, upper and lower prisms, at least the lower of which is made from rock riprap, a head of non-swelling soil, a retaining wall from concrete, a layer from an air-impermeable material and equipment required for operation of the dam. The dam head includes a heated reinforced concrete gallery, between external supports of which there is a section of free surface of the core comb arranged. The retaining wall has specified height, is installed in the dam base at the lower side of the core and adjoins it in a water impermeable manner. The retaining wall comprises in its body a footway on elevations that are not flooded at the side of the lower reach. The layer of the air impermeable materials covers the dam comb and its lower slope, at least within the height of the head and has dark colour. The upper wall of the gallery is made as water impermeable, and the lower wall of the gallery comprises air ducts, which provide for hydraulic connection of the gallery cavity with the pore space of the rock riprap of the head and the lower prism. The retaining wall comprises air ducts, which provide for hydraulic connection of the footway cavity with the pore space of the rock riprap of the lower prism in the place of its adjacency to the lower face of the retaining wall. Equipment may via the gallery cavity and the footway cavity provide for forced motion of warm atmospheric air along the rock riprap of the lower prism.

EFFECT: invention provides for positive temperatures near a comb and a lower face of a dam core, core freezing is prevented, and higher dam reliability during its operation.

12 cl, 2 dwg

Rock and earth dam // 2474645

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: dam comprises a core from clayey soil, upper and lower transition zones from a non-cohesive soil, upper and lower prisms, at least the lower of which is made from rock riprap, a head of non-swelling soil, a layer from an air-impermeable material and equipment required for operation of the dam. The dam head includes a heated reinforced concrete gallery, between external supports of which there is a section of free surface of the core comb arranged. The layer of the air impermeable materials covers the dam comb and its lower slope, at least within the height of the head and has dark colour. The upper wall of the gallery is made as water impermeable, and the lower wall of the gallery comprises air ducts, which provide for hydraulic connection of the gallery cavity with the pore space of the rock riprap of the head and the lower prism. Equipment may provide for forced motion of warm atmospheric air along the rock riprap of the lower prism via the gallery cavity.

EFFECT: invention provides for positive temperatures near a comb and a lower face of a dam core, core freezing is prevented, and higher dam reliability during its operation.

7 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dam building in Northern regions. Proposed dam has upstream and downstream fills, diaphragm, transition layers and drain located in downstream fill. It has also heat curtain arranged in cross section of dam in zone of transition layers and made in form of row of successive holes, each furnished with at least one heating device. Number and pitch of holes and number and parameters of heating devices are chosen to keep transition layers and drain in zone of action of plus temperatures created by heat curtain. Resistance electric heater can be used as heating device.

EFFECT: improved reliability of dam and operation of drain.

2 cl, 3 dwg

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