Solar-wind water distiller
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: solar-wind water distiller comprises a reservoir for water desalination, a transparent condenser installed above it with a nozzle for outlet of the steam and air mixture in the upper part with a propeller installed in it and fixed on the shaft of the wind engine. A non-transparent condenser is installed above the transparent one, being connected in the upper part with a circulating pipeline, which ends with a circular distributor in the reservoir. A conical tube is fixed to the shaft on the lower and upper crosspieces, and the tube has helical triangular thread on the outer surface in the direction opposite to the rotation of the disc, with which it is partially connected. On the surface of the non-transparent condenser there are toroids, which are hydraulically communicated by pipes with a chute communicated with a pipeline with a reservoir of fresh water.
EFFECT: water distiller, if wind is available, will also work at night time.
3 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to heat engineering, in particular to a device for saline water desalination using solar and wind energies.
Known friction heater containing a tank with the heated environment at the bottom of which has a fixed disk in contact with a movable disk having laterally of the blade, and he through a vertical shaft connected to the turbine (A.S. No. 1627790, USSR).
Known heat storage capsule, containing a sealed casing filled with teplokomunenergo composition, altering its physical state in the operating temperature range (RF Patent No. 2143646, 1949).
A device for humidifying air, containing a rotating disk with a Central conical tube, immersed in a container of water and extending to the disk, and on the outer surface of the tube is screw triangular cuts in the opposite direction to the rotation of the disk surface from the side of the vessel is made concave (A.S. No. 928138, USSR, 1982).
In the humidifier spray water occurs simultaneously on two sides of a rotating disk, which facilitates its evaporation.
Known solar desalination plant that contains the evaporator in the form of pools of salt water, attached to the condenser, turbine, which drive the impeller on what I'm blowing the surface of the water, attached to the condenser, turbine, which drive the impeller for cooling the surface of the water, as well as additional capacitor, made in the form of a tapered tube, the inside of the turbine shaft on its axis (A.S. No. 819522, USSR).
In the known design of the desalination plant does not provide additional heating of the salt water in the pool other types of energy sources, which reduces its efficiency, and does not use it solar and wind energy.
The closest to the technical nature of the claimed solution is solar-wind desalination plant that contains the capacity for desalinating water with a friction heater mounted above the transparent capacitor with a pipe to exit steam-air mixture in the upper part, which is equipped with a supercharger, made in the form of impellers mounted on the shaft of a wind turbine and blades in the form of semi-cylinders on the longline, mounted on the shaft inside the opaque condenser and circulating pipeline is installed loop heat exchanger in the form of a solar collector associated with the coil placed in the vessel (Patent RF №2354895, 2009)
In the famous desalination plant and the evaporation of salt water produced with a fixed surface, insufficient heating of the steam-air mixture Sunny Lu is AMI, partially heated salt water in the tank.
To eliminate these disadvantages of the proposed solar-wind desalination plant that contains the capacity for desalinating water, mounted above the transparent capacitor with a pipe to exit steam-air mixture in the upper part, which has the pressurizer in the idea of the impeller, mounted on the shaft of a wind turbine. Opaque condenser is located above the transparent top which is installed on the shaft of the impeller. The upper part of the opaque condenser through a heat exchanger in communication with the circulation pipe with the annular valve located in the tank above the water level down in her conical tube rigidly connected with the drive according to the invention the annular valve located in the tank has three concentric pipe rings with holes, worn on their heat storage capsules. The shaft is attached a conical tube with the outer surface of the spiral triangular cuts in the opposite direction to the rotation of the disk with which it is rigidly connected with the disc placed on top of the tube has a surface coaxial grooves and drain holes. On the surface of the opaque capacitor fixed the Torah, which is hydraulically communicated to the tubes with patronymic chute, reported by pipeline with capacity of fresh water. Loop heat exchanger is installed in a closed case having a front side transparent, and the rear - mirror, and standpipes part of the circulation pipe is made in the form of heat exchanger pipe in pipe, the annular space which is filled with heat-retaining material.
In the drawings there is shown a solar-wind desalination plant, in which figure 1 presents the section, and figure 2 - his ring dispenser.
Solar-wind desalination plant containing container 1 for desalinating water, above it is set to transparent capacitor 2 to the pipe 3 in the upper part. Opaque condenser 4, mounted on a transparent capacitor 2, the top pneumatically communicated to the circulation pipe 5 with the annular valve 6 located in the tank 1, having three concentric pipe ring 7 with the holes 8 and wears them heat storage capsules 9. The mirror shaft 10 with flange PTO, bottom with the free rotation is set in a fixed metallic disk 12, is attached in the center of the bottom 13 of the tank 1. To the shaft 10 attached below: the rotating disk 14 with blades 15, bottom 16 and top 17 krestovica conical tube 18 and the lower impeller 19. In the upper part of the shaft 10 attached: top krylchatka, the blades 21 in the form of semi-cylinders are on the longline, mostly opposite tori 22 mounted on the opaque surface of the capacitor 4, and the average impeller 23. The condenser 4 is surrounded by reflective housing 24, the Torah 22 which is hydraulically communicated to the tube 25 with the groove 26 and pipe 27 with a capacity of fresh water. On the pipe 5 is installed in a closed case 30 loop heat exchanger 31, the idea of the solar collector is placed in the zone of action of the sun's rays at an angle alpha equal to 30-45 degrees from the vertical. The case 30 has a front side transparent, and the rear - mirror. Standpipe portion 32 of the pipe 5 is made in the form of heat exchanger pipe in pipe, between the pipe filled with the heat storage material 33. The disk 34, located on the top rigidly connected to tapered tube 18 has a surface coaxial grooves 35 and the drain 36.
In the cavity 37 of the condenser 4 by means of a pipeline section 5 and capacities impellers 19 and 23, should be maintained excess pressure (boost), for ozonation air-steam mixture through the holes 8, the ring of the distributor 6.
The turbine is attached to the flange 11 (not shown), existing structures and should ensure efficient operation of the desalination plant. For the supply of salt water into the container 1 includes a line is the gadfly 37 with automatic power supply (not shown), when the content in the brine above acceptable salts, as measured by solumedrol 38, it is drained through the pipe 39.
The diameters of the holes 8 in the annular valve 6 increases from the entrance of the circulation pipe 5 and to the last of the parties to the rings of the distributor 6.
Solar-wind desalination plant works as follows.
Salt water from the pipe 37 enters the tank 1 and is maintained at a constant level. During the day it is heated by solar rays and wind - friction heat generator (disks 12 and 16), thereby the process of evaporation. Rotating conical tube 18 lifts up part of the salt water above and below the disk 34 and thereby increases the surface evaporation by 20-30%. Not evaporated water is discharged from the edge of the disk 34 and openings 36 back into the tank 1 and then the process repeats. The lower impeller 19 raises the resulting vapor mixture and delivers it up to the condenser 4. Part of the vapor deposited and condensed on the wall of the condenser 2 and the wall in the groove 28, the remaining portion of the vapor in the condenser 4 will ambrosisa blades 21 in its wall and the Torah 22, condenseries and will flow down the tubes 25 and the wall of the chute 26. Remaining at the top of the condenser 4 steam-air mixture through the heat exchanger 31 and the pipe 5 will be received in the annular valve 6 and through holes 8, through SL the St salt water, penetrated into the space of the condenser 2, giving heat to the water. Then the process will repeat. Cell 9 with the heat storage composition, also heated to the temperature of the water in the tank 1. In the case of reducing the force of the wind or the appearance of clouds, the 9 cell will give stocked their heat to water and to maintain its temperature at a constant level.
The heat exchanger 31, the prisoner in the box 30, the faster heats the environment within it, and in the presence of clouds retains heat longer. Standpipes part of the pipeline 5 is outside the pipe 32 with a larger diameter, between them is the heat storage material, contributing to maintain the steam-air mixture in the pipe 5 at a constant level.
The impeller 20 is pumping cold air between the condenser 4 and the casing 24, the cooling of the walls of the condensers 4 and 2, the Torah 22, and prevents the heating of these surfaces rising currents of warm air.
The resulting condensate from the grooves 26 and 28 through the pipes 27 and 29 is supplied to the consumer.
In the proposed desalination plant and the heating of sea water in the tank 1 is friction teplogeneratorom, and heated in the heat exchanger 31 of the vapor mixture flowing in the annular distributor, and through his hole moves up through the water column in the tank 1.
The presence of a conical tube 18 part Sol is Noah water rises and thereby increases its surface evaporation by 20-30%.
The proposed desalination plant and if the wind is going to work and at night with reduced performance. Its use is appropriate in the southern regions of Russia on the shores of salt lakes and seas, to obtain fresh water.
1. Solar-wind desalination plant that contains the capacity for desalinating water, mounted above the transparent capacitor with a pipe to exit steam-air mixture in the upper part, which is equipped with a supercharger, made in the form of impellers mounted on the shaft of a wind turbine, and an opaque condenser located above the transparent top which is installed on the shaft, the impeller, the upper part of the opaque condenser through a heat exchanger in communication with the circulation pipe with the annular valve located in the tank below the water level, hanging in her conical tube rigidly connected with the disc, characterized in that the annular valve located in the tank has three concentric pipe rings with holes or worn on their heat storage capsules and to the shaft bottom to the bottom and top crosspieces attached conical tube with the outer surface of the spiral triangular cuts in the opposite direction to the rotation of the disk with which it is rigidly connected with the disc placed on top of the tube, is n the surface coaxial grooves and drain.
2. The desalination plant according to claim 1, characterized in that the surface of the opaque capacitor fixed the Torah, which is hydraulically communicated tubes with groove reported by pipeline with capacity of fresh water.
3. The desalination plant according to claim 1, wherein the loop heat exchanger is installed in a closed case having a front side transparent, and the rear - mirror, and standpipes part of the circulation pipe is made in the form of a heat exchanger pipe, the annular space which is filled with the heat storage material.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: photoelectric thermal system comprises at least one solar heat collector, a pipeline of liquid supply into a solar heat collector. a pipeline of liquid drain from the solar heat collector into an accumulator tank (thermos). At the same time the pipeline of liquid supply into the solar heat collector is connected at least with one photoelectric heat module arranged at the level that is lower than the solar heat collector and connected in series with it. Supply of the liquid into the photoelectric heat module is carried out via the pipeline from the discharge tank installed above the level of the solar heat collector, at least into one of pipelines a solenoid valve is mounted, there is at least one heat relay with a sensor individual for the photoelectric heat module or the solar heat collector. Control contacts of the solenoid valve are connected and switched with the help of a heat relay, at the same time the solar heat collector and the photoelectric heat module are made in the form of receivers of solar radiation, which represent reservoirs that have the shape of a rectangular parallelepiped, and on the working surface of the reservoir of the photoelectric heat module there is a battery of solar elements, inside of the reservoirs of the photoelectric heat module and the solar heat collector in parallel to the working surface with a gap relative to it there is a partition that does not reach the upper and lower wall of the reservoir.
EFFECT: usage of the invention makes it possible to generate electric energy and thermal energy, which will make it possible to provide for power supply of facilities of agricultural and individual purpose.
4 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to solar engineering and can be used for carrying out chemical reactions. A solar power plant for chemical reactions includes branch pipes and a heater. The plant includes a cubic working chamber with a transparent opening, inside which a porous body is located, which is supported on both sides with branch pipes in the form of tubes, an upper branch pipe for initial reagents, and around the lower branch pipe there located is a spiral-shaped heat exchanger that is connected to cooling agent supply and discharge tubes; besides, hot cooling agent discharge from the housing is performed, and to the chamber there additionally installed from above is a branch pipe for discharge of gaseous reaction products with the spiral-shaped heat exchanger.
EFFECT: possibility of carrying out reactions between different reagents and improving use efficiency of renewed energy sources at carrying out high-temperature reactions.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: multipurpose solar power plant (hereinafter referred to as MSPP) refers to renewable power sources, and namely to use of solar radiation to generate electric power, provide hot water supply and natural illumination of rooms of different applications, which contains the following: an optically active transparent dome representing a rectangular biconvex lens, a photovoltaic panel, a solar collector, round flat horizontal dampers of hollow light guides, hollow light guide tubes, a heat-receiving copper plate of the solar collector, a solar light dissipator, micromotors of round flat horizontal dampers of hollow light guide tubes, round light-emitting-diode lamps, storage batteries, light and temperature sensors, an electronic control unit, a control panel, a storage tank, a heat exchanger, a pump, a check valve, six-sided copper pipelines, an inverter and a support with support racks to support MSPP structure.
EFFECT: reduction of financial costs for conventional electric power, conversion of the solar power to electric and thermal power, for natural illumination of rooms of different applications and as energy-active roofs of different buildings.
10 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in a solar module with a concentrator comprising a transparent focusing prism with an angle of complete inner reflection
EFFECT: increased optical efficiency of a module, reduced optical losses during re-reflection of radiation and increased coefficient of solar radiation concentration.
10 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: solar module with a concentrator consists of a solar radiation receiver and a cylindrical solar concentrator, the reflecting surface of which is formed with rectangular mirror-reflecting plates-facets. Facets are installed so that solar beam L1 lying in the cross-sectional plane of concentrator and having a deviation from target direction to the Sun, which is equal to accuracy of the tracking system, and after it is reflected on the facet edge that is the closest one to the receiver, it falls down to the boundary of concentrated solar radiation zone on the receiver surface, which is located far from it, and width of facets is such that beam L2 that is symmetrical to the first beam L1 relative to target direction falls down to the nearest boundary of concentrated radiation zone after it is reflected on the opposite facet edge.
EFFECT: more uniform distribution of solar radiation along the receiver surface; improving optical effectiveness of a concentrator; increasing average annual power generation and reducing its prime cost.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in the method to manufacture a reflecting device of a solar station including web rolling, its installation into the body of the reflecting device and its further tensioning with a force determined in accordance with the empirical formula:
EFFECT: reduced mass and cost of a reflecting device due to reduction of mass and cost of a reflecting element through usage of a metal tape with smaller thickness as the base.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: design of a flexible photoelectric module represents the following serially arranged components: a lower bearing film, a lower reinforcing layer, a lower fastening film, electrically connected solar elements, an upper fastening film, an upper reinforcing layer and an upper bearing film. The lower and upper bearing and fastening films are made of material, which is transparent for sun light. Reinforcing layers are perforated films from anti-adhesive material, which are transparent for sun light, or which are coated with a layer of an anti-adhesive material, where perforation is arranged in the form of regularly arranged holes.
EFFECT: provision of reversible deformation of a photoelectric module plane simultaneously in two and more directions.
SUBSTANCE: solar concentrator module, according to the invention, has a receiver with a double-sided working surface, placed in the plane of symmetry between the focal axis of the concentrator and the surface of the concentrator, which is made in form of mirror reflectors, characterised by that the receiver is mounted in the plane of symmetry of a cylindrical concentrator; branches of the concentrator in the cross-section are formed by circles of radius R, which is equal to the height H of the receiver with centres at points O1 and O2, lying on the borders of the receiver in its top edge; wherein focal axes of the branches of the cylindrical concentrator, passing through the centres of circles O1 and O2 parallel to the top edge of the receiver, are directed in the North-South direction and are inclined in the northern hemisphere to the horizontal plane in the southern direction at an angle φ=90°-α, where α is the latitude. In the southern hemisphere, focal axes are inclined to the horizontal surface in the northern direction at an angle φ=90°-α and in the equator zone with a latitude from 30° of the southern latitude to 30° of the northern latitude, the focal axes of the cylindrical concentrator are parallel to the horizontal surface. Another version of the solar concentrator module described above is also disclosed.
EFFECT: invention provides efficient operation of the solar module during the entire daylight in stationary mode without tracking the sun, high concentration of solar radiation, high efficiency of using solar energy n the solar concentrator module owing to removal of heat from the photodetector and use of said heat in cogeneration mode to produce electrical energy and heat.
6 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in a solar concentrator they carry out separately simultaneous stepwise heating of water steam and its mixture with a methane-containing gas, which is then sent to a reaction of steam catalytic conversion of the methane-containing gas into a sectioned catalytic reactor, installed outside the solar concentrator, the flow rate of water steam and its mixture with the methane-containing gas is reduced as the solar energy flow is reducing.
EFFECT: using this method makes it possible to reduce thermal costs for the process of energy resources generation and also to efficiently supply various energy resources under conditions of unavailability of methane sources, and also in the period of solar energy flow reduction at night time and when cloudiness increases.
8 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: solar wind-driven air heater includes a solar thermal header, a cylindrical housing with a cover plate, in which an electric generator is installed on a vertical shaft, which is connected from above through a coupling to a power shaft, and air pipelines attaching the header and the housing to the unit. The header includes a housing in the form of a case with two transparent coatings, side walls and a base, as well as a channel arranged between bottom coating and a heat receiving plate, in which two or more thermal electric heaters with wing membranes are installed, which are electrically connected through wires, a distributing board with an electric generator fixed on a cross piece, above which an impeller is fixed on the power shaft, and from below on the shaft there installed is an impeller arranged in central part of the frame, which is connected via an air pipeline to lower part of the header, and upper part of the heater is pneumatically interconnected with the unit via air pipelines enveloping the housing on both sides, in which thermal coil electric heaters are installed, via wires, the distributing board, which are electrically connected on the side of the frame; the housing pneumatically interconnected from above with atmosphere through holes in the cover plate, above which there installed is a movable disc with holes made concentrically as in the cover plate.
EFFECT: combination of air heating equipment and its movement by means of solar and wind energy.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: plant has a circuit for circulation of working fluid. The circuit comprises steam generator provided with branch pipes for supplying fluid and discharging steam, steam turbine combined with the electric generator, regenerative heater with branch pipes for supply and discharge of heating and heated fluids, circulation pump for pumping fluid, circuit for circulation of heat carrier tank for exhaust heat carrier, and circulation pump for heat-transfer agent. The solar receiver is made of independent sections interconnected in parallel. The heat carrier circulation circuit is provided with pressure vessel.
EFFECT: enhanced serviceability and simplified design.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: solar power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: solar power plant includes solar battery having at least two solar heat collector mutually joined through branch pipe. Said collectors are provided with individual heat pickups and individual pipelines for discharging hot water out of them through connection branch pipes. Shut-off devices are mounted in zones of crossing of branch pipes and pipelines. Pipeline for supplying water from accumulating tank to solar battery includes water pump; accumulating tank includes two heat exchangers of different volumes. Heat exchanger of large volume is designed for water used for heating; heat exchanger of small volume is designed for water used for domestic purposes. Solar heat collector includes transparent panel; heat absorbing panel in the form of set of parallel metallic tubes for liquid heat transfer agent connected with lower surface of metallic radiant-energy absorbing sheet; heat insulation layer and supporting heat insulation panel. Parallel metallic tubes of heat absorbing panel are pressed-in to metallic radiant energy absorbing sheet, they are arranged along short sides of said sheet and mutually connected by means of tubes arranged along long sides of sheet. Supporting heat insulation panel, heat insulation layer, heat absorbing and transparent panels are fluid-tightly connected one to other for forming rigid structure construction, for example with use of bolts. On upper and lower surface of said construction along its perimeter metallic or polymeric shapes are mounted.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of using solar energy.
17 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: solar power plant comprises concentrator, receiver of solar radiation, and accumulator. The concentrator is made of a transparent sphere filled with a transparent liquid for concentrating the light beam at the receiver of solar beams. The heat accumulator is provided with a coil.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability, simplified structure, and reduced cost.
FIELD: solar wind power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heater comprises electric generator with wind wheel, tail beam of rectangular cross-section, shaft, and tail assembly which is composed of two or more rhomboid panels provided with photoelectrical transducers from their sides. The ring water accumulator is mounted in the bottom section of the shaft and connected with the photoelectrical transducers. The rectangular water accumulator is connected with the electric generator. The cells filled with a heat accumulating agent are connected with the electric heaters mounted inside the accumulators. The temperature of phase transition of the agent should be within the range of operation temperatures of the accumulators.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: development of power plants using solar energy.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method depends on conversion and storage of solar energy including generation of heat energy used to set air in rotary motion within solar collector wherein air ducts are organized, disposed in parallel, and connected in series with motion of energy-saturated air flow. Each of such ducts accommodates group of local tilted surfaces whereon sun rays are incident through light-translucent heat-insulating material, and controlled heat fluxes of process working medium conveyed from solar energy converters and accumulators of various types and potential levels are at the same time supplied to these ducts. In the process temperature irregularities occur within solar collector and its air ducts with the result that steady revolving air flows are set up both along air ducts and in their sectional areas, as well as in surface areas encouraging turbulent vortex motions.
EFFECT: enhanced power generation ensured by proposed method.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to small power engineering using renewable energy sources- Sun, wind, lifting of warm air upwards, difference of atmospheric pressure throughout the height.
SUBSTANCE: The electric power station has an accumulator of solar power and a tower which is equipped with aerodynamic facilities for transformation of solar and wind energy in electric power.
EFFECT: creation, building and exploitation of solar-vacuum electric power station in small towns and inhabited localities instead of diesel power stations and boiler rooms on solid fuel, transfer from hot-water heating to electric heating on a moderate price for inhabitants and local production allows to brighten economy of these settlements.
FIELD: solar power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method is used for transforming sunbeam energy to thermal energy. Method is performed by means of sequent connection of solar beam concentrators. One of concentrators is composed of a field of local concentrators, which are built in heat-insulating lightproof material. The material embraces internal room of sunbeam-absorbing chamber. Built-in concentrators and sunbeam conductors have to be basically hollow truncated pyramids which have faces covered with beam-reflecting material. Bases of pyramids are closed by transparent heat-insulating material The second sunbeam concentrator has to be external one. Those concentrators preliminary have shape of truncated pyramid with faces covered with light-reflecting material. The third level of solar-beam pumping of sunbeam-absorbing chamber is created additionally due to creation of total filed of external sunbeam-reflecting surfaces in environment at different distances from sunbeam-absorbing chamber.
EFFECT: reduced cost of multistep pumping of solar power to sunbeam-absorbing chamber.
26 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: power engineering and agriculture, applicable in production of a universal power carrier-hydrogen.
SUBSTANCE: the solar energy concentrator in the sea-based bioenergetic complex is made in the form of a pontoon frame with a heat-insulating membrane located inside it and supported by flexible pontoons, a lengthened reactor with biomass spores is installed on the membrane and heat-exchange pipes of thermocompressors positioned on the pontoons of the pontoon frame, also installed in which are saturators, biomass and water separators, methane-producing generators, nuclear reactors for heating of steam delivered to the converters from the thermocompressors to high temperatures, and a tank for storage of gases and water, and the outer side of the pontoon frame is additionally provided with coiled reactors with biomass spores supported by the flexible pontoons.
EFFECT: provided salvaging of carbon dioxide and production of hydrogen.
FIELD: heat-storage materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mixtures capable of accumulating heat energy and relevant solar energy transformers. Heat-storage material according to invention contains silicon dioxide, 3-5% of liquid soda glass, and 50-82% of VO2+x wherein x=0-0.5. Material is prepared by compacting mixture of vanadium dioxide VO2+x and silica in presence of liquid soda glass as binder followed by solidification at 150-200°C. Summary heat when using combined transformer including phase transformation heat (α-VO2 ↔ β-VO2) and oxygen adsorption-desorption heat of mechano-chemically treated VO2+x may reach 250 J/g.
EFFECT: increased heat-storage capacity.
8 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: production or use of heat, particularly equipment, which uses solar and wind energy to obtain hot water in south territories.
SUBSTANCE: heating plant comprises body, vessel with floating heating member arranged in the vessel, inlet and outlet connection pipes. The heating member is made as disc and provided with hollow ring connected to disc perimeter. The hollow ring is filled with heat-accumulation substance. The disc is fastened to inner vessel surface by means of elastic corrugated film. Piezoelectric films are connected to upper body part and to sides thereof by means of metal frames. Coiled electric heating member is installed at inlet connection pipe top. The electric heating member is connected with piezoelectric film clips. Electric heating member is located in lower vessel part and is electrically linked to power board by wires.
EFFECT: increased current supply surface and increased solar radiation receiving surface.