Method to collect and process information on sample surface

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement equipment, in particular, to facilities for control of relief and surface properties of samples with the help of sclerometers, and may be used to assess variation of surface properties along the scanning path. For this purpose they perform scanning of the controlled surface more than once with different extent of probe approaching to the controlled surface with simultaneous production of data on spatial and power parameters of scanning, and sample parameters are defined using them, which characterise relief and/or properties of the sample surface, extent of probe action at the surface or surface layers of the sample, and also value of residual deformation is defined by difference of produced values of spatial and power parameters. At the same time the first scanning is carried out with a load at the probe, not causing plastic deformation of the surface, and they assess vertical movements of the probe in process of scanning, on the basis of which they build a profilogram of the controlled surface and determine parameters of its roughness, then the probe is returned into the initial position, the probe is inserted into the surface layer for the required depth, reflecting volume properties of the surface layer, due to application of the permanent normal load, and the second scanning is performed, and vertical movements of the probe are assessed, on the basis of which they build the curve of the support surface and assess its characteristics, and also define the distribution of hardness of the surface layer along the scanning path.

EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities of assessment of surface layer characteristics and production of more correct data reflecting volume properties of surface layers.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to measurement techniques, in particular to the means of control of topography and surface properties of the samples using sclerometer, and can be used to estimate changes in surface properties along the scanning path.

A method of obtaining and processing information about the sample surface using supovyh of profilographs [1], which make contact with the surface scan diamond needle, then based on measurements of the vertical displacement of the needle in the scanning build profilogram, estimate the parameters of the rough surface, build the curve of the supporting surface and on the basis of its analysis evaluate the characteristics of the exposure (the actual contact area, the contact deformation) and the convergence of the mating surfaces.

The disadvantage of this method is functional limitations (estimates only the geometry of the profile) and receiving incorrect data for subsequent evaluation of the characteristics of the contact of the mating surfaces under load (magnitude approximation, the area of actual contact) because the materials are of heterogeneity (hard and soft inclusions and phase), especially in the case of the study of composite and multiphase materials.

Also the known method [2], which determines the hardness of the surface layer of palestinienne the surface of the loaded indenter. For this purpose, the sample is placed on the table of the device (for example, microhardness tester PMT-3), lower on the analyzed surface of the indenter to which is applied a constant normal load, make moving the table with the sample relative to the indenter so that the moving table has been directed along the axis of the elastic plates of the loading mechanism, determine the width of the received scratches and evaluate the hardness value.

The disadvantage of this method is functional limitations - is only the hardness of the surface layer.

As a prototype of the selected method [3], which produce consistent removal at specified points on the surface at least plot the power curve and determine it parameters of the sample, followed by building the corresponding spatial distributions. On the power curve produce the selection of reference points and fixed at least at these points the value of force of the cantilever deflection, and/or coordinates to the fixed end and/or derived from the force of the cantilever deflection on the coordinate of its fixed end. The number of anchor points and/or specified fixed values determine the parameters of the sample, characterizing the topography and/or surface properties of the sample, and/or the number and properties of surface layers. Including opredelyaetya the sample surface, and/or boundaries of the surface layers or the thickness of the surface layer, or adhesion force of the sample surface and/or surface layers, or the coefficient of elasticity of the sample surface and/or surface layers.

The disadvantage of the prototype is functional limitations, which consists in the study of a thin surface layer, commensurate with the size of atoms, which may not reflect the properties of the surface layers, generally consisting of a large number of diverse structural elements.

The technical result of the present invention is to expand the functionality of the evaluation of the characteristics of the surface layers and obtaining more accurate data reflecting the bulk properties of the surface layers.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that you are doing the scanning surface more than once with different degree of approach of the probe with controlled surface with the simultaneous acquisition of data on the spatial and force the scan settings and define the parameters of the model, characterizing the topography and/or surface properties of the sample, the degree of impact of the tip on the surface or the surface layers of the sample, and the residual deformation is determined by the difference between the obtained values of the spatial and silo the s parameters, the first scan is made with the load on the probe will not cause plastic deformation of the surface and estimate the vertical movement of the probe during scanning, on the basis of which to build profilogram surface and define the parameters of its roughness, then return the probe to its original position, introducing the probe into the surface layer to the desired depth, reflecting the bulk properties of the surface layer, by application of a constant normal load and produce a second scan and assess the vertical movement of the probe on the basis of which to build the curve of the supporting surface and evaluate its characteristics and determine the distribution of hardness of the surface layer along the scanning path.

The essence of the proposed method is as follows.

The curve of the supporting surface is built on the basis of profilogram generated by scanning the test surface is loaded probe. This allows to take into account the fact that controlled surface in the General case of inhomogeneous and its different parts have different stiffness and hardness (grain boundaries, different phases, inclusions, oxide film, prizhogi etc). The more solid areas of the test surface will be on profilogram look like tabs, and less solid as depression, superimposed on the original profile of the test surface. With a high degree of uniformity of the surface layer of profilogram received the loaded and unloaded probe will be close. For inhomogeneous materials, the inventive method will allow you to get the curve of the supporting surface, which can more accurately assess its characteristics used in the calculations of the contact approximation and the square of the actual touch.

Surface hardness is evaluated by means of scratching, which increase the accuracy of measurement is achieved by an automated estimation of the depth of introduction of the probe is measured as the difference in the readings of vertical movement of the probe in consecutive scans without load and under load, instead of measuring the width of the scratches performed visually using optical instruments. Thus the correct data on the depth of penetration of the probe can be obtained even when the width of the scratches cannot be measured because of the uncertainty of the contour boundary. Considering the fact that the width b and depth h scratches when used as a probe, such as a diamond tip Vickers, connected by the relation h≈0,14b, the formula for estimating the hardness of

HP=3,708P/b2, (1)

where P is the normal load, converted to the form

HP0,0727P/h2.(2)

The inventive method allows by twice scanning the selected area of the test surface to receive the correct information about surface roughness curved bearing surface and distribution of hardness along the scanning path.

The claimed method is implemented in the following stages.

- Place the test sample on a table measuring device. Put on a controlled surface probe and produce a first scan with the load on the probe will not cause plastic deformation of the surface, and measure the vertical displacement of the probe during scanning.

On the basis of the obtained data on vertical movements of the probe build profilogram surface and define the parameters of its roughness, for example, Ra, Rz, Rmax, Rpthen return amaut probe to its original position.

- Introduce the probe into the surface layer to the desired depth, reflecting the bulk properties of the surface layer, by application of a constant normal load, and produce a second scan, and estimate the vertical movement of the probe.

On the basis of the obtained data on vertical movements of the probe build profilogram surface obtained loaded probe, on the basis of which to build the curve of the supporting surface and evaluate its characteristics, such as ν, Rpk, Rνkand other

- Determine the distribution of hardness of the surface layer along the scanning path by the formula (2), taking as the embedding depth of probe h the difference data on vertical movements of the probe in the loaded and unloaded state of the corresponding pixel of the scan.

Example. For the implementation of the proposed method used the diagnostic hardware-software complex, described in [4]. As the probe used the tip of the Vickers diamond pyramid with a square base and migranes angle at the vertex of 136°. As the sample used body steel washer. Lowered the probe on the sample surface under normal load 0,002 N, causing plastic deformation of the surface, and got profilogram P1the sample surface (figure 1) at the base on the ine l=0,8 mm Set the parameters of surface roughness: Rmax=5 µm; Rp=1.2 µm; Rz=1,36 microns; Ra=0, 41 μm. Returned the probe to its original position, put it as a static load of 0.11 H, re-scanned the surface and got profilogram P2(figure 1), which was built by the curve of the supporting surface. Based on the analysis of curved bearing surface received the reference value of the relative length of the middle line tm=0,5. Built distribution of the embedding depth of probe h along the scanning path in the form of the calculated curve R3(1) as the difference in the heights of profilogram P1and R2along the scanning path. Built distribution of hardness of the surface (figure 2) along the scanning path by calculating the hardness of the formula (2) substituting the obtained distributions of values of h along the scanning path.

Figure 1. shows the results of constructing and processing profilogram: the unloaded probe - P1; received by the probe loaded with a normal load of 0.11 H - R2; P3- the difference between the values of profilogram P1and R2characterizing the depth of penetration of the probe relative to the profile of the P1.

Figure 2. shows the distribution of hardness of the sample surface by the base length.

Literature used

1. Fundamentals of tribologists the (friction, wear, lubrication: a Textbook for technical universities / Avicelase, Adeon, Iouse, Iauanoaii and others - M.: Center "Science and technology", 1995. - 778 S.

2. GOST 21318-75. Microhardness by scratching with a diamond tip. - M.: Publishing house of standards, 1976. - 29 S.

3. RF patent №2145055. The method of collecting and processing information about the sample surface / Molchanov S. p., slumber CENTURIES, Kirpichnikov A.P. Publ. 27.01.2000,

4. Nenashev M.V., Ibatullin I.D., Damiecki D.A. and other New devices for quality control of surfaces // proceedings of Samara scientific center of RAS. - Samara scientific centre of RAS. V.13. №1 (3) (39). - 2011. - S-581.

The method of collecting and processing information about the sample surface, in which the scanning surface more than once with different degree of approach of the probe with controlled surface with the simultaneous acquisition of data on the spatial and force the scan settings and define the parameters of the model, characterizing the topography and/or surface properties of the sample, the degree of impact of the tip on the surface or the surface layers of the sample, and the residual deformation is determined by the difference between the obtained values of the spatial and force parameters, wherein the first scan is made with the load on the probe will not cause plastic deformation of the surface, and appreciate VERTIC is global move the probe during scanning, on the basis of which to build profilogram surface and define the parameters of its roughness, then return the probe to its original position, introducing the probe into the surface layer to the desired depth, reflecting the bulk properties of the surface layer, by application of a constant normal load, and produce a second scan, and estimate the vertical movement of the probe on the basis of which to build the curve of the supporting surface and evaluate its characteristics and determine the distribution of hardness of the surface layer along the scanning path.



 

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