Design of gravity foundation

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: versions are disclosed regarding implementation of designs of a gravity foundation, which comprises the first and second extended foundation sections divided with an open area and made as capable of maintaining weight in water for the specified structure and resting against the bottom of the water area, and an upper section arranged above the specified open area and made as capable of passing at least partially above water surface to maintain the upper structures. Some versions of implementation additionally contain the first and second inclined sections, which connect foundation sections with the specified upper section.

EFFECT: improved design.

20 cl, 8 dwg

 

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

[001] the Present application claimed the priority of provisional patent application U.S. patent No. 61/441,245 dated 9 February 2011, which is fully incorporated into the present application.

The technical FIELD

[002] the Present invention relates to structures of gravitational foundations, such as to maintain structures for drilling and extraction of hydrocarbons in the deep Arctic seas.

The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY

[003] the Concept of deep structures GBS (GBS) for areas experiencing significant influence of sea ice, traditionally based on the use of large monolithic steel or concrete podmyshechnykh reason that supports located at the distance offshore hydrocarbon drilling or production installation. In deep water the size, weight and cost of such structures constitute a major challenge for the design, construction and installation. Traditional design gravitational foundations in General is based on monolithic caisson with a separate vertical support or without them, usually filled with sea water and/or solid ballast to resist horizontal loads from the effects of waves and ice. The total volume of the caisson and the minimum required weight of the water is quickly growing in what liczenie depth and horizontal loads. It may be difficult to meet the design requirements of the Foundation, especially in weak cohesive soils.

The INVENTION

[004] the Following discovered implementations of open designs GBS for use in deep Arctic waters that contain widely spaced first and second elongated base section, separated by an open area and are designed to ensure maintenance of weight in water above structure and support on the bottom of the water area. The upper caisson section may be located over a specified open area and is configured to pass at least partially above the water surface to the support surface designs. Some implementations also include first and second inclined support section connecting widely spaced base sections with specified upper section.

[005] the Above and other objectives, features and advantages disclosed in the present application implementation options will become more apparent from the following detailed description with reference to the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

[006] figure 1 shows an example implementation options design GBS with two separated base sections.

[007 On figa shows a side view of a variant of implementation, shown in figure 1.

[008] In figv shows a front view of the embodiments shown in figure 1.

[009] figure 3 shows a top view of the example of the first and second separated the Foundation blocks design GBS in the direction of the arrows 3-3, shown in figa and 2B.

[010] figure 4 shows a top view of the middle part of the example design GBS in the direction of the arrows 4-4, shown in figa and 2B.

[011] figure 5 shows a cut side view of the base block design GBS located in dry dock.

[012] figure 6 shows a section view from the side located in the sea of precast node part of the example design GBS containing the first and the second base portion and the first upper section in position for Assembly.

[013] On figa shows a side view of the example design GBS for small depths.

[014] On FIGU shows the front view of the design of the GBS shown in figa.

[015] In Fig shows a top view of the lower part of the structure GBS shown in figa and 7B.

DETAILED description of the INVENTION

Examples of implementation options

[016] Described in this application implementations designs GBS, which significantly reduce ve is podvysockogo Foundation, required for a given depth and at the same time, offer significant advantages in the design, transportation and installation. Disclosed implementations can be used to support drilling or mining installations at depths of 200 meters or more. Some implementations may support surface designs with large installation weight, such as from about 30,000 tons to approximately 90,000 tonnes or more. Some implementations are able to withstand heavy ice, water and soil conditions typical of Arctic and subarctic seas, such as the Beaufort sea and the Kara sea.

[017] Disclosed in the present application, the embodiments can reduce a known conflict of requirements between the load bearing capacity, buoyancy and supporting area by maintaining the upper surfaces of widely spaced base sections and the supporting props. These large base section and the support struts can ensure the effectiveness of the manufacturing and construction due to its modular design. Components can also be symmetrical to improve the efficiency of production.

[018] figure 1 and 2 shows a variant example of implementation of the GBS 10 containing the first base section 12A and the second base section 12B, the first of nuklon the th section 14A, the second inclined section 14B, the transition section 16 and the upper section 18, and executed with the support surface section 20. Some options for the implementation of the GBS 10 may additionally contain at least one cross member that runs between the inclined sections 14, such as spaced cross members 22A and VI spaced cross bars 24A and 24B.

[019] Each of the base sections 12 may be accomplished by providing support to the seabed and can support the rest of the GBS 10. Each of the base sections 12 may contain the first sole 30A, the second sole 30B and the intermediate portion 34 between the first and second soles. The base section 12 may be elongated in the direction between the first and second soles 30A, 30B. Sole 30 can have a large bottom surface and are able to narrow conically in the upward direction from the base surface along the inclined upper surface. Each of the soles 30A, SW may include a beveled outer portion 36 having a slightly inclined top, and may contain held up part 38, which may have side surfaces, made with a steeper slope compared with the surface 36. Soles 30A, 30B may include a flat, polygonal surface, and at the same time, according to some variants of the real is implementing these soles may include a curved surface or other non-planar and/or nemegosenda surface.

[020] Each of the base sections 12 may have an overall longitudinal length L and width W, as shown in figure 1. Each sole 30 can have a maximum width W, while the intermediate portion 34 may have a reduced width and shape narrowing or middle section of reduced width between the two soles 30A, 30B. Each of the base sections 12 can have an outer side surface and may have a generally straight inner side surface 40, which runs the entire length of the base section 12 through both soles 30A, 30B and the intermediate portion 34 along the longitudinal direction L. Each base section 12 as a whole can be symmetric with respect to the first vertical plane 63, shown in figure 3, intersecting the intermediate portion 34 between the soles of 30. In addition, the base section 12A can be symmetrical base section 12B with respect to a second vertical plane 64, shown in figure 3, passing in the longitudinal direction L in the middle between the two base sections 12. Each of these first and second vertical planes 63, 64 in General can be divided in half all gravity Foundation 10 on the corresponding symmetric half on both sides of each of these planes, as shown in figa and 2B.

[021] the Two base parts 12A and 12B can b the th widely separated by an open region 42 between the inner sides 40 of these two base sections. Open area 42 may extend along the entire length L of Foundation sections. In implementations without crossbars 22 and 24 of the specified open area can be carried up to the transition section 16 and also to separate the two sloping sections. Implementation option has an open area between the two base sections 12A, 12B, when the whole region directly between the two base sections 12A, 12B is filled with design elements less than 10%. In some embodiments of the two base sections 12A and 12B can be "completely separated" open region 42, which means the complete absence of structure elements directly between the two base sections 12.

In one embodiment, the first and second base sections are connected together by the upper cross member, so that the open area passes below the crossbar and between the first and second soles along the entire length of the first and second base sections.

[022] Each base section 12A, 12B may have a bearing surface defined by the perimeter of the bottom surface of the base section, which is made with the provision of the contact with the underlying sea floor. Examples of the reference areas is shown in figure 3 bold lines representing the outer perimeter of the base section 12. Open area 42 between the support areas Foundation the sections 12 may be square, which more each control area or more than 50% of the total area of these two reference areas. According to other variants of the implementation of the open area 42 between the support areas of the base sections 12 may be at least 25% of the total area of these two reference areas. According to some variants of implementation of each of the reference areas may have a size that is greater than the maximum area of a horizontal section vertical annular section or decompression section 18.

[023] Each of the inclined sections 14A, 14B may pass upwards from the upper parts 38 soles 30A, 30B of the respective base sections 12A, 12B to the transition section 16. It should be noted that the truncated part of the angulation of each of the sections 14A, 14B may be included in the corresponding base section. The inner part of the sections 14A, 14B can be inclined to each other. The distance between the two inclined portions of the sections 14A, 14B decreases in the direction from the base sections 12 to the transition section 16, so that these two inclined portions may be completely joined together in the transition section 16. The degree of inclination of the inclined sections illustrated in the front view on figv. Thus, the side parts 14A, 14B may converge, or at least parts of them can converge in the direction from the respective base section is th 12. Preferably they can continuously converge in the upward direction. However, preferably they may have sections that converge with intermediate nazhodyaschiesya parts.

[024] Each of the inclined sections 14A, 14B may include first and second inclined struts 44A, B and at least one horizontal transverse element, such as 46A and 48A to the inclined sections 14A and V and 48V for the inclined section 14B, which may be parallel and spaced one above the other. One inclined support 44A is connected to one sole 30A of each base section 12, and the other inclined backup V connected to another sole 30V each base section. Inclined struts 44A and V corresponding inclined section 14A may fully or partially converge to each other. Inclined struts section 14C may be arranged in the same way. Thus, the inclined struts of one section 14A can lean to each other and inclined supports the other of the inclined section 14C, and these inclined support section 14C may lean to one another and inclined to the props section 14A. Each inclined support 44 may have a generally square horizontal cross-section, the area of which decreases with height. You can also use the construction of another horizontal section. The four struts 44 may and who receive the same degree of inclination and can be generally symmetrical about a vertical Central axis 66 GBS 10 given by the intersection of planes 63 and 64 of symmetry. These props can continuously converge along its length. Alternatively, these props can have one or more converging sections.

[025] Each inclined section 14A, 14B may contain zero, one, two or more horizontal transverse elements connecting struts 44A and B together. Embodiment shown in figure 1, contains a longer lower transverse element 46A and a shorter upper transverse element 48A connecting the inclined struts 44A and 44B of the first inclined section 14A, and a longer lower transverse element 46B and a shorter upper transverse element 48 In the connecting inclined struts 44A and 44B of the second inclined section 14B. The transverse elements 46, 48 can, for example, have a generally rectangular vertical cross-section with a horizontal top and bottom surfaces and the inclined side surfaces.

[026] According to variants of implementation for deep water gravity Foundation 10 may include a cross member 22 and/or 24 passing between the two inclined sections 14A and 14B and connecting them. One set of cross members 22A and 24A can connect two inclined struts 44A, and another set of cross bars 22B and 24B can connect two inclined struts 44B. Crossbars 22, 24, if any, may be similar in shape and height of the transverse elements 46, 48.

[027] the Upper con the s inclined struts 14 may be connected together by a transition section 16. Transition section 16 may at least partially be in the form of a truncated cone, having the General shape of a truncated pyramid or a different shape. Transition section 16 may have a wider bottom perimeter 50, having a first cross-sectional area, and may taper to a narrower upper perimeter 52 having a second cross-sectional area smaller than the first sectional area. Transition section 16 may contain passing in the axial direction of the open inner or Central region 48 (figure 2). According to a variant implementation, shown in figure 1, the transition section 16 has a square bottom perimeter 50 and octagonal upper perimeter 52 with a polygonal lateral surfaces. According to other variants of the implementation of the transition section 16 may have a circular upper and lower perimeters and a truncated conical lateral surface or may have a different design.

[028] the Upper section 18 GBS 10 can pass upwards from the specified upper perimeter or vertex 52 of the transition section 16. The top section 18 may include a vertical annular portion 54 and an extended or enlarged distal part 56. The top section 18 may have an open in the axial direction passing inside or Central region 58 (as shown in figure 2). The Central region 58 may be vertically oriented and may inform the open area 48 within the transition section 16. The top section 18 may have a polygonal cross-section, as shown in figure 1, a circular cross-section or cross section of any other suitable form. The extended portion 56 may have a more narrow bottom perimeter 60 with a smaller cross-sectional area, compared with the top surface 62 of the extended portion 56. The lower perimeter 60 is located at the intersection with the top annular vertical portion 54. The extended portion 56 may be increased in sectional area in the direction of the broad upper surface 62, which can support surface of the structure 20. In another example implementation of a vertical annular section contains the lower, or transitional, part 16 made with the possibility of finding below the water surface, the upper or apical part 56, made with the possibility of finding above the water surface, and an intermediate portion 54 between the lower and upper parts, with a square horizontal cross-section of the intermediate portion is smaller than the area of the horizontal section of the upper part and smaller than the area of a horizontal section of the lower part and the upper part tapers in the direction of the intermediate part.

[029] the Gravitational Foundation may have a size at which at its location on the seabed vertical annular portion 54 of the upper section 18 is partially submerged and partially over in the Oh. Vertical annular portion 54 may have a reduced horizontal width in comparison with other parts of the GBS 10, so that it operates less lateral force wave and ice loads, which generally concentrated near the surface of the water. Various options for the implementation of the GBS 10 can be made use of in water depths greater than 60 meters, such as depth in the range from about 60 meters to about 200 meters, although the gravitational Foundation 10 can be configured to use other depths.

[030] the Dimensions shown in figure 2-4 are examples, and in no case do not limit the present invention. These dimensions illustrate one exemplary embodiment, and at the same time, other implementations can have different sizes.

[031] In figa and 2b shows one variant of the typical separation of the GBS 10 three block Assembly 70, 72 and 74. The base block 70 (shown conventional solid lines X) may contain two base sections 12A, 12B and the lower parts of the two inclined sections 14A, 14B (for example, the lower part of the inclined lugs 44A, B, the lower transverse elements 46 and/or the lower cross member 22). According to some variants of realization of the lower transverse elements 46A, V m which may be included in the base block 70. In addition, the base block 70 can alternatively contain lower cross-beams 22A, 22B. According to variants of implementation, in which the base block 70 does not contain the lower cross-beams 22A, 22B (as, for example, is designed for small depths), it may contain two separate Assembly base unit 70A and 70 V (as shown in figure 3). The average unit 72 (shown in bold dashed lines Y figa and 2b, and also shown in figure 4) may contain the upper part of the inclined sections 14, the transition section 16, the lower part of the upper section 18 and optional upper cross member 24A, 24V. The vertex block 74 (shown in the drawing bold solid lines Z) may contain the upper part of the upper section 18 and, if necessary, surface design 20.

[032] Each of the Assembly units 70, 72, 74 can be performed individually in a large dock. In the Assembly process of gravitational Foundation Foundation unit 70 may be located first afloat with partial immersion in the water, then the average unit 72 may be located on base unit 70 and connected with him, then the combined base unit 70 and the average unit 72 can be submerged in water, then the vertex block 74 may be located above the middle block 72 and connected with him. According to some variants of realization of the lower cross member 22 can be connected fundamentum block 70, and the upper cross member 24 can be connected with the middle block 72 to inner block 74. According to other variants of realization of the unit of gravitational Foundation 10 may be divided into various other Assembly units and/or subunits and can be assembled in various other ways.

[033] figure 3 shows a top view of the Foundation blocks 70 A, 70 V according to a variant implementation, shown in figure 2, without transverse elements 46 or cross-beams 22. On this view shows the open area 42 between the inner side surfaces 40 of the two base sections 12A and 12B. A large part of the inner edges 41 of the inner side surfaces 40 may be parallel. This view also shows the footprint of the base sections 12 on the seabed, with a narrow intermediate portions 34 and wider sole 30. Foundation blocks 70 A, 70 V can be symmetrical to each other relative to the vertical plane 64, and at the same time, each of them can be symmetrical to the other about a vertical plane 63. This view also shows the lower part of the four pillars 44, inclined to the Central axis 66 of the specified structure, which is preferably vertical.

[034] figure 4 shows a top view of the middle unit 72 according to a variant implementation, shown in figure 2. On this view shows an example of them is the fact that a square cross-section of the peripheral shape, formed by four lugs 44, the upper transverse elements 48A, 48V and upper cross bars 24A, 24 on the lower part of the middle block 72. This view also shows an octagonal cross-section example of a vertical annular portion 54. The middle portion 72 may be symmetrical relative to the vertical planes 63 and 64. According to some variants of implementation of the middle portion 72 may also be symmetric with respect to the two diagonal vertical plane (not shown)passing at an angle of 45° to the planes 63 and 64.

[035] figure 5 and 6 shows an example of a typical approach to the design of the base unit 70, shown in figa and 2B. Under this approach the base block 70 is assembled from two base parts 90A and 90V and the third part 92, which connects the base portion 90A, 90V. As shown in figure 5, according to some variants of the implementation of the two base part 90 can be performed individually in dry dock 80. Figure 5 shows a section of a front view of one of the base parts 90, made in dry dock 80. According to some variants of the implementation of the base part 90 are extremely large and require a very large dry docks. The drawing shows one very large dry dock 80. Dry dock 80 may include a bottom 82 with a width W1 of approximately 131 m and lift 84, such as a lift-giant who, which may have a maximum height H2 of lifting approximately 91 metres above the bottom 82. Doc 80 may have a depth H1 is about 14.5 meters, which may be partially filled with water or other liquids 86, for example to the height H3 of about 10 meters, to facilitate support and manufacturing base portions 90. The bottom surface of the base portions 90 can be located at a distance from the bottom 82, for example, using blocks 88 height of about 1.8 meters. Using such a large dry dock 80, at a time may be entirely made each base part 90 and then a single block moved from dry dock to build in the sea with the base part and the third part 92.

[036] According to some variants of the implementation of the base part 90 may contain parts that are marked on the figure 5 position symbols A and B, while the portion of the position indicated by the symbol C, can be made with the third part 92 (as shown in Fig.6). Foundation, containing only parts A and B may contain a portion, shown below in figure 1 by the dashed line 1. According to other variants of implementation with sufficiently large dimensions dry dock all three parts A, B and C, shown in figure 5, can be manufactured simultaneously with the base part 90, which can reach a height H4 of about 85 meters above the bottom 82. This base part with Castalia, B and C can contain a portion shown by the dashed line 2 in figure 1 below. Two Foundation containing parts A, B and C may be connected together by a lower cross members 22 in the sea for the formation of the base unit 70.

[037] it is Important that the base part 90 had a base length L (as shown in figure 1), which is much more than their base width W2, as shown in figure 5, and to dry dock 80 also preferably have sufficient length. Open area 42 between the two base sections 12A, 12B enables the individual making whole each of the two separate base portions 90 in the same dry dock one by one, so that later they can be connected with other components in the sea for the formation of the GBS 10. Such manufacturability impossible for GBS with Foundation design, exceeding the width of the dry dock.

[038] As shown in Fig.6, according to some variants of implementation of fundamental unit 70 can be made of three parts. Two base parts 90A and 90B may contain the specified parts of GBS under the lower transverse elements 46 and lower crossbars 22, which includes parts marked A and B on figure 5 and 6. The third part 92 may contain lower transverse e the elements 46A, 46B, the lower cross-beams 22A, 22B and the intermediate part four supporting struts 44 to the lower part of the upper transverse elements 48A, 48 and upper cross members 24A, 24B. To assemble these three parts 90A, 90B and 92, first part 90A and 90B can be located in the sea afloat, as shown in Fig.6. To reduce buoyancy parts 90A and 90B inland areas in parts 90A and 90B, such as region 94, shown in Fig.6, can be filled with seawater, providing them with a deeper swimming in the water. Upon reaching their buoyancy at the required level and the proper lateral position relative to each other on top of them can be installed the third part 92. As shown in Fig.6, for the location of the third part 92 can use barge 96. After location over parts 90A and 90B third part 92 can be shipped prior to contact with the tops of the parts 90A and 90B, and all of these three parts can be connected together (e.g. by welding) to form a base block 70, as shown in figa and 2B. Under this option the implementation of the base block 70 includes a lower cross member 22, while according to a variant implementation, shown in figure 3, two base unit 70A and 70B can be performed without the lower cross-beams 22, which is optional, can be added later or not at all.

[039] After which obyedinenie three parts 90A, 90B and 92, shown in Fig.6, for forming a base block 70, the entire base unit 70 may be submerged by filling in the additional water closed interior regions 94 and/or filling with water closed interior regions in the third part 92, such as region 98, shown in Fig.6. When immersing the base unit 70 to the required level separately performed, the average unit 72 may be located on top of the third part 92 and is connected (e.g. by welding) with the base unit 70.

[040] According to a variant implementation, shown in Fig.3-5, two separate base unit 70A and 70B in a similar way can be submerged in water by filling water internal floating cameras can be located properly at a distance from each other and aligned, then the average unit 72 may be located on base blocks and connected with them.

[041] After connection of the middle block 72 with the base unit 70 this design can be further submerged by flooding one or more internal floating chamber located in the base unit 70 and/or the average block 72, and the vertex block 74 may be located above the middle block 72 and connected with him. Illustrated vertex unit 74 preferably has a positive hydrodynamic, ostoich the stability in the vertical orientation, so it naturally floats, and its upper surface 62 is located above the water even with a pre-attached heavy structures.

[042] the Connecting base unit 70, the average unit 72 and the vertex block 74 may be performed in any location that has sufficient depth of water, for example near the shore in dry dock 80, which were manufactured by these units, or drilling in the Arctic sea. Since gravity Foundation 10 has an open design with large open areas between base sections 12 and an inclined section 14, fully assembled gravitational Foundation 10 can be transported (buxiban) in water with a minimum speed of towing. The collected gravity Foundation 10 is preferably towed in the water in the direction of the length L (as shown in figure 1), so the two soles 30A or two soles 30B are leading. When towing in a specified orientation of the base section 12 and inclined sections 14 have a minimum profile of towing resistance, and a large open area 42 is aligned in the direction of movement, reducing hydrodynamic towing resistance. In addition, the beveled base section 12 reduce hydrodynamic towing resistance when towing gravity is sure Foundation. According to another implementation variant of the individual building blocks 70, 72, 74 can be separately buksirovki to the place of installation of the platform and then collected.

[043] the General design of the GBS has a very good hydrodynamic stability. Preferred pyramidal form of GBS with a wide heavy base sections and a narrow light upper section promotes sustainability. Thus, gravity foundations can be naturally sustained in a vertical position afloat in the water. In addition, due to its open construction of the gravity Foundation has a reduced weight compared to traditional gravity base, designed for the same depth. Reduced total weight, reduced towing resistance and natural hydrodynamic stability facilitate marine transportation GBS in the fully assembled form at large distances, such as from dry dock to the place of drilling in the Arctic sea.

[044] After delivery to the installation site fully assembled gravitational Foundation 10 may be submerged on the seabed by filling in the additional internal floating cameras seawater to achieve contact the lower surfaces of the base sections 12 with seawater is m bottom. Before installation of the Foundation of the seabed can be pre-prepared, for example, the alignment surface, removing unstable material, adding material, and the like, Preferably the place of installation of the Foundation is a smooth area of the seabed, so that all the bottom surface of the base sections 12 rest on the seabed. One advantage of widely spaced base sections is that this arrangement reduces the overall footprint GBS and thus reduces the amount of preparatory work on the seabed prior to installation of the Foundation. In addition, the lower part of the base sections 12 may be reinforced to ensure keeping the pressure produced by the roughness of the seabed. According to some variants of realization on the lower side of the base section 12 may be formed in the skirt of the Foundation to improve the stability of the Foundation or it can be placed beside it.

[045] After installation of the GBS on the ground level of the sea surface under normal conditions is located between the top of the transition section 52 and the top of the vertical annular section 54, so that the vertical annular section 54 passes through the surface of the water. Due to the relatively small width of the vertical the individual ring sections 54 can limit the magnitude of the shear forces, acting on a gravity Foundation 10 by waves and ice on the sea surface. In addition, the open design Foundation sections 12 and inclined sections 14 provides the possibility of leakage of water through a gravity Foundation with reduced resistance, especially in the direction of the length L of base sections 12. These features can reduce the overall lateral load acting on a gravity Foundation 10, compared with traditional designs GBS. To reduce the effects of shear forces gravity foundations can be oriented in an orientation with its longitudinal direction in the direction of the prevailing sea currents.

[046] Widely spaced base portion 12 to prevent the overturning of GBS 10 under the action of lateral loads. In addition, the lateral friction force acting between the base sections 12 and seabed, are sufficient to prevent lateral sliding GBS along the seabed. However, according to some less preferred variants of realization of the gravity Foundation 10 may be additionally attached to the seabed by piles, anchors, or other mechanisms. Gravity Foundation 10 may be performed with use of the large depth is up to about 200 meters. According to one implementation variant, the gravitational Foundation 10 can be used at depths of at least 150 meters, in particular in the depth range from about 150 meters to about 200 meters, while according to other variants of realization of the gravity Foundation 10 may be used in other depth ranges. From the range of depths for which designed a particular embodiment may depend on the height of the vertical annular portion 54.

[047] Because when you use the gravity Foundation is at least partially immersed in water, its weight may be partially offset by water pressure and partially supported by the seabed. Part of the weight supported by the seabed, can be considered as the weight of the slab in the water. In the above-described embodiments of the two base section 12 is configured to transfer essentially all of the weight in water GBS seabed.

[048] figure 7 and 8 shows another embodiment of the GBS 110 intended for use in water depths up to about 60 meters. One embodiment of the GBS 110 can be made use of in the depth range from about 60 meters to about 100 meters, while other options may be the issue is lnany with use in other ranges. Gravity Foundation 110 includes two spaced apart base section 112 and the upper section 114, passing upward from the base sections 112. On figa and 7B shows the sections of the side and front views, respectively GBS 110. On Fig shows a partial top view of GBS 110, showing the outline of two base sections 112 at different altitudes and lower section upper section 114.

[049] the Base section 112 may have a generally rectangular lower support surface 118 generally parallel inner edges 120 and outer edges 122, generally parallel end edges 124 and diagonal or oblique outer corner edges 126. Each bearing surface 118 may have a longitudinal length L of about 250 meters and a width W1 of approximately 85 meters. Open area 128 between the two base sections 112 may have a width W2 of approximately 70 meters and can extend along the entire length L between base sections 112. The base section 112 can be narrowed (continuously or in part) in the direction towards the upper perimeter 130. The inner edge 132 of the upper perimeter 130 may be located closer to the Central axis of the Foundation compared with the inner edge 120 of the support area 118, so that the base section 112 is inclined inward towards each other.

[050] the Upper section 14 may include a vertical circular casing with a variable horizontal cross-section. The upper section 114 may contain a lower outer perimeter 134, which may have an octagonal shape, as shown in Fig, or other form. The outer perimeter 134 may overlap part of the upper surface of the base sections 112 inside the upper perimeter 130, and can cross the inner edge 132. The upper section 114 may further comprise the lower inner perimeter 136, located inside the bottom of the outer perimeter 134. The lower inner perimeter 136 is located above the open region 128 and may join the side edges with the inner edges 132 of Foundation sections 112. The upper section 114 may define an open inner region 140, which passes in the axial direction or vertically completely through the upper section 114 and may have a variable cross-sectional area. The upper section 114 is able to narrow conically in a square horizontal cross-section in the upward direction from the base sections 112 to the narrow vertical portion 142 and then to expand in the upward direction from the vertical portion 142 of the upper surface 144.

[051] the Gravitational Foundation 110 may be manufactured and assembled like the gravity Foundation 110. For example, the base section may be performed separately, and the upper section can be performed in one or two parts, which are harvested at sea.

[052] the Dimensions shown on Figi 8, are examples and do not in any way limit the present invention. These dimensions describe one variant of implementation, while other implementations may have other dimensions.

[053] the Structural elements disclosed in the present application options for implementing GBS can contain any sufficiently strong, rigid material or materials, such as steel. According to some variants of implementation of any of the lower components of GBS, such as the base section 12 may contain the concrete.

[054] According to some variants described here the implementation of the first base section may include a first point on one end and a second point on the opposite end, the second base section may contain a third point on one end and a fourth point on the opposite end, and the first, second, third and fourth points define the vertices of a horizontal rectangular area, so that all parts of GBS, towering above the specified rectangular area, located directly above the rectangular area. For example, according to a variant implementation of the GBS 10 shown in figure 1, the first and second inclined sections, all transition section and the entire upper section and a surface part of aspolozhena directly above the square, given these four 30 soles.

[055] According to some variants described here implement one or more of the various elements of the GBS may contain an internal chamber that can be used for temporary or permanent storage of fluid, such as water, hydrocarbons, air and mixtures thereof. Preferably, all or most of the main structural elements may contain an internal chamber that can be selectively filled with a liquid for immersion or emersion of the specified element and/or of the node that contains the specified element. According to some variants of realization of the internal chamber used for storage of hydrocarbons that may contain wall with double hull to reduce the risk of leakage. In addition, any of these internal chambers GBS may contain solid ballast.

[056] According to preferred variants of the implementation of some of the inner chamber intended for the storage of hydrocarbons, while the other inner chamber, namely a floating camera, intended for water storage, so that the hydrocarbons do not mix with water. According to such variants of realization of a chamber filled with water, intended to be filled with water when the gravity Foundation is located on the seats is on the seabed, to ensure sufficient gravitational interaction with the seabed and the water from these cameras are removed only for lifting and moving GBS in another place. According to these options, the implementation of the camera for storage of hydrocarbons can be selectively filled and emptied when the gravity Foundation is in place, and if they are not filled with hydrocarbons, to fill them can be used with air or other gas. Thus, the hydrocarbons do not mix with sea water. These implementations can provide sufficient bulk density of the basement, even if hydrocarbon chamber filled with air or other gases.

[057] According to other variants of realization of the same camera can be used to store both water and hydrocarbons in variable proportions, so the camera is always filled with water and/or hydrocarbons. When the injection of hydrocarbons in camera portion of the water chamber can be discharged into the sea, and with the pumping of hydrocarbons instead of them may be injected water. According to these options, the implementation of the hydrocarbons may be mixed with water, but this requires that the remote of these cameras water was cleaned before being discharged into the sea. Such implementations can be provided with a smaller number of the internal chambers and/or the inner chambers of smaller volume, if all cameras are always filled with liquid, while according to the options implementation with separate chambers for water and hydrocarbons requires an increase in the total volume of the chambers and additional ballast to compensate for the additional buoyancy.

[058] the Upper section 18 GBS 10 and the upper section 114 GBS 110 may contain an internal open area through which drilling equipment passes from the upper platform to the seabed. This internal open area may be open at the top and bottom ends so that the water level within the specified interior area naturally regulated to the same height of the sea water surrounding the upper section. This inner region may be referred to as "strip mine", and the surrounding vertical ring design can be called "caisson". In addition to the constructive support of the topsides caisson can isolate drilling equipment from waves and ice formations on the sea surface. Such ice up to several meters below sea level, and thus the caisson in a preferred embodiment, the implementation takes place at least as much below sea level.

[059] Described in this application implementations GBS can IP alsowhat for different purposes. Some implementations can be used for exploration drilling, in which the gravitational Foundation move to different places to search for the preferred conditions. Such implementations can be made with the possibility of support structures for exploratory drilling and equipment located on the upper parts of the platform. Other implementations can be used for permanent work for the production of hydrocarbons, and gravity foundations can stay in one place for a long period of time, for example several years until carried out the extraction and processing of hydrocarbons. Some implementations may use in exploration and industrial purposes. Exploration may be the preferred functionality of GBS in the widest possible range of depths. Accordingly, preferably the part of the caisson may have an increased vertical height while maintaining stability of the structure, so that the gravitational Foundation could be used in a wider range of depths. When used as podvysockogo grounds for stationary operating equipment, whose weight may reach 120,000 tons, gravity foundations can be extended and more durable upper part, is as operational equipment usually has a much larger and more weight compared to plants for exploration drilling. In any case, the vertical annular section may be made with the possibility of maintaining essentially the entire weight of any add-ins that are designed for the extraction of hydrocarbons and located on the top of the vertical annular section.

[060] the above-Described implementations can use on the seabed associated with soils with undrained shear strength below 30 kPa, and the larger the gravitational foundations according to a variant implementation, shown in figure 1, is equipped with upper and lower crossbars 22, 24, can withstand the loads created perennial ice in excess of 660 MN (meganewton). Some of the more powerful variants of realization through its open design can have a total weight less than 280000 tons weight of surface structures.

General provisions

[061] In order to understand the present invention are described below, certain aspects, advantages and novel features of implementation options. The above-described devices, systems and methods in any case should not be construed as limiting. On the contrary, the present disclosure applies to all new and non-obvious features and aspects of the different options above implementation, separately and in various combinations and padcom is inatech with each other. Described above, the embodiments are not limited to a particular aspect, or distinguishing feature, or combination thereof, and the above-described implementations do not require the presence of any of at least one specific benefits or solutions to any of at least one specific task.

[062] Although for clarity of presentation, some of the disclosed methods are described in a particular order of steps, it should be understood that this manner of description encompasses rearrangement stages, if a particular order of the steps is not expressed specific words. For example, the procedure described sequentially, in some cases, it may be rebuilt or a specified operation can be performed simultaneously. In addition, in order to facilitate understanding of the attached drawings may not show the various uses of the methods described above in connection with other methods. In addition, disclosure of the methods in the description sometimes uses the terms "determine" and "provide". These terms are abstractions of a high level is actually doing. The actual steps that match the specified terms subject to change depending on specific implementations are easily distinguishable for specialists in this area is I.

[063] Used in the present description, the terms "one" and "at least one" cover one or more of these elements. Thus, if there are two specific element, one of these elements is also present, and thus present any of these items.

The terms "few" and "many" means at least two of these elements.

[064] Used in the present description, the term "and/or"inserted between the last two elements from the list of items means any single item or multiple items from the listed items. For example, the phrase "A, b and/or C"means "A", "B", "C", "A and B", "A and C", "B and C" or "A, B, and C".

[065] Used in the present description, the term "coupled" generally means a mechanical, chemical, magnetic or other physical connection or communication and does not exclude the presence of intermediate elements between related items, unless specifically stated otherwise.

[066] in View of the many possible variants of implementation, which can be applied the principles of the invention described above, it should be noted that the embodiments illustrated are only preferred examples and should not be construed as limiting the scope of the present invention. On the contrary, the scope of the present invention is defined PU is qutami the applied formula. Thus, the present invention is all that is included in the boundary points of the applied formulas.

1. The design of GBS containing:
the first elongated base section containing the inner and outer side portion, the first and second sole, the upper surface and the lower supporting surface configured to support at the bottom of the waters;
the second elongated base section containing the inner and outer side portion, the first and second sole, the upper surface and the lower surface is configured to support at the bottom of the waters, and the first and second base sections separated by an open region located between the inner side parts of the first and second base sections and passing through the entire length of the first and second base sections made with the possibility to transfer essentially all of the weight in water of the specified design on the bottom, when this structure is supported on him;
vertical annular section located above the specified open area and is configured to pass at least partially above the upper surface of the waters, and the specified vertical annular section includes a hole passing up through it;
the first inclined section connected to the first base clubs the th and connected with a vertical annular section;
the second inclined section connected to the second base section and connected with a vertical annular section;
moreover, at least part of the first and second inclined sections converge towards each other in the direction from the base sections to the vertical annular section.

2. The construction according to claim 1, for which depths greater than 150 meters.

3. The construction according to claim 1, in which each of the first and second base sections includes a support area made with the possibility of contact with the bottom, and each bearing surface is greater than the maximum area of a horizontal section of the specified vertical annular section.

4. The construction according to claim 1, in which each of the first and second base sections contains an internal floating chamber made with the navigation of the first and second base sections when said chamber is filled with water, and the filling of these cameras provides the immersion of the first and second base sections.

5. The construction according to claim 1, in which each of the first and second inclined sections includes first and second inclined struts, and at least part of the first and second inclined struts converge to each other in the upper direction.

6. The construction according to claim 5, in which each of the first and second inclined sections further comprises at least one of the horizontal transverse element, located below the vertical annular section and above the corresponding base section and connecting the first and second inclined struts.

7. The construction according to claim 5, in which the area of the horizontal section of each of the first and second inclined props continuously decreases in the direction from the corresponding base section to a vertical annular section.

8. The construction according to claim 1, which contains no transverse elements passing between the first and second base sections, so that the first and second base sections are fully separated from each other in the area between them.

9. The construction according to claim 1, in which the vertical annular section arranged to maintain essentially all of the weight add-in for extracting hydrocarbons located on the top of the vertical annular section.

10. The construction according to claim 1, in which each of the first and second base sections includes an intermediate part located between the first and second soles, the width of which is already widths of the first and second soles.

11. The construction according to claim 1, in which the first base section includes the first point and the second point; a second base section contains a third point and the fourth point; and the first, second, third and fourth points define the vertices of a horizontal opposite the first area; and the vertical annular section completely, the first inclined section completely and the second inclined section completely located directly above the specified rectangular area.

12. The construction according to claim 1, in which the area of the horizontal cross-section of at least part of each of the first and second base sections decreases in the upward direction.

13. The construction according to claim 1, in which the vertical annular section contains the lower part, made with the possibility of staying below the water surface, the upper part is made with the possibility of finding above the water surface, and an intermediate portion between the lower and upper parts, with a square horizontal cross-section of the intermediate portion is smaller than the area of a horizontal section of the specified upper part and a smaller square horizontal cross-section specified lower part and the upper part tapers in the direction of the intermediate part.

14. The construction according to claim 1, additionally containing a transition section in the form of a truncated pyramid, located between the inclined sections and the vertical annular section.

15. The construction according to claim 1, in which the first base section includes a first bearing surface made with the possibility of contact with the bottom, and the second base section includes a second bearing surface that is configured to contact the and bottom, the area of the specified open area between the first and second reference areas more than 50% of the total area of the first and second reference areas.

16. The base block design GBS containing:
an elongated first base section containing the first and second sidewalls, the first and second sole, the upper surface and the lower bearing surface;
an elongated second base section containing the first and second sidewalls, the first and second sole, the upper surface and the lower bearing surface;
each of the first and second base sections includes an intermediate part located between the first and second soles, and the intermediate portion has a width less than the width of the first and second soles;
each of the first and second base sections includes at least one floating chamber made with the navigation of the first and second base sections when the specified floating chamber is filled with water, and filling the flotation chambers water provides the immersion of the first and second base sections;
the first and second base sections are designed to explode on each other and placing their lower bearing surfaces supported on the bottom of the water area and
the first and second base sections together made with prob is the possibility of maintaining in the water of the weight of the gravity Foundation when he is on the bottom.

17. The base block according to clause 16, in which the first and second base sections are connected together by the upper cross member, so that the open area passes below the crossbar and between the first and second soles along the entire length of the first and second base sections.

18. The base block on P16, optionally containing a third section connecting the first and second base sections together and containing four oblique angle struts and four horizontal element connecting the angular struts in a rectangular design, with two of the corner supports are connected to the first base section, and the other two angle struts connected to the second base section.

19. The base block on p, in which the third section further comprises at least one floating chamber made with the navigation of the lower unit when the floating camera of the third section is filled with water, and the filling of this floating camera of the third section water provides immersion of the lower block.

20. The design of GBS containing:
the first elongated base section containing the inner and outer side parts, the first beveled sole on one end, a second beveled sole at the opposite end, an intermediate portion between the first and second soles, width which is already widths of the first and second soles, the inclined upper surface and the lower bearing surface made with the possibility of being on the seabed;
the second elongated base section containing the inner and outer side parts, the first beveled sole on one end, a second beveled sole at the opposite end, an intermediate portion between the first and second soles, the width of which is already widths of the first and second soles, the inclined upper surface and the lower bearing surface made with the possibility of being on the sea floor,
the first and second base sections separated by an open area between the inner side parts of the first and second base sections, which runs along the entire length of the first and second base sections, and the first and second base sections are made with the ability to transfer essentially all of the weight in water structure at the bottom, when this structure is located on the seabed;
the first and second inclined struts connected to the first base section, and the first and second inclined struts inclined to each other and to the second base section;
the third and fourth inclined struts connected to the second base section, and the third and fourth inclined struts tilted the other the other and to the first and second inclined struts;
the first and second horizontal transverse elements connecting the first and second struts together, and the first transverse element is located above the second transverse element;
the third and fourth horizontal transverse elements connecting the third and fourth struts together, and the third transverse element is located above the fourth transverse element;
the first and second horizontal cross member connecting the first and third struts together, with the first cross member is located above the second cross member;
the third and fourth horizontal cross member connecting the second and fourth struts together, and the third cross member is located above the fourth crossmember;
the transition section, a top end, a bottom end connected to the terminal ends of the first, second, third and fourth inclined struts and the vertical hole passing between the upper and lower ends; and
vertical annular caisson section containing the apical end, a bottom end connected with the upper end of the transition section, and a vertical hole passing between the top and bottom ends and communicates with a vertical hole transition section, and the decompression section is made with the possibility of crossing the sea surface, when this design, the I is on the seabed, and made with the possibility of maintaining essentially the entire weight add-in for extracting hydrocarbons located above the terminal end of the specified decompression section.



 

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FIELD: mechanics.

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11 cl, 15 dwg

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