Regular adapter for heat- and mass-exchange apparatuses with intermittent irrigation

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to regular nozzles for heat- and mass-transfer process in gas (steam) - fluid system, e.g. rectification, absorption cleaning and drying of natural gas. Besides it can be used in chemical, oil-and-gas industries, etc. Said nozzle consists of vertical parallel sheets coated on both sides with synthetic (polymer) frieze. Length of threads makes 0.007-0.01 m. Spacing between adjacent threads on sheet makes 0.002-0.003 m. Thread diameter makes 0.001-0.002 m. Spacing between sheet surfaces makes up to 0.02-0.03 m. Note here that fluid is fed on said surface from above intermittently to produce wave thereon. Spacing between threads on sheet surface makes at least 0.002 m to rule out thread-to-thread adhesion. Alternate wave wets the threads to coat them with fluid film so that developed surface of contact between gas and fluid is created. Then, next wave comes to carry old film and to produce new film thereon.

EFFECT: developed surface of phase contact, intensive heat exchange.

3 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The invention relates to constructions of regular nozzles used for the heat and mass transfer processes in the gas(vapor) - liquid, such as a process of distillation, absorption, adsorption of natural gas, and may also find application in technological processes in the chemical, oil, gas and other industries.

The level of technology

Source [Dynarski SCI Processes and apparatuses of chemical technology. Part 2, M, Chemistry, 1995, p.55-56] described the well-known parallel-sided nozzle, consisting of a package of flat parallel vertical sheets, on the surface of which is uniformly distributed liquid. The gas moves upward between the sheets, interacting with flowing leaves a liquid film. Above the leaves is switchgear.

The technical result is low cost nozzles, ease of manufacture, and provides a low flow resistance of the nozzle.

In common with the proposed design of the nozzle is the presence of a vertical flat sheets.

The design of this nozzle is not possible to fully ensure the effectiveness of heat and mass transfer processes due to the low surface heat and mass transfer, resulting in lower is effektivnosti operation of the nozzle and increase the overall dimensions of the device.

In the patent for useful model RU 87103 U1, B01J 19/32 (2006.01) (published 27.09.2009) "Regular nozzle for film heat and mass transfer apparatus" describes the design of the nozzle, made of sheets, oriented vertically with the formation of channels, each of which has a cross-sectional view of a regular hexagon, in the three adjacent corners of which there are horizontal partitions.

The technical result consists in the simplicity of the design.

In common with the proposed design is the presence of vertical elements on the walls of which are interacting a gas with a liquid.

The lack similar to the previous version.

The closest prototype is the design of the nozzles described in the patent for useful model RU # 77406 U1 "Regular cap". This contact device for mass transfer apparatus is composed of a series of vertically corrugated expanded metal sheets.

In common with the proposed design is the presence of regular vertically arranged elements.

The technical result consists in the creation of the developed surface of the contact phase.

The drawback is the increase in hydraulic resistance.

The objective of the invention is to provide a new high-performance regular nozzle for conducting heat and mass the metabolic processes.

The technical result

The technical result of the invention consists in:

- efficiency nozzles and intensity of the processes of heat and mass transfer,

- reducing the hydraulic resistance of the nozzle and the reduction of operating costs to overcome the hydraulic resistance

- reducing the overall dimensions of the apparatus and, consequently, reducing the capital cost of its manufacture.

Brief description of drawings

List of figures

Figure 1. Regular nozzle for heat and mass transfer apparatus with periodic irrigation.

Figure 2. Mass transfer apparatus with the proposed attachment.

Figure 3. The scheme of movement of gas and liquid through the nozzle.

In figure 1 is the design of the regular packing for heat and mass transfer apparatus with periodic irrigation. Figure 2 shows the design of mass-exchange apparatus with the nozzle. Figure 3 provides a diagram of the movement of gas and liquid through the nozzle.

Disclosure of inventions

Eliminate these drawbacks and achieve the claimed technical result from implementation of the regular packing, designed to conduct heat and mass transfer, consisting of a package vertical flat sheets, reach due to the fact that the leaves on both sides are covered with synthetic (polymer) pile, the length of the fibers extending t is to 0.007-0.01 m, the distance between adjacent fibers in the sheet 0,002-0,003 m, the diameter of the fibers 0,001-0,002 m, the distance between the surfaces of adjacent sheets to 0.02-0.03 m, while the liquid on the surface of the sheet fed from the top of the distribution device periodically so that the surface of the sheets formed waves are provided periodic irrigation of the surface of the sheet of liquid. The distance between the fibers is not less than 0,002 m in order to prevent sticking of the fibers. The next wave wets the fibers while the fibers are covered with a liquid film and formed an extensive contact surface between gas and liquid, which contributes to the intensification of heat and mass transfer. Then comes the new wave, which carries the old film and, at the same time, forms a new film on the fibers. This construction of the nozzle allows to provide an extensive surface contact between the phases and the high intensity of heat and mass transfer, to improve the efficiency of the nozzle, to reduce the hydraulic resistance of the nozzle and to reduce operating costs to overcome the hydraulic resistance, to reduce the dimensions of the apparatus and, consequently, reduce capital costs for its production.

Comparative analysis of the prototype and the claimed invention shows that the total constructive the sign is vertically set of regular elements.

The distinguishing feature of the claimed invention is that the vertical sheets covered with cloth.

The essence of the proposed regular packing is illustrated in the drawing (figure 1). In the nozzle used for vertical flat sheets 1, which are covered with synthetic (polymer) pile 2. The length of the villi is to 0.007 to 0.01 m, the distance between adjacent fibers in the sheet 0,002-0,003 m, the diameter of the fibers 0,001-0,002 m, the distance between the surfaces of the sheets to 0,02-0,03 m Liquid is supplied by means of the distribution device 4 (figure 2) on the top surface of the vertical sheets on both sides periodically so that the surface of the leaves formed a wave that is periodic irrigation. The distance between the fibers on the surface of the sheet not less than 0,002 m, in order to prevent sticking of the fibers. The next wave wets the fibers while the fibers are covered with a liquid film and formed an extensive contact surface between gas and liquid. Then comes the new wave, which takes away from the villi of the old film and, at the same time, forms a new film on the fibers.

Diagram of the flow of gas and liquid is shown in figure 3. The liquid film flows down along the surface of the leaves periodically, in the form of waves, intensive wetting of the fibers. After passing the next wave on the Ergneti fibers formed film, creating a large surface of contact phase between gas and liquid. This leads to an increase in the intensity of the processes of heat and mass transfer and the efficiency of the nozzle. That, in turn, will lead to the reduction of the dimensions of the apparatus and to reduce the capital cost of its manufacture. The gas flows upwards between the sheets, interacting with the liquid on the surface of the villi. This construction of the nozzle reduces the flow resistance of the nozzle and to reduce operating costs to overcome the hydraulic resistance.

The implementation of the invention

Offer regular nozzle operates as follows.

Figure 2 presents the mass exchange apparatus 3 with the proposed cap. In the lower part of the mass exchange apparatus gas(vapor) via a distribution device 5. The flow of gas(steam) passes upward between vertical flat plates, covered with synthetic pile on the surface of which flows the liquid (solution) in the form of waves (2 and 3). Waves are formed as a result of the periodic fluid supply pump 6 via the distribution device 4, there is provided a periodic irrigation of the leaves. The next wave wets hairs on the leaves, while the villi are covered by a liquid film and is formed developed contact surface is between gas and liquid. Then comes the new wave, which carries the old film and, at the same time, forms a new film on the fibers. Liquid (product) leaves the apparatus through the nozzle in the bottom. Exhaust gas (steam) exit through the nozzle in the upper part of the device.

Wetting of the fibers is provided by surface tension. Two adjacent fibers form between them a channel (capillary), which is filled with water due to capillary forces. Such wetting of the capillary liquid film provides increased surface contact between the phases and increasing the efficiency of heat and mass transfer.

In accordance with the formula Jurena (Frolov YG Course of colloid chemistry. - M.: Chemistry, 1988. - 464 S.) height movement of the fluid through the capillary is defined as

where h is the height of movement of the fluid, m; r is the radius of the channel, equal to half the distance between the villi, m; σ - surface tension coefficient of the fluid, N/m2; ρ - density of fluid, kg/m3; g - gravitational acceleration, m/s2.

Thus, as shown by the calculation according to equation Jurena, when the distance between the fibers of 3 mm at a temperature T=20°C water will fill the channels between the fibers on 0,0097 M. That is, the length of the fibers in this case should be 0,0097 m in case of changes In process parameters (temperature, pressure, the IDA environment) physical quantities, in the equation (σ and ρ), also a few changes that will lead to a new desired length of the villi. Calculations show that in the working range of temperatures and pressures used in technological regimes, when the change of the distance between adjacent fibers within 0,002-0,003 m range changes required length of the fibers should be 0,007 of 0.01 m otherwise, the portion of the surface of the villi may not be moistened, which will lead to decrease in incentivesto heat and mass transfer and efficiency of the nozzle.

The choice of the diameter of the fibers is associated with the magnitude of the contact surface phases. When the diameter of the fibers of 0.001 m, the distance between the fibers of 0.002 m and the length of the fibers is 0.01 m, the surface area of contact of phases 1 m2plates will be 3,57 m2. The increase in the diameter of the fibers will reduce the surface contact between the phases, which is undesirable. However, to increase the stability of the villi possible to use fibers with a diameter of up to 0,002 m Select the diameter of the fibers also depends on the material of the fibers. For example, fibers made of metal, the required diameter of 0.001, polyethylene - 0,002 m

Increasing the diameter of the fibers over 0.002 m will reduce the surface contact between the phases, and, consequently, decreasing the efficiency of heat and mass transfer. The reduction of diameter of less than 0.001 mm will lead to reduced the Yu sustainability villi, because the hair must withstand not only the weight but also the weight of the liquid film. Thus, the reduction of the diameter of the fibers of less than 0.001 mm may result in the rejection of villi from a horizontal position under the action of gravity, undesirable adhesion of the fibers and, as consequence, to decrease the intensity of heat and mass transfer. The optimal range of the diameter of the fibers is 0,001-0,002 m, which will ensure the best efficiency of the nozzle, the intensity of mass transfer and, consequently, reduce the overall dimensions of the apparatus and the capital cost of its manufacture.

The distance between adjacent sheets due to the length of the fibers when the length of the villi 0.01 m distance between sheets shall be not less than 0.02 m To prevent overflow of the liquid from the fibers of one sheet in the villi of the other sheet between the ends of the fibers of adjacent sheets it is necessary to provide additional clearance value of 0.01 meters the Flow of fluid from one leaf to another can result in uneven distribution of the liquid on the nozzle and reduce the efficiency of heat and mass transfer.

The gap between the ends of the fibers will reduce the hydraulic resistance offered nozzles and reduce operating costs to overcome the hydraulic resistance.

Thus, n is necessary distance between the plates should be 0,02-0,03 m

Thus, this construction of the nozzle allows to provide an extensive surface contact between the phases and the high intensity of heat and mass transfer, to improve the efficiency of the nozzle, to reduce the hydraulic resistance of the nozzle and to reduce operating costs to overcome the hydraulic resistance, to reduce the overall dimensions of the apparatus and, consequently, reduce capital costs for its production.

Regular nozzle for heat and mass transfer apparatus, consisting of a package of parallel vertical sheets, wherein the sheets with both sides covered with synthetic pile, the length of the villi is to 0.007-0.01 m, the distance between adjacent fibers in the sheet 0,002-0,003 m, the diameter of the fibers 0,001-0,002 m, the distance between the surfaces of adjacent sheets in the range of 0.02-0.03 m, while the liquid on the surface of the sheet fed from switchgear from the top periodically so that the surface of the sheets formed waves.



 

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EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased effectiveness and productivity for the gas (vapor) in the mass-exchange column in conditions of the low loading by the liquid and to expand the range of the stable operation of the column as a whole.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; petroleum industry; natural gas industry; other industries; production of the nozzles used in the processes of the natural gas rectification, absorption, purification and dehydration.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to designs of the regular nozzles, which are used in the processes of the natural gas rectification, absorption, purification and dehydration and also as the mixers of the liquid and gaseous streams as the separators of the phases in the separation devices, as the contact elements in the condensers of mixing, as the sprinklers of the water cooling towers and may find usage practically in all production processes in petroleum, gaseous, chemical and other allied industries. The regular nozzle consists of the corrugated plates gathered in packages installed vertically and in parallel with the inclination of the flutes of the adjacent sheets to the horizon in the opposite sides, contacting by the protruding flutes to each other and forming among themselves the free channels of the complicated geometrical form. The nozzle is supplied with the spacers made in the form of the block of the horizontally laid in the rows in parallel to each another volumetric components. At that the symmetry axes of the components laying in the adjacent in height rows are mutually perpendicular. The ratio of the height of the package consisting of the corrugated sheets to the height of the spacer block lays within the limits of 2-5. The total height of the block of the spacers lays within the limits of 1.0-4.0 equivalent diametersof one component. The equivalent diameter of channels of the corrugated sheets package and the equivalent diameter of the component of the block of the spacer are in the ratio of 0.4-0.8. The components of the block of the spacer represent the solids of revolution, which are made in the form of the multiple-thread helicoids, at that the number of the threads makes 2-4. The components of the spacer block are laid in the rows with the clearance to each other, at that the interval, which separates the symmetry axes of the adjacent components makes 1.7-2.5 diameters of one component. The invention allows to raise intensity of the processes of the heat- and mass-exchange due to turbulization of the gas streams and redistribution of the liquid.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased intensity of the heat-exchange and mass-exchange processes due to turbulization of the gas streams and redistribution of the liquid.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: separation of materials.

SUBSTANCE: nozzle comprises stacks made of vertical sheets provided with projections that define the sloping passages between the sheets for flowing the phases. The sheets of at least one pair of the stacks are coated with porous belts made of polymeric materials. The porous belts are connected with a source of positive charges.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

3 cl, 4 dwg

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