Method to construct seismic-safe hydraulic power plants that protect rivers and environment

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering and may be used in construction of hydraulic power plants in any area. The method includes construction of a cascade of water reservoirs with small capacity that are built at side river affluents, in area folds or in ravines, aside from the main river bed. Water reservoirs and their dams are arranged at one or both sides of the river at such distance from each other so that water horizons of each subsequent water reservoir of the cascade, starting from the river head, are lower than the bottom of the previous one. All water reservoirs of the cascade are connected to each other by discharge water conduits, water intakes of which are arranged in the lowest points of the dam of the previous water reservoir, and the end, with a hydraulic turbines or hydraulic turbines, for instance, active, cone and generators, on the dam or shores of the subsequent water reservoir, with drainage of water in it from the turbines. The first water intake of the HPP cascade is made, for instance, as a side one from the main river bed.

EFFECT: invention provides for river protection as an HPP is constructed on it in its original form, reduced adverse effects from water reservoirs, preserved ecology of the area, where the HPP is being built, provides for the possibility to obtain high HPP capacities from the river without accumulation of high amount of water in water reservoirs, and elimination of domino effect in damage of one or several dams of the HPP cascade.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to engineering and can be used in the construction of hydroelectric power station, in any location.

The famous "Small hydro turbine with active" (Patent No. 2305793. Application 2005140717/06(045344), from 26.12.2005,).

Small HPP with active turbine, which includes the dam water intake, cone intake, penstock, impulse turbine, a generator driven characterized in that the cone intake performed by the cone only in the horizontal plane, the entrance of the bottom outlet and the entrance cone intake are situated in one plane and above them on the crest of the dam water intake installed a warm room, a wall which is facing the reservoir, is located in front of the dam and its lower edge recessed on the amount of freezing water reservoir, and the active turbine is made in the form of a disk rigidly mounted on the shaft of the turbine, on both sides which, on its periphery fixed buckets, made in the form of snails, twisting incident jet of water from nozzle pressure conduit so that waste water jet fell by the main jet, each nozzle pressure conduit is made in the form of a cone associated with the valve pressure conduit via an intermediate conduit, and as the brake system to stabilize the speed of the turbine wheel and, hence, the frequencies of the current when changing in the process station, the parameters of pressure and loads on the generator from customers current applied additional DC generator, which shaft is rigidly connected with the shaft of the main generator and the field winding through a diode bridge to feed current from the main, three-phase circuit of the main generator, in addition, in the control circuit of the excitation winding of the main generator is applied to the rheostat, designed to change the current in the excitation winding driven centrifugal plunger, for example, systems of the vehicle, which shaft is also connected with the shaft of the main generator.

The famous "Station with a pressure conduit and a side intake", patent No. 2448215 (Application No. 2008108539/03, 04.03.2008,).

The system with a pressure conduit and a side intake, including a turbine and drive generators, characterized in that the intake hydro power made in the form of an artificial reservoir, which is being built next to the river and connected to the intake portion of the pressure conduit, the upper edge of which is located near or at the level of the deepest natural point of the bottom of the river, at the site of the artificial reservoir, the latter being connected to the river channel or conduit, the bottom of which is made as at or close to the most profound natural t is chce the bottom of the river.

Known hydropower plant using the energy of the velocity head of the river for accumulation in the reservoir is not associated with the river, the necessary pressure and volume of water (Patent WO 2007/131305 A1 of the Institute of energy technologies. Japan. The author IN the FIELDS SEARCHED).

The invention consists in that the water storage reservoir is built away from the river. Filling it with water is only pumping units installed in the bed of the main river, which is to create the necessary pressure to use energy velocity head of the river. Such facilities, at the suggestion of the author, can be from one to need their number. The author does not specify which part of the energy flow can be used.

The closest, the technical nature of the present invention is a Method of construction of hydropower plants". Author Zimin G.T.

Application No. 92003099 from 02.11.1992,, 6E02B 0900, "the Method of construction of hydropower plants is that hydropower plants are built in tiers, with a supply of water from upstream hydroelectric power to downstream on inclined underground discharge conduits. Horizons water reservoirs of this tier from each other may vary in height of only one meter.

All the proposed solutions do not take into account the real with the standing of the river or other natural water flow, energy which you want to use. And this energy is not constant, as it is not constantly replenish the water of the river, regardless of the nature and water catchment. This volatility, daily, sporadic, seasonal, requires the creation of reservoirs, and whatever the capacity of these reservoirs were not (an example of the Nurek reservoir, the Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power station and others), their volume is not enough for stable operation of the generating units. In any case, on any river, the stable operation of hydropower plants defines a single stable for each river value - the amount of the minimum household drain in the middle of summer.

The purpose of the invention is the preservation of the river, the construction of the hydroelectric power plant, in its original form, the reduction of the negative effects of reservoirs, ecological conservation areas, where HPP is built, and the exclusion of "Domino"effect, fracture of one or more of the dams of hydroelectric power, for example, in the case of a strong earthquake. This goal is achieved by the application of the method of construction of seismometers, river conservation and ecology, hydropower plants, including a cascade of small-capacity reservoirs, which are built on the side tributaries, the folds or logs, aside from the main rivers, characterized in that the reservoir and dam are located with one of the second or both sides of the river, at such a distance from each other, so that the water elevations of each subsequent from the river's source, reservoir cascade were below the bottom of the previous, and all reservoirs in the cascade are connected between a ground pressure water pipelines, water intakes are located in the lowest point of the previous dam reservoir, and the end, with the turbine or turbines, for example, the active cone and the generators at the dam or the banks of the subsequent reservoir, with spillway at him waste water turbines, and the first intake of the hydroelectric system is performed, for example, the side of the main stream.

Figure 1 shows the General scheme of such a cascade of hydroelectric power plants with dams and reservoirs.

Along the river-1, the energy which will be used to generate electricity, with one or both of its sides, on the side of its tributaries, or using terrain folds, built a series of dams-2. Behind them formed a small reservoir 3, the replenishment volumes of water in which there is not only due to domestic runoff from areas adjacent to the reservoir, and precipitation, but also due to the fact that these reservoirs are located so that the horizon of water each subsequent reservoir is located below the bottom of the previous, and connected to each other by pressure conduits-4, turbines is, with current generators, of which 5 are located on the dam or the Bank of a reservoir downstream of the river, with a mandatory waste discharge their water into the reservoir, and the water is from the lowest part of the dam reservoir, located upstream of the river, and the first intake of the hydroelectric system can be accessed directly from the main river channel, using the side of the intake-6. Each cubic meter of water, taken the first intake of the main riverbed, will work as many times as dams and their reservoirs in the hydroelectric system. Reservoir under this act as not only the battery of specific volumes of water, but also the role of the surge tank, currently, hydropower with pressurised water, forced to apply because of the shortcomings in the designs of existing types of turbine.

Due to the fact that each reservoir cascade continuously replenished by water volume minimum "consumer drain", there is no need in the reservoirs of large volume, high dams. The ecology of the area and the river on which to build such a cascade, not broken.

The proposed method of construction of hydropower plants, in contrast to the existing, in which the dam or dams perevarivaetsya the river, has a number of advantages the TV:

A. Maximally reduces the negative effects of hydropower on the environment and ecology of the places of building a hydropower objects.

B. The entire volume of "consumer drain" of the river, in winter low water getting into the pipes of the conduit, not "smeared" along the bed of the river on the ice, the ice and drainage, and is maintained throughout the water completely and works repeatedly. The head of the river throughout the discharge conduits is also used fully. All this allows you to get from the river large hydroelectric power without accumulation of large amount of water in the reservoirs.

C. the Proposed method eliminates the Domino principle" for accidents at hydropower facilities located in cascade in the main river channel. When the destruction of at least one of the dams from earthquakes, hostilities or act of terrorism in the main channel of the river falls only a small amount of water in its reservoir.

The method of construction of seismometers, river conservation and ecology, hydropower plants, including a cascade of small-capacity reservoirs, which are built on the side tributaries, the folds or logs, aside from the main rivers, characterized in that the reservoir and dam have on one or both sides of the river at such a distance from each on the UGA, to the horizons of water each subsequent from the river's source, reservoir cascade were below the bottom of the previous, and all reservoirs in the cascade are connected with the pressure conduit, the intake of which is placed in the lowest points of the previous dam reservoir, and the end, with the turbine or turbines, for example, the active cone and the generators at the dam or the banks of the subsequent reservoir, with spillway at him waste water turbines, and the first intake of the hydroelectric system is performed, for example, the side of the main channel of the river.



 

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