Method and device for monitoring work of autonomic nervous system of patient under anesthesia
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to medicine. Method applies control device, which contains measuring equipment and control unit. Method includes obtaining signal of skin conductivity, measured on the section of patient's skin within the interval of measurement, by means of measuring equipment. In accordance with the invention, by means of control unit calculated is characteristics of skin conductivity signal, representing static dispersion of values of skin conductivity signal throughout the interval of measurements, including calculation of standard deviation of values of skin conductivity signal throughout the interval of measurements. On the basis of said characteristics first outlet signal, indicating on patient's pain state or discomfort, is formed. Second signal, indicating state of patient's recovery, is formed on the basis of the same characteristics. Said control device is described.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of control over the state of autonomic nervous system.
13 cl, 2 dwg
The technical field to which the invention relates.
The present invention relates in General to medical technology, in particular to a method and apparatus for monitoring the condition of the patient under General anesthesia.
The level of technology
During surgery it is very important to monitor the level of consciousness and degree of awakening of the patient. To date, there are few reliable ways to implement such tracking. In the field of medical technology, there is a problem performing physical measurements characterizing the activity of the autonomic nervous system of the individual, i.e. the part of the nervous system, not controlled by the will.
In particular, there is a particular need to monitor the status of the autonomic nervous system euthanized not talking of the patient, i.e. the patient under anesthesia or connected to the ventilator, with the aim of identifying the needs of the patient in additional useplease tools due to the appearance of the stimuli Wake-up or additional painkillers tools due to the appearance of painful stimuli.
Tests have shown that the conductivity of the skin changes, representing a time-dependent variable, which in addition to the base, slowly changing value (the so-called basic level, or the average of the level of conductivity for a certain period of time) has another component, including spontaneous waves or fluctuations.
This basic level and characteristics of such fluctuations can be tracked on the monitor qualified operator (e.g., surgeon or anesthesiologist), in order to monitor the status of the autonomic nervous system of the patient.
In document WO 03/94726 disclosed a method and apparatus for monitoring the Autonomous nervous system of a patient under anesthesia. In this way measure the conductivity of a certain area of the skin of the patient. Expect certain characteristics, including the average conductivity of the skin for some period of time and the number of values fluctuations over the same period of time. Based on these characteristics form the two output signals, reflecting, respectively, the pain, the discomfort and the degree of awakening of the patient. Signal the degree of awakening of the form based on the number of fluctuations and the average conductivity value for some period of time.
Disclosure of inventions
The problem to which the present invention is directed is to provide an improved method and an improved device for monitoring the condition of the patient under General anesthesia.
The proposed method and the device described in the attached formula.
Brief description of drawings
The principles of the present invention will be escrita below on the example of the invention, illustrated in the drawings.
Figure 1 presents the block diagram of the preferred alternative implementation of the device according to the invention.
Figure 2 presents the block diagram of the method according to the invention.
The implementation of the invention
Figure 1 presents the block diagram of the preferred alternative implementation of the device according to the invention.
Essential structural elements of hardware devices have been previously described in the publication of the applicant's WO 03/94726 with detailed reference to the block diagram shown in figure 1 given publication, and the corresponding detailed description. The contents of this publication and, in particular, the design of the hardware incorporated into the present text by reference.
In zone 2 the skin part 1 of the patient's body is placed a sensor 3 for measuring the conductivity of the skin. Part 1 of the body is, preferably, an arm or a leg, and zone 2 skin part 1 of the body is, preferably, the palm of the hand or sole of foot. In an alternative embodiment, part 1 of the body may be the patient's forehead. Sensors 3 contain contact electrodes, of which at least two electrodes placed on the skin in zone 2. In one preferred options sensors 3 contain three electrodes: a signal electrode, the measuring electrode and the reference electrode voltage, especiauy constant voltage is applied to the stratum corneum (surface of the Horny layer of the skin) under the measuring electrode. Measuring and signal electrodes are preferably placed on the skin in zone 2. The electrode of the reference voltage can also be placed on the skin in zone 2, but it is preferable to place it in a nearby area that is suitable for the specific conditions of the measurement scheme.
To measure the conductivity of the skin in one of the embodiments uses an alternating current. Used alternating current preferably has a frequency in the range up to 1000 Hz, for example 88 Hz. A signal generator operating at a predetermined frequency, and supplies the current signal to the signal electrode.
The resulting current flowing through the measuring electrode is fed to the transmitter 4, which contains the Converter current to voltage and circuit decomposition emitting active conductivity as a real part of a complex full conduction.
Measuring transducer 4 may also contain circuits of the amplifier and filter. In a preferred embodiment, the measuring transducer includes low-pass filters set as input and output. The purpose of the input low pass filter attenuation of high-frequency interference, such as interference from other medical equipment; in addition, he performs the function antialiasingmode filter, which cuts off high-frequency components, that is, they do not appear in the subsequent chain sampling time.
The control unit 5 has a block 51 of the sampling time the sampling time of the signal transducer. May benefit from the implementation of the sampling time sampling frequency of the order of 20-200 times per second. Next, the control unit is equipped with an analog-digital Converter 52, which converts the measurement data into digital form.
The control unit 5 includes a Central processing unit (CPU) 53 for processing the digitized measurement data, a means of storing information in the form of at least one storage device (memory) for storing data and programs, such as nonvolatile memory 54, and a random access memory (RAM) 55. The control unit 5 has, further, the output interface circuit 61 through which a given output signals 71, 72. In a preferred embodiment, the control unit 5 is equipped with, in addition, a diagram of the display interface 81, which is additionally connected to the display unit 8. May benefit from the implementation in which the control unit 5 also includes a communication port 56 for digital communication with an external device such as a personal computer 10.
In one of the preferred embodiments the non-volatile memory 54 has a permanent memory in the form of block programmable permanent memory or, in the alternate the main version, block flash memory containing at least a program code and constant data, and the RAM 55 is equipped with circuits of memory for storing measurement results and other temporary data.
In addition, the control unit 5 is equipped with the master oscillator (not shown)that outputs the clock signal for the control of the CPU 53. The CPU 53 also contains tools for timing (not shown) for indicating the current time used in the analysis of the measurements. These funds countdown is well known in the art and are often already built into the schemes of microcontrollers or processors, which the specialist deems suitable for use in the composition of the present invention.
The control unit 5 may be microprocessor-based with connecting the input, output, memory, and other peripheral units, or it may be in the form of a microcontroller, which is embedded in some or all of the connected nodes; it can also be enabled unit 51 of the sampling time and/or analog-to-digital Converter 52. The selection of the appropriate execution control unit 5 assumes decisions within the competence of a specialist.
In an alternative embodiment, the control unit is a digital signal processor.
In accordance with the present invention new, with the prize of akami of the invention a method of analysis of signal conduction of the skin carry out control unit 5. Due to the presence of code managing unit 5 is a specialized device for implementing the method according to the invention, represented in particular by the example described below with reference to figure 2.
The control unit 5 is made so that it had the ability to read discretized in time and quantized measurements of the conductivity of the skin of the measuring transducer 4, preferably using executable software code stored in the nonvolatile memory 54 and executed by the CPU 53. Next, the control unit 5 is made so that there is the option of saving the measurement results in allowing reading and writing of the RAM 55. Next, the control unit 5 are made so as to use the code to analyze the measurement results in real time, i.e. simultaneously or in parallel with the measurements.
In this context, the expression "at the same time or in parallel" should be understood in the sense of practical concurrency or parallelism, i.e. in connection with the timing characteristic of the nature of the data measurements. This means that input, preservation and analysis of the results may be held in spaced time intervals, but in this case these time intervals and the intervals between them are so small that individual action is represented by what is happening at the same time.
Next, the control unit 5 are made so as to be able to identify fluctuations of signal conduction of the skin. In particular, the control unit 5 is configured to calculate the value characterizing the statistical variance (for example with the possibility of calculating the standard deviation) values of signal conduction of the skin throughout the measurement interval.
Other functions of the control unit described later with reference to a variant of the method, illustrated in figure 2.
All the above functions of the control unit 5 are provided in the relevant parts of a computer program, stored in memory, preferably in non-volatile memory 54.
The CPU 53, a memory 54 and 55, an analog-to-digital Converter 52, the communication port 56, the interface circuit 81 and the interface circuit 61 is connected to the host bus 59. Details of the structure of the architecture of such tires to create a device based on a microprocessor are well-known specialist in this field.
The interface circuit 61 is a digital or analog output circuit that generates a digital or analog representation of the first and second output signals 71, 72, transmitted from the CPU 53 via the bus 59, when the CPU 53, executing the program code accesses the interface circuit 61.
The first and second output signals 71, 72 reflect with the state of the autonomic nervous system of the patient. Specifically, the first output signal 71 indicates a state of pain or discomfort, and the second output signal 72 in the state of awakening. Data signals 71, 72 can be a convenient way to combine the device with appropriate indicators, such as visual and/or audible indicators.
Further, the device comprises a block 9 of the power source to supply operating power to various parts of the device. Power can be supplied from the battery or from the network.
Can give the advantage to adapt the device to perform the requirements of hospital equipment to ensure patient safety. Such security requirements are relatively simple to execute, if the device is powered from the battery. But if the device is plugged in, the power supply must meet special requirements, or requirements of a galvanic separation is safe for the patient parts of the device (for example, battery-operated) and parts of the device, representing a hazard to the patient. If the device must be connected to external equipment, powered and dangerous for the patient, required galvanic isolation connection device, safe for the patient, and an external equipment which is dangerous is here for the patient. Can take advantage of the implementation of such galvanic isolation through optical separation. Requirements for safety equipment around the patient, and technical solutions implementing such requirements in respect of devices similar to the device according to the present invention, well-known to experts.
Figure 2 presents the block diagram of the method according to the invention.
The method is preferably carried out using a processor as part of a device that generates an output signal reflecting the state of the Autonomous nervous system of a patient under anesthesia, i.e. using is depicted in figure 1 of the CPU 53 in the control unit 5.
The execute method start start step 200.
The initial conditions set at step 210. The specified step 210 may include setting the measurement interval and the return of the first and second output signals 71, 72 on the initial level corresponding to the zero degree of awakening of the patient and the absence of pain.
The duration of the measurement interval may be, for example, within the boundaries of 5-40 with or 10-30 s, or approximately 20 C. there are also other intervals.
Next, at step 220 pickup signal during this interval measurements on a selected area of the patient's skin to measure the signal (t) its conductivity. The signal may be represented as numerical values stored in memory devices such as RAM 55.
Next, at step 230 calculation using, for example, a CPU 53, calculates the characteristic conductance of the skin. Calculation step 230 also includes the calculation of the values characterizing the statistical variance of the signal values of the conductivity of the skin throughout the measurement interval.
In one embodiment, the payment step 230 includes the calculation of the standard (RMS) deviation of the signal values of the conductivity of the skin throughout the measurement interval.
Alternatively, provided the opportunity for computational step 230 to compute an aggregate function, selected from the following list:
deviation, interquartile range, range, mean difference, median absolute deviation, average absolute deviation, variation coefficient, kwartalny the coefficient of dispersion, relative mean difference and the ratio of the deviance to the average.
For clarity, the following further detailed description will be carried out for the variant, according to which at step 230 calculates the standard deviation. However, the specialist in this area will be easily understood that, when the calculated step 230 calculates the statistical variance value is th conductivity of the skin with the use of other statistical functions, the remaining steps of the method and, in particular, obtaining the maximum values used in these steps, you can easily adapt accordingly.
Further, in the first step 240 compare numeric representation of the statistical dispersion of the signal conductivity of the skin, such as standard deviation, compared with the first predefined limit value L1.
If the statistical variance estimate standard deviation, it is desirable that the first limit value L1 lying in the range from 0.01 to 0.30 µs (more preferably in the range of 0,02-0,10 µs), and in the best case scenario was to 0.03 µs.
When to assess the statistical dispersion use a different aggregation function, the corresponding intervals for the first limit value L1 can easily be counted on the basis of the information contained in this description.
If a numeric representation of the statistical dispersion (e.g. standard deviation) exceeds the first limit value L1, perform step 250 the formation of the first output signal. In this step, the first output signal 71 is formed in such a way that it was an indicator of pain or discomfort to the patient. Further execution of the method continues in the second step 260 comparison.
If a numeric representation of the statistical dispersion is not previse the first limit value L1, the execution of the method continues directly to the second step 260 comparison.
Further, in the second step 260 comparison numeric representation of the statistical dispersion (standard deviation) signal conductivity of the skin compared with the second predefined limit value L2.
If the statistical variance estimate standard deviation, it is desirable that the second limit value L2 lying in the range of 0.06-18,0 µs (more preferably in the range of 0.10 to 3.0 µs), and the optimal variant was 0.5 µs.
When to assess the statistical dispersion use a different aggregation function, the corresponding intervals for the second limit value L2 can be easily counted on the basis of the provisions of this specification.
If a numeric representation of the statistical dispersion (e.g. standard deviation) exceeds the second limit value L2, perform step 270 forming the second output signal. In this step, the second output signal 72 is formed so that it was a Wake-up indicator of the patient. After step 270, the execution of the method continues at step 280 final decision.
If a numeric representation of the statistical dispersion does not exceed the second limit, the execution of the method continues directly to step 280 the adoption of OK is Natalenko solutions.
When performing this step, conduct a test to determine whether to complete the process. Such determination may be based, for example, manual data entry by the user. If a decision will be made on completion of the process, it ends in step 290. Otherwise, execution of the method is repeated from step 210 to set the initial conditions.
The above description and drawings illustrate a particular implementation of the present invention. The specialist will be clear that there are many alternative and equivalent embodiments of the present invention is not beyond its capacity. For example, the use of impedance (including resistance) of the skin instead of its conductivity, of course, will give similar results, if subsequent processing of the measured signal will be taken into account the inverse relationship of these variables.
Throughout this description and the claims, the term "patient". Thus it should be clear that, although the present invention is primarily intended for monitoring the health of human beings, the invention, as it turns out, is also applicable for monitoring the health of animals, in particular mammals. Therefore, the term "patient" should be understood as denoting and patients-people, and patients vividly the data.
The invention is not limited to the above illustrative options for implementation. On the contrary, the scope of the invention defined by the following claims.
1. The way to control the state of the autonomic nervous system of the patient under General anesthesia with the use of devices for controlling, containing and measuring equipment and the control unit including:
- obtaining, using measuring equipment signal conductivity of the skin, measured on the skin of the patient during the measurement interval,
characterized in that calculate, using the control unit a signal conductivity of the skin, representing a static variance of the signal values of the conductivity of the skin throughout the measurement interval, including the calculation of the standard deviation of the signal values of the conductivity of the skin throughout the measurement interval,
on the basis of this characteristic by using the control unit form a first output signal indicating a state of pain or discomfort of the patient, and
on the basis of the same characteristics with the help of the control unit form a second output signal indicating the condition of the patient wakes.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the step of forming a first output signal indicating a state of pain or discomfort of the patient, includes compared the e value, represents the statistical variance, with the first limit value, the first signal is formed so that it points to a state of pain or discomfort of the patient, if the value representing the statistical variance exceeds the first limit value.
3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the step of forming a second output signal indicating the condition of the patient wakes, involves the comparison of the values representing the statistical variance, with the second limit value, the second signal is formed so that it points to a state of awakening, if the value representing the statistical variance exceeds the second limit value.
4. The method according to claim 2 or 3, characterized in that the said first limit value lies in the range from 0.01 to 0.30 µs.
5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the said first limit value lies in the range of 0,02-0,10 µs.
6. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that the said first limit value is approximately 0,03 µs.
7. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the second limit value lies in the range of 0.06-18,0 µs.
8. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that the second limit value lies in the range of 0.10 to 3.0 µs.
9. The method according to claim 8, characterized in that specified the th second limit value is about 0.5 µs.
10. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the specified measurement interval is in the range from 5 C to 40 C.
11. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that the specified measurement interval is in the range from 10 C to 30 C.
12. The method according to claim 11, characterized in that the specified measurement interval is approximately 15 C.
13. Device for monitoring the Autonomous nervous system of a patient under anesthesia, containing measuring equipment to receive the signal of the skin conductivity, measured on the skin of the patient, and the control unit is configured to calculate the characteristics of the signal conductivity of the skin and the formation of the first and second output signals indicating the condition of the patient, according to claims 1 to 12.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to dentistry, and is intended for application in diagnostics of dental status and determination of quality of treatment of dental patients. Area of statokinesiogram ellipse is measured by computer stabilometry in the following positions of examined person: with closed eyes (CE), dentitions in position of central occlusion (CO), dentitions in position of anterior occlusion (AO), with widely open mouth (OM), dentitions in position of bilateral occlusion separation (BOS), dentitions in position of right-side occlusion separation (ROS), dentitions in position of left-side occlusion separation (LOS). Obtained values are compared with value of closed eyes test (CE). Results of comparison are calculated in points. Deviation from first test less than 50% is taken as 0 points, deviation 50-100% - as 1 point, and more than 100% deviation - as 2 points. If total number of points in CO and AO is from 2 to 4, as well as if total number of points in positions OM, BOS, ROS, LOS is from 0 to 2, safe functional state of dentition is diagnosed. If total number of points in CO and AO is from 2 to 4, as well as if total number of points in positions OM, BOS, ROS, LOS is from 3 to 5, decreased functional state of dentition is diagnosed. If total number of points in CO and AO is less than 2 and/or total number of points in positions OM, BOS, ROS, LOS is from 6 to 8, sharply decreased functional state of dentition is diagnosed.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase reliability of dentition dysfunction diagnostics due to carrying out additional tests and introduction of point system for estimation of examination results.
5 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely, to anesthesiology and reanimatology, and can be used in carrying out spinal blockade in pregnant women in Cesarian section operation. For this purpose height, body weight index and intra-abdominal pressure are determined. After that, point evaluation of obtained parameters is carried out: height (cm) higher than 171 - 1 point, 170-166 - 2 points, 165-161 - 3 points, 160-156 - 4 points, 155-150 - 5 points, lower than 150 - 6 points. Body weight index 20-24.9 - 1 point, 25-29.9 - 2 points, 30-34.9 - 3 points, 35-39.9 - 4 points, more than 40-5 points. Intra-abdominal pressure (cm H20) lower than 16 - 1 point, 17-19 - 2 points, 20-21 - 3 points, 22-23 - 4 points, higher than 24 - 5 points. If sum of points constitutes 3-6, risk is estimated as low, if sum of points is 7-9, risk is estimated as moderate, if sum of points is 10-12, risk is high, is sum of points constitutes more than 13 points, risk is estimated as extremely high.
EFFECT: method ensures prevention of development of high spinal blockade due to correction of local anesthetic dose before surgical intervention with taking into account patient's individual peculiarities.
1 tbl, 1 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine, namely to traumatology-orthopedics and neurology. Testing on stabiligraphic platform, reading, recording and analysis of stabiligraphic indices by statokinesiogram are performed. Changes of frontal and sagittal coordinates are fixed separately. Trajectory of gravity centre movement on platform plane is fixed on frontal and sagittal stabilogram. After that, determined are: intervals of movement at constant rate on each of the coordinates, intervals of movement on trajectory at constant, including zero linear rate and at constant angular rate. Distances by coordinates, trajectories and angles, which are passed within each of the intervals, are determined. Values of changes of rates on interval borders and quantity of intervals of each duration at particular rate are determined. Generalised intervals of unchanged movement are formed. Obtained numerical values are visualised with presentation in graphic form, and individual peculiarities, which characterise the process of keeping balance by patient are identified by comparison of obtained values with standard parameters.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase reliability of diagnostics and realise differential diagnostics of functional impairment of locomotor system, which is achieved due to taking into account individual peculiarities.
2 cl, 6 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to rehabilitation of speech disorders (motor aphasias) in case of cerebral cortex pathology. Patient pronounces speech stimulus. Individual convenient for patient rhythm, in which they pronounce to themselves said stimulus with frequency, equal to individual rhythm, is determined. Tongue microarticulation is registered. Obtained mechanical fluctuations are transformed into electric impulses and transferred into computer in form of histogram. Histogram of individual rhythm is superposed on obtained histogram and recovery of internal speech is assessed by increase of number of impulses, coinciding in frequency with frequency of individual rhythm.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to accelerate process of rehabilitation of patients with motor aphasia.
FIELD: personal use articles.
SUBSTANCE: insole manufacture method includes usage of a device equipped with a means for an elastic membrane attachment and tensioning and usage of a sole image for the insole two-sided mechanical treatment; the means for the elastic membrane attachment and tensioning is designed in the form of two horizontal rods with the possibility of their position adjustment and is mounted on a scanner; then one adjusts the position of the said horizontal rods in terms of height and distance between them, fits up the membrane on the membrane attachment means, attaches the membrane by means of T-shaped strips connected to the horizontal rods, adjusts the membrane tensioning by means of the lever located at the end of one of the horizontal rods, set the foot onto the membrane, obtains the sole image in STL format and performs two-sided mechanical treatment of the insole relying on the said image presented in STL format.
EFFECT: ensuring uniform tensioning across the whole of the foot sole.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to devices for diagnosing scoliotic deformations of spine, and can be used in prophylactic examinations of children and teenagers. Device for diagnosing deformations of spine in children and teenagers contains cylindrical level with air bubble. Cylindrical level with colour mark, corresponding to central position of bubble, is rigidly fixed in horizontal plane on case, which is connected with roller and handle. Diagnostics of scoliotic deformations of spine in children and teenagers on the basis of estimation of air bubble position in the processes of its movement along spine is realised by means of specially elaborated device. Said device is moved along spine, with fixation of those levels, on which bubble position is deviated rightward or leftward from the central position, which indicated to the deviation of spinous processes from spine axis and testifies to scoliotic spine deformation.
EFFECT: invention ensures fast and reliable objective detection of asymmetry of paravertebral regions along entire length of spine, which is manifestation of scoliotic spine deformation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine. In method realisation, performed is videomonitoring of eyes, on which darkened glasses with accelerometer and video cameras are put on, head movements, on which headphones are put on and laser pointer is fixed, movements of body and extremities in performance of neurologic tests and study of neurologic reflexes. Two infrared light diodes are directed on each of tested person's eyes for eye illumination and creation of motion illusion when screens of virtual reality are switched on. Biological calibration of all device components is performed. Research is carried out with put on and taken off glasses on tested person and their placement on hard floor and on soft platform. Assessment of results is carried out by indices of head movements, taking into account difference of movements dispersion during performance of different tests, presence of spontaneous nystagmus or saccades or their appearance while performing research are also taken into account. System includes darkened glasses with video cameras, light diodes, headphones, laser pointer, accelerometer, fixed on dark glasses and connected with inlet of computer, which is provided with software. To perform biological calibration and task of direction of look of eyes, screens of virtual reality, whose inlets are connected to computer inlets, are directed at them.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to extend functional possibilities and increase diagnostics accuracy.
9 cl, 7 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to clinical medicine and can be used in endocrinology for detecting predisposition to metabolic syndrome. Scanning of both patient's palms, processing of obtained data and determination of parameters of dermatoglyphic picture are carried out. Such characteristics as finger, general and total ridge count, character of pattern on fingers and in palm area on thenar, hypothenar and in interdigital fields, presence and location of palm triradii, palm ridge count, direction of termination of main palm lines A, B, C, D. On the basis of detected characteristics of dermatoglyphic picture parameters conclusion about presence of predisposition to metabolic syndrome is made.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to realise prediction of predisposition to metabolic syndrome.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely locomotor biomechanics. A method involves the following stages: the first stage involves a standing flexion test with a patient standing one a strictly horizontal surface with his/her legs apart. An optimal feet distance makes 10-12 cm. Tangential lines to median edges of feet generate an angel of 10-12° to an axial line. The length difference of the lower extremities is stated in case of observing an advance phenomenon of a posterior superior iliac crest on the side of a 'shorter' leg. At the second stage, the first stage is performed once again with the patient standing on the horizontal surface made of a material flexible under body weigh compression. If the observed advance phenomenon of the posterior superior iliac crest on the side of the 'shorter' leg disappears, the functional length difference of the lower extremities is stated. If the observed advance phenomenon of the posterior superior iliac crest on the side of the 'shorter' leg persists, the anatomical length difference of the lower extremities is stated.
EFFECT: technique provides higher measurement accuracy in the length differences of the extremities.
2 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, functional diagnostics by means of stabilometry and principle of biological feedback (BF) and can be used, for instance, in sport. Stabilimetric parameters are measured and within set successively following each other time intervals calculated are mean values of pressure centre (PC) coordinates and total within the same time intervals energy consumption for PC movement, determined as sum of increments of kinetic energy of controlled object body between two successive measurements of PC coordinates. After that, obtained values are transformed into acoustic signals of sound range in such a way that signal frequency is proportional to deviation of PC coordinates from set value and value of energy consumption for PC movement, forming in this way BF channel for correction of set pose by ear.
EFFECT: method ensures greater degree of accuracy and sensitivity of pose and its stability control due to simultaneous non-differentiated control of dynamic and static pose parameters: as balance in taken pose by acoustic signal component, proportional to energy consumption, as well as pose itself by acoustic signal component, proportional to change of mean value of PC coordinates with respect to initial ones.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, and may be used for assessing the functional state of organism. The method consists in stabilised current pulsing to a biological object, measuring a biological object voltage at the fixed point of time after the current pulse initiation and measuring a stabilised current I0. additionally Voltage fixing times represent t1 and t2, with t2=2t1. Biological object impedance components are an active impedance B and an equivalent capacitance C of biological object tissues that are calculated by formulas: R = E/I0, wherein E is a fixed potential with time constant T with wherein U1 and U2 are biological object voltage at the moments of time t1 and t2 respectively with C=T/R.
EFFECT: method provides higher accuracy and efficiency of the biological object complex impedance components by eliminating a systematic error and considering a dynamic accuracy taking place in the further similar invention.
4 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medical equipment. Device for measuring impedance of biological tissues contains successively connected matrix of N electrodes, commutation unit, instrument amplifier, detector unit, multi-channel ADC, microcontroller and PC. First and second digital-analogue converters, power amplifier and unit of current measurement are included into device. Commutation unit includes two analogue multiplexors and two analogue demultiplexors. N analogous inlets of each multiplexor are connected with respective N electrodes of electrode matrix, and N analogue outlets of each demultiplexor are connected with respective N electrodes of electrode matrix. Address inlets of either of two multiplexors and two demultiplexors are connected respectively with first four microcontroller outlets. First outlet of first multiplexor is connected with first inlet of instrument amplifier. Outlet of second multiplexor is connected with second inlet of instrument amplifier. Inlet of first demultiplexor is connected with first outlet of power amplifier. Inlet of second demultiplexor is connected with first outlet of current measurement unit.
EFFECT: application of the invention will make it possible to increase accuracy of measurement of electric conductivity of biotissues with change of probing current direction.
4 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to obstetrics. Method includes measurement of electric resistance. Active constituent of leg impedance is measured. Measurements are carried out by alternating current with frequency 4 kHz and intensity 10-4 A. Current is supplied to big toes. Drop of voltage is measured on little toes. For this purpose electrodes are applied on them in form of clip through gauze pads, soaked in hypertonic solution. In case if value of active impedance component is 68 Ohm and higher, conclusion about absence of edemas is made. In case if value of active impedance component is lower than 68 Ohm, conclusion about presence of edemas is made.
EFFECT: method is non-invasive, increases diagnostics accuracy and reduces time for its carrying out.
4 ex, 3 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to oncology and can be used to determine progression of cancer of abdominal cavity organs. For this purpose dynamic examination of patient after surgical treatment is carried out. Change of patient's body composition is determined at the background of nutritive-metabolic therapy 1 time per not less often as 28-30 days by means of bioimpedance analysis. Body weight, index of body weight, fat mass, as well as mass of extracellular liquid are assessed. If body weight, index of body weight decrease and/or fat mass decreases with simultaneous increase of extracellular liquid mass in comparison with the previous results of bioimpedance analysis, progression of cancer of abdominal cavity organs in patient is determined.
EFFECT: method ensures 100% accuracy of early determination of tumour progression in patients before X-ray manifestation, which provides possibility of earlier start of chemo-radiotherapy and prolong patient's life span.
2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to cardiology. Method includes measurement of electric impedance of chest by bipolar method. Measurements are carried out at frequency of probing alternating electric current, not lower than 100 kHz. For this purpose electrodes are applied on both halves of chest on parasternal lines at the level of III-IV intercostals spaces. Average values of module impedance |Z| and phase angle |φ| are registered for 1-5 minutes. After that, coefficient |Z||φ| is calculated. If coefficient increases more than 5 times, chronic heart failure is diagnosed.
EFFECT: method ensures increase of early diagnostics accuracy.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine. In method realisation active and passive electrodes are installed on the surface of biological tissue. Source of electric energy is switched to them. After that, impact on tissue by two pulses with electric power of specified value following one another is performed on them. Impulse of specified power of larger value follows impulse of specified power of smaller value. Electric parameters of biological tissue, corresponding to each value of specified power, are measured and their ratio is used to estimate electrophysiological state of biological tissue.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase self-descriptiveness and objectivity of method of measuring electric parameters of biological tissue with simplification of realisation of method techniques.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to therapy, diagnostics. Method includes analysis of electric parameters before and after treatment. Measurement of skin electric potentials is carried out. Electric potentials are measured in corporal biologically active points (BAP). BAP of the first group are selected from points, located directly in the area of knee joint, such as Zu-San-Li, Du-Bi, Liang-Qui, Yin-Ling-Quan, Yang-Ling-Quan, Xi-Yang-Guan. BAP of the second group are selected from points, located outside knee joint, but on meridians, passing through knee joint, such as Yong-Quan, Xing-Quan, Da-Dun, Qu-Quan, Shu-Fu. Selection of not fewer than 3 from each group is carried out. If average indices of electric potentials, measured in BAP after treatment, are higher relative to indices, measured in BAP before treatment by 25% and higher, it testifies about achievement of treatment effect.
EFFECT: method is objective, simple in implementation, safe for patient.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to diagnostics. Method includes introduction of needle electrodes with active current-conducting end into tumour. After that their advance into tumour depth is performed. As they move, indices of bioimpedance (BIM) are measured five times at current frequency 2 kHz and voltage 1.02 V. If BIM indices decrease in the period of advance of electrodes into tumour depth, tumour is benign. If BIM indices vary, or grow, tumour is malignant.
EFFECT: method reduces tome of examination, is simple in implementation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, therapy, dietetics and can be applied for correction and prevention of obesity. Estimation of indices of body weight (IWB), food status (FS), factual nutrition (FN) and food behavior (FB) is carried out. If patient has disturbed FS, FN and FB, than psychotherapist and dietitian carry out individual (IS) or group sessions (GS) of FB and FN correction with them for ten days, then, 1 time/week for a month. If FS and FN are disturbed, IS and GS are carried out for five days, after that, GS is carried out daily for a month. If FB is disturbed, psychotherapist carries out IS for correction of FB for five days, then, daily GS for month. In case of any combination of FC, FN, FB disturbance: if IWB equals 27-29.9, medication dietressa is administered in dose 1 pill 4 times/day for 3 months. If by FN estimation real daily caloricity of dietary intake (RDC DI) is higher than calculated by 200% and more, gradual reduction of daily calorage is administered: for the first week not more than 15% from initial, for the second - not more than 30%, for the third - not more than 50%, for the fourth - not more than 75% from initial, for the fifth and the following weeks - daily calorage corresponds to individual calculated caloricity of dietary intake with account of power consumption. If RDC DI is higher than calculated by from 199% to 101% reduction of daily calorage is administered: for the first week not more than 20% from initial, for the second - not more than 40%, for the third - not more than 70% from initial, for the fourth and the following - daily calorage corresponds to calculated individual caloricity with account of power consumption. If by data of bio-impedometry content of total water (CTW) in organism is more than 50% higher than consumption of liquid is not more than 1.5 l/day. If CTW reduction is more than 50%, consumption of liquid is not less than 2.5 l/day. If CTW change is 50% and less, consumption of liquid must constitute 2 l/day.
EFFECT: method ensures stable effect of body weight correction, with individualisation of food status, food behavior, factual nutrition, increase of patients' life quality.
2 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medical equipment, namely to means for localisation of tooth root top in endodontics. Method consists in application of device, which contains first conducting electrode, forming endodontic probe, which is introduced into root canal, second electrode, brought into electroconductive contact with mucous membrane of oral cavity, frequency generator, which generates signals of alternating current of groups of frequencies, and means for measuring amplitude of alternating current signal in circuit. Measurement of amplitude of alternating current signals at low frequency and high frequency, determination of coincidence point, in which two levels of current amplitude, measured at said frequencies, cross and are in fact equal, are carried out. Low and high frequencies differ for determination of coincidence point, corresponding to position of root top. Device also contains means for control of selection of first frequency and second frequency and measurement of first level and second level of standardised amplitude of alternating current signals and means for determination and/or signal supply at first value of the level, obtained at first low frequency, without increase of second value of level of alternating current signal, obtained at second high frequency.
EFFECT: application of invention makes it possible to increase accuracy of determination of tooth root top position.
15 cl, 35 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves carrying out urological examination for determining hydrodynamic resistance of ureter calculated from formula Z=8Lμ/(πR4), where Z is the hydrodynamic resistance of ureter, L is the ureter length, R is the ureter radius, μ is the urine viscosity. Angle α at which the ureter enters the urinary bladder is determined from formula cosα = 8l1μ/(ZπR4), where l1 is the perpendicular drawn from the upper edge of the ureter to the its exit projection line, μ is the urine viscosity, Z is the hydrodynamic resistance of ureter, R is the ureter radius. Vesicoureteral reflux recidivation is predicted when the angle of α+90° is less than 120°.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in reducing the number of recidivation cases.
2 dwg, 1 tbl