Method to prepare for dressing of difficult coals
SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of coal extracted from coal deposits for opening of its splices with rock. At the same time the coal is placed in layers at the intermediate storage, arranged on the southern slope of a knoll (mountain, hill) or a pit heap, the site of which has an angle of inclination 10-25°, exposed in spring-autumn periods to solar radiation with the number of "thawing-freezing" cycles with transition of temperature via 0°C equal to at least 7. Besides, the thickness of the coal layers is taken on the basis of the calculation sufficient for daily heating-cooling, and after thermal processing the coal is shipped from the warehouse for subsequent demineralisation.
EFFECT: increased opening of coal splices with rock.
The invention relates to mining, in particular to methods of preparation for the enrichment of the produced refractory coals.
The known method of preparation for the enrichment of refractory coals, including processing extracted from coal deposits method of crushing and grinding equipment  the Prototype. According to a known method, it follows that detection of intermediate fractions increases with decreasing particle size of the coal and has a maximum opening of splices in the class of 0.5-1 mm.
The disadvantage of this method is that the technical capabilities of crushing equipment can produce coal crushing from an economic point of view only to class - 8(6) mm
Another disadvantage is that coal crushing is carried out only by mechanical impact on the coal mass.
The technical challenge was to develop a way to reduce class crushing coal to increase disclosure of intergrowths of coal with the breed due to both mechanical and alternating thermal exposure of the coal mass.
The proposed method differs in that the mined coal is placed layers in the staging area, located on the southern slope of the hill (mountain, hill) or waste dump, Playground which has a tilt angle of 10-25 degrees, put in the spring and autumn lane the odes to the effects of solar radiation with the number of cycles "thawing-freezing" transition temperature of 0°C is not less than 7, the capacity of the coal layers is the rate that is sufficient for daily heating-cooling, and after heat treatment of the coal shipped from a warehouse for subsequent demineralization at the processing plant.
Introduced in the formula of the invention, a significant feature as that of the extracted coal is placed layers on an inclined surface of the intermediate warehouse, allows us to give the layer a significant area for exposure to solar radiation, and also grind the coal technical means during formation of the layer.
Another significant feature of that site interim storage feature on the southern slope of the hill (mountain, hill) or waste dump, provides the most exposure to the sun's radiation.
The next sign that the site interim storage has a tilt angle of 10-25°, allows the use of direct sunlight for best heating of the coal layer.
A significant sign that the coal layers are subjected to in the spring and autumn periods the effects of solar radiation with the number of cycles "thawing-freezing" transition temperature of 0°C is not less than 7, enables the internal disclosure of aggregates.
The next significant feature about the fact that the thickness of the layers is the rate that is sufficient for daily heating-cooling gap is to be placed, required for processing of coal layers in all their depth.
The essence of the method is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows in plan an intermediate warehouse, figure 2 - section a-a in figure 1.
Conventions on the drawings: 1 - ground; 2 - interim storage of coal; 3 - the southern slope of a hill; 4 - layers of coal produced.
The method is as follows.
Area 1 under the interim storage of coal 2 is formed on the southern slope of 3 hills (mountain, hill) or of the dump with the angle of 10-25°. This arrangement interim storage of coal 2 allows the best use of solar radiation in the spring and autumn periods. Extracted from the field rebellious coal is placed on the platform 1 layers 4 with sufficient power for daily heating-cooling transition through 0°C. the Number of cycles defrost-freeze shall not be less than 7. This number of cycles is selected based on the results in EGGS SB RAS research . After this heat treatment of the coal shipped from the intermediate storage area 2 for further demineralization on the concentrator. In the described technologies in rebellious angle is internal disclosure splices coal rock coal with cracks, cracked. In addition, loading and unloading operations with coal and move it Prohm is filling the warehouse 2 by technical means advanced pulverized coal, that significantly reduces the energy intensity of its subsequent destruction, crushing.
When processing coal with low moisture content of the coal layers additionally moisturize with sprinklers.
Advantages of the proposed method are:
- the use of solar radiation to reduce class crushing coal and increase disclosure splices;
- grinding of coal in the processes of loading and unloading and movement of its intermediate warehouse;
- reducing energy consumption in crushing and preparation for enrichment.
Sources of information
1. Kozlov V.A. study of the values of enrichment for different fractions of the Elga coal Deposit./ Kapustin // Horn. inform.-analyte. bull. - 2011, No. 5. - S-130. Conclusions.
2. Mattis, A.R., and other explosion-free processes for open-pit mining of solid minerals. - Novosibirsk: publishing house of the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2007, p.86.
Method of preparation for the enrichment of refractory coals, including the processing of mined coal to the disclosure of his intergrowths with the breed, characterized in that the coal is placed layers in the staging area, located on the southern slope of the hill (mountain, hill) or waste dump, Playground which has a tilt angle of 10-25 degrees, put in the spring and autumn periods the influence of the solar radiation with the number of cycles "thawing-freezing" transition temperature of 0°C is not less than 7, the capacity of the coal layers is the rate that is sufficient for daily heating-cooling, and after heat treatment of the coal shipped from a warehouse for subsequent demineralization.
FIELD: heating, drying.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to accelerated drying of different kinds and cross sections of timber by means of equipment providing moisture transfer by action of relatively high temperatures, moisture content and alternating-sign pressure. A method for timber drying in a chamber isolated from atmosphere involves heating of a drying agent by means of heating devices connected in upper part of a shell as per a parallel scheme to main pipelines, devices for heating and circulation of high-temperature liquid heat carrier, reversible fans and flow dividers, which provide flow and distribution of the drying agent along a pile through diffuser channels, each of which is symmetrical to rows of gaskets of the pile, moisture levelling along the timber cross section by a moistening system with further exposure, removal of the drying agent from the chamber to a condensation device and control of a technological process by means of pressure, temperature and humidity control devices. A new feature of the proposed invention is that timber heat treatment is performed by hot recirculating water till average temperature of 35-45°C is achieved, which softens it, equalises humidity and quickly unfreezes it during winter season, by filling the chamber to upper pile level by means of an additionally introduced pipeline circuit provided with possibility of water return or transfer to the next chamber, and the heating process is continued by a steam-and-air drying agent till evaporation temperature is 100 to 120°C, thus maintaining the pressure of up to 1000 mm Hg; with that, the steam-and-air drying agent is removed from timber depending on timber type by constant or periodic vacuum pulses with further vacuum treatment by a vacuum pump till the pressure in the drying chamber is 100 to 150 mm Hg.
EFFECT: drying by evaporation at alternating-sign pressures of 1000 to 100 mm Hg using constant or periodic vacuum pulses considerably accelerates moisture evaporation speed and provides fault-free drying at inconsiderable change of bending, tensile and compression strength.
FIELD: drying solid materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preliminary continuous piecemeal treatment of lumber. The lumber is dried and/or defrosted by heating, the surface of the lumber is cleaned, and surface moisture is removed by step by means of squeezing , e.g., with the use of roller step mechanism.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumption.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: methods of drying woods.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used at woodworking factories, for example for making furniture. Method of drying is based upon step-by-step change in parameters of drying agent depending on humidity of woods. Timber is preliminary subject to boiling at atmospheric pressure in 15-17% solution of sodium chloride during 2,5-3,0 hours. Then timber is subject to convective drying at four-step increase of temperature from 40° to 60°C and simultaneous four-step reduction of relative humidity of drying agent till achieving value which provides preset final humidity of wood species. Drying agent can have temperature of 40° and relative humidity of 90% at first step, temperature of 50° and relative humidity of 85% at the second step, temperature of 60° and relative humidity of 80% at the third step and temperature of 66° and relative humidity of 50% at the fourth step.
EFFECT: improved quality of drying; reduced time of procedure.
2 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: wood treatment.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying live steam to the drying chamber, leveling humidity over the cross-section of timbers, and heating timbers. The operations are performed with the use of sectional looped air ducts, fans, distributors, air heaters, and deflectors which provide uniform distribution of the flow over the height and length of the timber pile. The flow of the live steam and saturated air-steam mixture is distributed in two stages: in diffusers mounted between the fans and air heaters and through deflectors at least at two levels over the height of the pile.
EFFECT: improved method of drying.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining, more precisely to open mining of high deposits with use of continuous operation technique. The method includes cutting of a permanent trench, construction of a working trench, installation of transportation lines, bench cutting of mineral resources by continuous extraction and haulage system with a fan-shaped area of operations. When operations are performed in the fan-shaped manner a solid bed located outside the fan-shaped border is developed simultaneously; mineral deposits are shipped to transportation lines and at first the area of a V-shaped cut is determined at the fan-shaped area of operations in compliance with the following condition:
EFFECT: reducing labour intensity, increasing efficiency, sound extraction of mineral resources and safety of mining operations.
FIELD: blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining industry, and namely to open-pit mining operations at development of ore and non-ore blocks of mineral deposits, the sections of which are sufficiently different as to mining-and-geological structure and quality of a valuable component, and namely to selective extraction of a mineral deposit by large-scale explosive destruction of mine rock masses of a complex structure. In rows of charges, which cross different-type mine rocks, well and group beam charges are located; group beam charges are located in sections requiring intense crushing. The latter are located in sections requiring intense crushing with direction of a convex beam surface towards intense crushing; row-by-row explosive breakage of single well and group beam charges is performed, thus performing row-by-row extension of nominal diameter of an explosion cavity.
EFFECT: preserving integrity of geometry of locations of large volumes of mine rocks within their initial geological location before and after large-scale explosions.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves extraction of overburden, its transportation to a dumping place and its unloading under dumping front slope. Unloading of overburden and its laying is performed in separate stock piles located parallel to each other, onto the internal slopes of which the smallest overburden rocks are unloaded, and paste-like tailings are dumped between them after benefication processing of ores; at laying of every next stock pile, stockpiling of tailings of benefication processing of ores is performed from the pre-formed stock pile, and distance between stock piles is determined as per a mathematical formula.
EFFECT: improving stability and height of a dumping tier at mixed piling of overburden rocks and paste-like tailings after benefication ore processing.
1 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves dumping of an initial tier of dump rocks onto an inclined base with height H that is determined based on the following condition:
EFFECT: possibility of stockpiling paste-like tails after concentrating ore processing onto the inclined base so that a dump tier stability is maintained.
1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to mining and it can be used for development of steeply low stratified deposits, including eluvial and deluvial placers. The method includes stock penetration at independent levels, formation of working sites and extraction of minerals by mining equipment stepwise. At that formation of working sites is made from top downward; moreover steps are made by layer-by-layer extraction and horizontal shift of the mineral to the upper edge of the step and its subsequent throwing along the slope until a working site is formed thus providing safe operation of mining equipment and transport facilities.
EFFECT: creating conditions for safe operation of mining-and-transport equipment at stepwise extraction of minerals at steeply low stratified deposits and increasing efficiency of mining activities.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: according to the proposed method, an open-pit field is developed with a trench; the open pit is filled with water and an extraction device is installed in it; the open-pit field is developed in downward horizontal layers with water level control after development of layers. The water-filled open-pit field is divided into the following zones: working deposit zone prepared for development and developed deposit zone; in each of the above zones there installed are water-nonpermeable screens fenced from the common open-pit field. In addition, each zone is restricted with partition walls and water level is controlled, thus providing its increase in the working zone provided that Hl>Hw+ Hs.max, where: Hl - height of horizontal layer, m; Hw - height of water column, m; Hs.max - maximum scooping height, m; and under the condition of Hw > Hds.max, there provided is water level decrease in the working zone, where Hds.max - maximum scooping depth, m; and as the extraction device is being moved to a new working zone, installation of partition walls in the prepared zone and removal from the developed zone is performed.
EFFECT: improving development efficiency of water-bearing deposits.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creation of crushing and reloading stations of a semi-stationary type in sections of boards mainly on the basis of jaw crushers by obtaining a lump with the size of 400-450 mm, and then, additional crushing in screw-and-tooth crushers. Supply of rock mass by means of a feeder to a hopper with further supply to a crushing device for destruction of large lumps with the size of 700-1200 mm by means of a hammer connected with a tie-rod to a rotating flywheel with a slot, and for destruction of average lumps with the size of 400-700 mm by means of a hammer connected to the flywheel through a pin, after lumps are crushed to the sizes of 250-300 mm, they are transferred by means of feeders and conveyors to mobile cone-shaped crushers of average crushing. After that, crushed material of small size is supplied to inclined and high-angle and vertical conveyors to improve mobility and quick movement from one place to another; crushing devices are made in the form of vertical modules and located horizontally, and if necessary, productivity of a crushing device can be increased; for that purpose, more than one slits is made in a plate 250-300 mm wide, and two more slits are made in side zones. With that, impact plate may have supporting surface and possibility of quick movement.
EFFECT: improving efficiency and productivity of a crushing link and wide application of inclined and high-angle conveyors on pits.
1 ex, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: unit includes a hoisting machine, a hoisting vessel moving by means of a rope (ropes) and rope-supporting rollers. With that, rope-supporting rollers are equipped with electric motors powered from the electric generator mechanically connected to the hoisting machine actuator; rollers are spring-loaded, and a friction coupling is installed between the roller and the electric motor.
EFFECT: reduction of wear of a rope and rope-supporting rollers and increase in service life of a hoisting unit.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises development of quarry field in steps, land filling of external and internal piles in mined out space of man-made deposit of off-grade ores. In formation of mined out space, uncovering drifts over bottom levels in boundaries and at height of planned man-made deposit are driven in ore, while at the level fixing the end of sinking jobs in the first stage outlines internal dump is cyclically piled to locate uncovering drifts therein. Said internal dump divides quarry space into zones of gotten and not gotten jobs. Simultaneously, man-made deposit is formed bordering upon quarry mined out space and internal dump. Now, proceeding with development of main deposit reserves, man-made deposit is prepared.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: opencast mine includes sites and a trench on an end board with a crushing-overloading point arranged on the sites, as well as a belt conveyor lift in the trench, serving to crush rock mineral, unloaded from dump trucks, and its transportation to the surface with further transportation by a conveyor line to a crushing-dressing plant. The opencast mine includes an external trench, in which there is a crushing-overloading point, equipped with mobile crushing-overloading plants, and a part of a conveyor line to the crushing-dressing factory, and also a horizontal transport terrace, connecting the bottom of the outer trench with the terrace of the capital exit of the opencast mine.
EFFECT: reduced costs for development of an opencast mine due to generation of the entire volume of mineral from an opencast mine to a crushing-dressing plant with motor-conveyor transport.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed machine comprises cylindrical housing, initial material feed pipe, material discharge pipe and rotor drive. Initial material distributor composed of fixed cone is arranged directly above the rotor. Circular flanges are arranged at housing sidewall while fine dusty fraction discharge pipe is arranged at housing top section. Rotor fitted on the shaft in said housing is shaped to cylinder in height equal to rub-off zone and equipped with radial blades. It includes industrial blower is communicated with pipe discharging the fine dusty fraction along with airflow. Initial material feed pipe is arranged directly above initial material distributor. Finished product discharge pipe is arranged at housing bottom section.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of rubbing-off and separation.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to combined methods of separation of solid materials, particularly, to processing of radio electronic scrap. Proposed method comprises primarily two-step separation of solid materials by hammer crushers to required size, magnetic and screen separation of ground scrap with subsequent pneumatic classification by bulk density of oversize and undersize products of screen classification. Note here that ground scrap fraction of boundary size obtained at pneumatic classification is subjected to additional grinding at ball mill to size of nonmetallic component of not over 1 mm. To isolate metallic component of processed scrap aforesaid ground fraction is subjected to pneumatic classification by bulk density.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of processing.