Method of determining coefficient of soil filtration
SUBSTANCE: soil sample is passed through a stream of water. On the surface of the soil sample a load is placed. Beginning of dipping of the load is fixed. The parameters of the sample and the water flow are measured. The coefficient of soil filtration is calculated from the measured parameters. The value of the concentration of fulvic acid in the water stream, passed through the soil sample, is recorded. In reducing the concentration value by 10% of the initial value the fulvic acid solution is added into the stream of water directed into the soil sample, restoring the value of the fulvic acid concentration in the stream of water passed through the soil sample, to the initial value.
EFFECT: use of the claimed method extends functional capabilities of determining the filtration coefficient of soil, enables to determine quickly and accurately the filtration coefficient of soil exposed to fulvic acids, in the zone of prevalence of podzolic soils.
1 tbl, 1 ex
The invention relates to the field of research of the parameters of soils, and more specifically to methods for determining permeability of quicksand soil in the zone of distribution podzolic soils.
There is a method of determining the permeability of the soil, which is passed through a sample of ground water flow, measure the cross-sectional area, the length of the sample and the volume of water flow for a certain time interval, calculated using the measured indicators of the permeability of the soil (Vadyunin A.F., Korchagina Z.A. research Methods physical properties of soils. - 3rd ed. - M.: Agropromizdat. 1986. - S-236).
The known method does not provide the possibility of determining the permeability of quicksand ground in pseudogigas condition, because it does fix the time of the loss of carrying capacity.
The closest in technical essence and purpose of the proposed technical solution is the method for determining the permeability of soil in which the soil sample is passed a stream of water, on the surface of the soil sample will churn weight, record the beginning of the dive weight, measure parameters of the sample and the flow of water, calculated on the measured indicators of the permeability of the soil (patent RF №2462709, published on 27.09.2012 in bull. No. 27).
The disadvantage of this method is the inability defined the I coefficient filter quicksand ground, exposed to a solution of fulvic acids, in areas with podzolic soils.
The aim of the invention is the extension of functionality.
The invention consists in that the method for determining the permeability of quicksand soil exposed to a solution of fulvic acids, in areas with podzolic soils via soil sample flow stream of water on the surface of the soil sample is placed on the weight record the beginning of the dive weight, measure parameters of the sample and the flow of water, calculated on the measured indicators of the permeability of the soil, characterized in that record the concentration value of fulvic acids in the stream of water passing through the soil sample, and the decrease in the concentration of 10% from the initial value injected into the stream of water directed into the soil sample, the solution fulvic acids, restoring the value of the concentration of fulvic acids in the stream of water passing through the soil sample to the initial values.
The method is implemented as follows. On the upper surface of the sample placed on the weight. Passed through the sample, the flow of water. Record the concentration of fulvic acids in the stream of water passing through the soil sample. Lowering the concentration of 10% from the initial value injected into the stream of water directed on ASEC soil, a solution of fulvic acids, restoring the value of the concentration of fulvic acids in the stream of water passing through the soil sample to the initial value. The change in the value of the concentration of fulvic acids in the stream of water passing through the soil sample, less than 10% of the initial no significant effect on the parameters of the filtering process. A solution of fulvic acids administered in individual portions. Transfer the soil sample in pseudozyma condition, record the beginning of the dive sinker, which shows a sharp drop in load carrying capacity and transition ground in pseudozyma state. The weight of the sinker take more than 5, When the weight of a weight of less than 5 g surface tension forces prevent his dive.
Next, measure the cross-sectional area, the length of the sample, the amount of water for a period of time, pressure and calculated by the well-known formula filtration coefficient quicksand ground
where W is the volume of water, F is the cross-sectional area of the sample, T is the time interval, h is the pressure, l is the length of the soil sample.
An example implementation of the method. The soil sample is represented by fine-grained pensioenen sand. On the upper surface of the sample place the sinker weight 6, Create the flow of water. Record the concentration value of fulvic acids in the stream of water passing through the soil sample - 2%. Note the decrease in the oxygen the walkie-talkie up to 1.5%. The decrease in concentration is 25% of the initial value.
The decrease in concentration due to exchange processes in the system soil-water flow. Separate portions enter into the flow of water to be discharged into the soil sample, 15% solution of fulvic acids, restoring the value of the concentration of fulvic acids in the stream of water passing through the soil sample, up to a maximum of 2%. Transfer the soil sample in pseudozyma state. Record the beginning of the dive weight. The transition of the soil sample in pseudozyma condition and loss of bearing capacity is fixed at the beginning of the descent of the sinker weight 6, Measure the cross-sectional area F=13 cm2. For the time interval T=10 min measure the length of the soil sample is l=16 cm, head h=34 cm, the amount of water W=116 cm3. Calculate the coefficient of filtering by the well-known formula k=W·l/(F·T·h)=116·16/(13·10·34)=0.42 cm/min=6.04 m/day. The table presents data variance values of permeability of the soil at different values of changes in the concentration of fulvic acids in the flow of water leaving the soil sample.
|The deviation of the concentration of fulvic acids from primary, %||5||7||10||12||17||19|
|Deviation coefficient value of the filter from the start, %||2||3||4||8||9||9|
These tables show that the deviation of the concentration of fulvic acids from starting more than 10% causes a sharp increase in the variance of the coefficient value of the filter 4 to 8%.
The proposed method of measuring the permeability extends the functionality of the analogue by introducing into the stream of water flowing through the soil sample, a solution of fulvic acids.
The method for determining the permeability of quicksand soil exposed to a solution of fulvic acids, in areas with podzolic soils via soil sample flow stream of water on the surface of the soil sample is placed on the weight record the beginning of the dive weight, measure parameters of the sample and the flow of water, calculated on the measured indicators of the permeability of the soil, characterized in that the fixed value of the concentration of fulvic acids in the stream of water passing through the soil sample, and the decrease in the concentration of 10% from the initial value injected into the water flow, voltage is supplied to the soil sample, a solution of fulvic acids, restoring the value of the concentration of fulvic acids in the stream of water passing through the soil sample to the initial value.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the device of cuts, power measurement of layer of membranes of soil biological organisms in the beginning and end of the observation period and the calculation. At that the power of the packed layer of membranes of testate amoebas is measured. The amount of change in the power of peat layer is calculated by the formula Hsrab=a·h, where Hsrab is reduction value of the peat layer power, cm; h is the power of packed layer of membranes of testate amoebas, cm; a is a coefficient. The coefficient a is determined by the formula a=(H1-H2)/(h1-h2), where H2, H1 is the power of the peat layer and h2, h1 is power of the packed layer of membranes of testate amoebas, respectively at the end and the beginning of the observation period.
EFFECT: method enables to determine quickly and accurately the amount of change of power of the peat layer on reclaimed land.
SUBSTANCE: controlled area in the planting is chosen and prepared, the procedure for controlling of soil respiration is carried out in the chosen controlled area in the planting by measuring the amount of accumulation (loss) of gaseous respiratory substrate CO2 (O2) in a sealed chamber, with which the controlled area is covered. Preparation of controlled area additionally includes such sowing seeds when a part of the area is left unsown. For measurement two different sealed chambers are used separately and alternately, with one of which the part of controlled area of the planting just sown with plants is covered entirely, and with another one additionally to the above area the unsown part of the controlled area of the planting is covered partially or completely. At that the amount of soil respiration attributable to the square of the controlled area of planting is calculated by determining the difference between the measurement results obtained with the above sealed chambers, multiplied by the ratio of the square of the controlled area of planting to the difference of squares of bases of above two sealed chambers.
EFFECT: ability to study in the field, and at the same time the interaction integrity of the root and ground parts of plants is not violated.
SUBSTANCE: samples of uncontaminated background soil and contaminated with heavy metals or crude oil and oil products are taken, and for each pair of samples of soil the number of ammonifying bacteria, the number of microscopic fungi, the abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, the catalase activity, the invertase activity, the germination of radish is determined. IRS of the soil is calculated as follows: IRS =Σ( Pconti/Pfoni)×100%/n, where Pconti is the value of i-th index (number of ammonifying bacteria, million/g, the number of microscopic fungi, million/g, the abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, %, catalase activity, ml O2/min, the invertase activity, ml, glucose/24 h, the germination of radish, %, for contaminated soil; Pfoni is the value of i-th/min, the indicator for uncontaminated soil; n is the number of indicators (n=6). The environmental condition of the soil is determined according to reduction of the IRS. If the IRS value in the contaminated soil is over 95%, the normal ecological condition of the soil is stated. In reduction of the IRS to 90-95% the satisfactory condition is stated. In reduction of the IRS to 75-90% the poor condition is stated. In reduction of the IRS below 75% the catastrophic condition is stated.
EFFECT: method enables to assess quickly and accurately the environmental condition of the soil.
17 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method to determine frost heave of soil during freezing of a seasonally thawing layer includes drilling of a well before start of its thawing, sampling of soil, measurement of depth of seasonal thawing ξ, definition of dry soil density in samples ρd,th. In addition wells are drilled after freezing of the seasonally thawing layer, on the samples they additionally define density of dry soil after freezing of the seasonally thawing layer ρd,f, and the heave value is determined in accordance with the given dependence.
EFFECT: reduced labour intensiveness of works, increased accuracy of determination of heaving value, provision of material intensity reduction.
SUBSTANCE: method involves probing an underlying surface having test areas with a multichannel spectrometer mounted on a space vehicle to obtain images on each channel; calculating, through zonal ratios of signal amplitude values in channels, partial degradation indices, specifically percentage content of humus (H), salinity index (NSI) and moisture loss index (W); determining the integral degradation index D based on a multi-parameter regressive relationship of the type:
EFFECT: faster and more reliable determination of degree of degradation of soil cover.
5 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes installation of a device into a vertical position, and the device is a metal hollow cylinder enclosed into the body, along the inner and outer wall of which there is a cutting element welded in the form of a spiral, lowering of the cylinder to the specified depth during its rotation with cutting of a soil sample of cylindrical shape.
EFFECT: simplification and increased reliability in production of samples.
SUBSTANCE: method includes device of cutting, measurement of parameters of soil layer and calculation. In the layer of peat ash the mass of diatomic algae shells is measured per one unit of plot area. The value of pyrogenic change of peat layer thickness is calculated by the following formula: H=α·m, where H - is the value of pyrogenic change of peat layer thickness, cm; α - is the coefficient, cm·m2/g; n - is mass of diatomic algae shells per unit of plot area, g/m2. The coefficient α is evaluate according to the formula: α=H1/m1, where H1 - is the peat layer thickness of the analogue plot, cm; and m1 - is the mass of diatomic algae shells per unit of analogue plot area, g/m2.
EFFECT: method enables calculate quickly and accurately the pyrogenic change value of peat layer thickness.
SUBSTANCE: method involves biotesting based on the number of organisms at optimum soil moisture. Soil toxicty is determined from the nitrogen-fixing activity legume bacteria which form tubercles on the root system of legume grasses in the 15-20 cm layer of the soil 2-3 weeks after spring aftergrowing and before the flowering period. Soil toxicity is determined from the inner colour of the nitrogen-fixing tubercles (pink or red); if more than 50% of the tubercles are coloured, the state of the soil is considered satisfactory, if 20-50% of the tubercles are coloured, the state of the soil is considered an environmental risk and if less than 20% of tubercles are coloured, the state of the soil is considered an environmental disaster.
EFFECT: method enables rapid and accurate evaluation of the degree of environmental pollution.
1 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: in the device containing a tubular furnace equipped with a heater and a temperature control - the temperature programmer unit, located vertically and provided with cylindrical container with a soil sample, which is coaxially located in it. the inlet of the above furnace is connected to a pipeline with an activator of inert gas flow rate, and the outlet is connected through a quick-detachable connection to a hydrocarbon sensor represented with a flame ionisation detector, at the inlet of which a quartz capillary is installed, and the soil container is made in the form of a thin-wall shell from stainless steel with a porous bottom facing the tubular furnace inlet.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and informativity of analysis.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes geodetic measurements of the land plot area, three-dimensional measurement of the land plot, based on the measurement of the coordinate component of the resource parameters in different parts of this plot. Resource soil parameters of land plot are determined for each time period of operation taking into account the discrete disposal of part of the resources that were available at the beginning of the measurement period. In determining the resource parameters of the soil its biological activity is additionally measured on the stream of direct solar radiation reaching the horizontal surface of the soil.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the accuracy of measurement the resource parameters of the particular land plot.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method to determine coefficient of moisture conduction of sheet orthotropic capillary-porous materials includes creation of even initial moisture content in the investigated item, impulse contact of the investigated sample with the moisture source, measurement of time variation of a signal of a galvanic converter, determination of time for achievement of maximum on the curve of EMF variation of the galvanic converter and calculation of the coefficient of moisture conduction. At the same time impulse moistening of the investigated item is carried out along the straight line with the movable source of moisture of continuous efficiency in the specified direction of the orthotrpic material, electrodes of the galvanic converter are made in the form of rectilinear sections, and they are arranged at both sides of the line of impulse moistening on straight parallel lines of impulse moistening, arranged on the identical specified distance from it. Then the sought-for coefficient is calculated in accordance with the formula:
EFFECT: increased accuracy of control and provision of the possibility to determine coefficients of moisture conduction in various directions of an orthotropic sheet material.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: device for evaluation of dynamics of a process of straight-flow capillary saturation of rock samples refers to petrophysical investigations. The device is designed for determination of dynamics of variation of weight of rock sample during capillary straight-flow saturation and calculation based on obtained data of some petrophysical parameters, and namely amount of trapped gas. The device implements automatic preservation of level of liquid without stiff or elastic connection, which contacts the sample and has a buffer capacity saturating a reference chamber with water. This allows performing, almost without any error, constant weighing of the reference chamber with the sample that constantly increases its weight during water absorption owing to capillary saturation. The data on the change of weight in time, which is fixed with electronic weighs, is processed by means of a computer.
EFFECT: improving evaluation accuracy of dynamics of rock saturation due to hydrodynamic connection of a reference chamber and a buffer capacity.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: core is investigated, for this purpose the core material is first extracted and dried, a plate is made from it with thickness of 3-5 mm. Then distilled water is supplied onto the fixed plate on the horizontal surface in dosing manner by drops, and availability of anisotropy and direction of main axes of permeability of anisotropy is determined by the shape of a wet spot formed in the plate.
EFFECT: development of the express method for determination of lateral anisotropy of filtration-capacity properties of porous media and positions of main axes of permeability tensor of rocks on a core.
SUBSTANCE: in the method for assessment of wettability there is a principle realised for spontaneous formation of liquid drops on rock sample surface as a result of vapour condensation. For this purpose the rock sample cooled down to temperature below dew point is placed into a medium with liquid vapours, and the wetting angle of drops produced as a result of condensation is measured.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of assessment of wetting properties of porous rocks, possibility of differentiated assessment of wettability of rock-forming rock minerals, elimination of listed disadvantages of above methods.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the method including drying of a sample to permanent mass, hydraulic insulation of its side surfaces and water saturation, nonwetting of the upper end surface of the sample is provided, and a light-reflecting water impermeable coating is applied on it, and continuous even water saturation is carried out via the bottom end surface of the sample, at the same time the sample is installed onto fixed supports inside a reservoir for water saturation, the reservoir is filled with water, and even contact is provided between the lower end surface of the sample with water during the entire cycle of measurements, then with the help of laser radiation a series of holographic interferograms is registered on a non-wetted surface of the sample in process of water saturation, at the same time position, speed and acceleration of moisture movement front are determined by comparison of changes in the field of movements of the registered surface, produced according to interferograms, with the rated field of movements of a geometrically similar sample.
EFFECT: improved information value and reliability of detection.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: sample is previously frozen, a frozen sample under conditions of negative temperature is put in contact with a frozen solution of a radio-opaque agent, upon completion of sample saturation, computer X-ray microtomography of the sample is carried out under negative temperatures, and by means of analysis of the produced computer tomographic image they detect spatial distribution and concentration of ice and/or gas hydrate inclusions of open and closed porosity, distribution of pores by size, specific surface in the sample.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of assessment of characteristics of non-consolidated porous media.
10 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: test specimen representing a smooth cylinder with the base diameter of 6 mm and height of 8 mm, turned from the test brick piece, is dried in a drying oven for 24 hours at 110°C. Within 72 hours after drying the specimens are impregnated with a magnetic fluid of 10-15% concentration. To impregnate the specimen, a magnetic fluid is used, which represents a colloid solution of magnetite nanoparticles in kerosene with volume share of magnetite 10-15%. This time is sufficient for the sample to be fully impregnated with the magnetic fluid. Further they measure curves of magnetisation of the cylinder impregnated with magnetic fluid, as well as of a sample of magnetic fluid with the same volume and shape as the cylinder, with the help of a vibratory magnetometer. Based on the produced magnetisation curves, they identify the magnetic moment of saturation of the cylinder impregnated with the magnetic fluid, and the sample of magnetic fluid of the same volume and shape as the cylinder. Further using the following formula the porosity P of the material, from which the cylinder is made, is defined: where msam - magnetic moment of sample (brick cylinder) saturation, where the sample is impregnated with magnetic fluid, mmf - magnetic moment of saturation of the magnetic fluid sample of the same volume and the same shape as the impregnated sample.
EFFECT: reduced material and time costs, labour intensiveness of measurement process and results processing, production of highly accurate measurement results.
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: frozen rock specimen is brought in contact with frozen solution of X-ray contrast agent under negative temperature conditions. After saturation of the specimen is completed, computer-aided microtomography of the specimen under negative temperatures is performed, and using the analysis of the obtained computer-aided tomographic image, spatial distribution and concentration of ice and/or gas hydrate inclusions, as well as open and closed porosity is determined.
EFFECT: providing visualisation of ice or hydrate formations in porous space of frozen rocks due to improving their contrast ratio, which allows carrying out evaluations of spatial distribution and concentration of ice and gas hydrates in porous space of rocks, as well as evaluation of open and closed porosity by means of analysis of X-ray images.
11 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves several well hydrodynamic survey (WHS) cycles at early development stage of oil wells at forced creation in the formation of differently directed two-phase filtrations. Representative reference sample collection of wells is determined. WHS surveys are performed in each of the wells, on the basis of which evaluation of current phase permeabilities as to oil ko_rel and water kw_rel, and initial water saturation Kw_initial.is performed. Values ko_rel, kw_rel and Kw_initial are compared, and relationships of the change between phase permeabilities and water saturation are determined. The corresponding general curves of phase permeabilities as to the unit are calculated. And during the operating period characterised by the change of average water cutting of well production of not less than 30% in comparison to the initial one, current water cutting of well production φw is determined simultaneously with WHS.
EFFECT: improving reliable and objective reproduction of relative phase permeabilities by providing the possibility of spreading relative phase permeabilities obtained for a certain well to other sections of the formation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: method for determining the coating continuity consists in the fact that the item with the coating is put into the chamber with test medium, conditions are created for diffusion process of the test medium into the item with further measurement of the amount of the test medium diffused into the item, and the diagnosis is established. Amount of the test medium diffused into the item without the coating is determined by means of a calculation, with parameters of action, which correspond to pre-set parameters of action on the item with the coating. The diagnosis is evaluated as per the ratio of amount of the test medium determined by means of an experiment to the amount of the test medium determined by means of a calculation.
EFFECT: providing measurement accuracy, simple and prompt determination of the coating continuity of large-sized items and items of complex configuration from metals.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: stand has device for pumping liquid and detachable shell, wherein model of filtering environment is placed. Detachable shell is connected to liquid forcing plant and has replaceable impenetrable elements for adjusting value of contact area of outer surface of filtering environment to liquid, made in form of inserts and ring isolators.
EFFECT: higher precision.