Method of diesel control at low feed and minimum stable rpm at load and idling and device to this end
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry. Proposed method of diesel (1) control consists in generating automatic oscillation of fuel feed device (7). On a sensor (6) signal at load decrease to magnitude smaller than 30% of rated value the fuel feed device position pickup (7) is used to feed signal from speed automatic controller (10) of control unit (13) and frequency generator via current sinusoidal oscillations of amplitude and frequency oscillator (12). Said oscillator (12) is timed by crankshaft turn angle transducer (5) with its angular position. Invention covers also the diesel control at low feed and minimum stable rpm.
EFFECT: lower minimum stable rpm at load and idling.
2 cl, 4 dwg
The invention relates to the field of engine construction and can be used to ensure fuel efficiency at low loading regimes and reduce the minimum stable speed under load and idle.
The known method and similar devices used on production engines type d (see kN. Gurevich, A., Surzhenko SI, Klepach PT Fuel injection equipment, diesel and marine diesel engines type d and D50. GOS. scientific and technical publishing house of the engineering literature. M., 1963 s.204). The authors suggest the device to turn off the part of the cylinders of the diesel engine when switching to idle mode (see str-200). On is the circuit off five out of 10 of the fuel high-pressure pumps (pump) engine type d when reaching idle speed. Pneumomechanical (see RIS) when the air supply disables the part of the cylinder, and when switching to other speed electro-pneumatic valve stops the flow of air, and under the action of the spring 6 rail high-pressure pump (body fuel injection) occupies the former position.
The drawback of the proposed method and devices is the complexity of the fuel system of the engine in the form of additional elements (electro-pneumatic valve, pneumomechanical, traction control, auxiliary contact relay speed). Also, off subject the days and the same cylinders, what makes them more wear compared to the disconnected cylinders. Not solved more significant problem associated with the provision of partial loading regimes (from idle and up to ≈25-30% load). Does not reduce the frequency of rotation of idling, so as to configure the minimum sustainable speed remains the same (with ensuring the minimum stable speed under load), which is not fully solves the problem of improving the quality of work at low loading conditions.
Also known fuel injection system with electronically-controlled ring injection valve (see RF patent №2258823), which includes the fuel high-pressure pump (injection pump) with electronically-controlled using the controller-controller annular discharge valve having an actuator solenoid, injector and sensors pedal position fuel control, air and speed.
This device has several disadvantages: a significant complication of the control system, you receive a number of additional elements that significantly reduces the reliability. Himself the discharge valve does not provide the qualitative progress of the workflow fuel injection in part discharge of the high pressure pipeline (TVD), including the final phase of the injection, which helps stand the priori the injections at the nominal conditions. The introduction of such pressure valve in-line high pressure violates hydraulic identity in sections and leads to uneven distribution of feed sections and loops. The device also does not provide a reduction in the minimum stable speed under load and idle.
Closest to the proposed method of controlling the operation of a diesel engine at minimum stable speed under load and idling and device for its implementation is the patent "Method of controlling the transport of the internal combustion engine on the dynamic idle and device for its implementation" (EN 2204730 C2, IPC F02D 41/16, F02D 17/04, G01M 15/00, from 20.05.2003). The essence of the proposed method is to set the clock time of coasting and acceleration by the automatic exposure body fuel injection in the region of low frequencies of rotation of the crankshaft according to the signals of the sensors pedal position clutch and shift lever of a transmission of the vehicle, which used the control unit solenoid. The device for implementing the method includes a position sensor unit speed mode, switch and contact sensors clutch lever gearbox, electrically serially interconnected with the sensor is the provisions of generator speed and is included in the power supply circuit of the control unit.
The disadvantages of this control method and device management are:
- the complexity of the system management mode, which is run and the acceleration of the transport motor when it operates in the dynamic modes of idling;
- reduction of reliability due to the serial connection of multiple position sensors;
the method and apparatus do not provide adequate quality control during the casting of the authority fuel control, reduced workflow efficiency of the engine due to the pronounced dynamic surge pressures;
is not provided with the minimum sustainable speed of the crankshaft under load and at idle, the control is performed in explicit transient conditions between coasting and acceleration (on the so-called dynamic modes idle);
is not reduced minimum steady speed under load and idling;
- there were all the cylinders of the engine, therefore, is not enforced "savings" resource of the cylinder groups, moreover, explicit dynamic modes worsening conditions lubrication, percussive sampling gaps with the strengthening properties of processes;
- management is only at low speeds, when operations are conducted in the switching-on of the clutch and gearbox, however, outside the field of the considered modes modes remain small loads, when a malfunctioning fuel equipment deteriorate fuel economy, increased emissions of environmentally harmful products of combustion, increases the irregularity of rotation of the motor shaft, etc.;
the method and apparatus apply to a limited range of engines, namely transport engines, while the modes of small feeds and the minimum stable speed under load and idling characteristic for marine, stationary, diesel and industrial engines applications, for example, diesel shunting locomotive works up to 70% of the time at low loads and idle like small modes of loads typical for fishing vessels and engines for stationary installations.
An object of the invention is to improve the quality of engine operation at low load and reducing the minimum steady speed under load and at idle, the extended field of application for all items used in the operation of the engines.
This object is achieved through the use of the method of controlling the operation of the engine on the modes of small feeds and minimum steady speed under load and idling, consisting create the Institute of automatic vibrational effects on the body of the fuel while reducing the load to the value less 30% from nominal, when the signal of the position sensor body fuel injection on the body of the fuel injection is supplied in addition to the impact from the automatic speed control signal from the control unit with the driver frequency through the generator of sinusoidal oscillations of electric current, synchronized by means of the angle sensor crankshaft with its angular position (in principle, the generator can produce, for example, and U-shaped oscillations of electric current).
New significant features of the proposed method and device for its implementation lies in the fact that when the load is less than 30% of the signal of the position sensor body fuel injection automatically on the body fuel injection (rail injection pump) is contactless in addition to the impact from the automatic speed control signal from the control unit with the driver frequency through the generator of sinusoidal oscillations of electric current, synchronized by means of the angle sensor crankshaft with its angular position.
The use of position sensors body fuel injection and rotation angle of the crankshaft of the engine in conjunction with a control unit and a generator of sinusoidal oscillations of the electric current allows you to automate the management process at low load, skah and idle, while maintaining the automatic speed regulator to ensure minimum steady speed under load and at idle, and, moreover, if configured to do automatic speed control (SARC) reduce the minimum steady speed under load and at idle in accordance with the requirements of GOST 10150-88 and even below. This determines the high quality of the work of engines and improves the characteristics of reliability. In addition, examples of frequencies of body fuel injection, which turns off part of the cylinder.
The application of significant new features allows you to improve the management of the engine at low load and idle and increase the efficiency of the engine in terms of its operation.
The method of controlling the operation of the engine on the modes of small feeds and minimum steady speed under load and at idle it is shown in figure 1. For example, for a 4-stroke six-cylinder engine job with the help of the control unit with the driver frequency through the generator of sinusoidal oscillations periodic movements of body fuel injection (Reiki), leading him in oscillatory mode using the actuator (THEM) in the form of contactless have been fitted the th on the rail electric solenoid with a frequency (here n is the frequency of crankshaft rotation, rpm) and with a phase shift relative to the first cylinder, so that the maximum amplitude corresponding to this cylinder. It is obvious that the cylinders 1, 3 and 2 will be working process at elevated during Reiki, and the cylinders 5, 6 and almost 4 will be disconnected (see figure 1 at the position of Reiki). Similarly, mode is provided at the position of Reiki. The dashed line shows the process of increasing the amplitude of the stroke of the slats due to the fact that the automatic speed controller restores the specified speed, increasing the speed of the rail, as half of the cylinder is practically not working. But remaining in the cylinders when more fuel is working steadily and with a better workflow (fuel efficiency. less unevenness of rotation). If configured SARC it becomes possible to reduce the minimum stable speed under load and idle. By varying the amplitude of Reiki, experimentally it is possible to achieve a complete turn off half of the cylinders.
As the cycle of operation is performed for 2 turns shaft, whenever the power is on, less 30%, the angle sensor crankshaft from actuating timer angle as a generator with uchenykh numbers, to enter into the work or cylinders 1-3-2, or 5-6-4. It also provides equivalent in operation off half of the cylinders, so that the latter will have the same wear in the process.
For two-stroke motor to ensure output of half cylinders, you must install two timer rotation angle of the shaft with an offset of 180° PCB (or half shaft revolution).
There are variety of other frequencies Reiki to ensure the same task, for example(see figure 2). While working cylinders 1-2-3, but through the loop, and 5-6-4 operate at lower supply and also through the loop.
Similarly, you can select the job optimum frequencies of Reiki for engines with a different number of cylinders, angle zaklinsky knees crankshaft and the numbers of the workflow.
The method can be implemented as in the manufacture of new engines of internal combustion, and upgrading of operating. Improving the quality of work on the modes of small feeds and idling, as well as possible while reducing the minimum sustainable speed increase efficiency of use of motor vehicles, but the main marine, stationary, locomotive and industrial use and enforce the requirements of GOST 10150-88 in this part.
The technical result is achieved due to the use of the device that implements the proposed method of controlling the operation of the engine on the modes of small feeds and minimum steady speed under load and at idle, containing the engine (diesel), automatic speed control, body fuel injection, the control unit, the actuator and the sensor, wherein the engine is equipped with an angle sensor crankshaft with two timer angle set through 180° PCB (half turn) 2-stroke engine, and one timer for four-stroke, the position sensor body fuel injection, the control unit with the driver frequency generator sinusoidal oscillations of the electric current, actuator in the form of an electric solenoid, contactless mounted on the body fuel injection, and the control unit with the driver frequency and the generator of sinusoidal oscillations of electric current electrically connected with each other and included in the power supply circuit, and the signals from the position sensors body fuel injection and rotation angle of the crankshaft is fed to the input of the control unit, the output of which is connected to the input of the generator of sinusoidal oscillations of electric current, and the output of the latter is electrically connected to use the enforcement mechanism in the form of an electric solenoid.
New significant features of the proposed device for its implementation lies in the fact that by setting the periodic oscillations of body fuel injection using a generator of sinusoidal oscillations of electric current can be cut off parts of cylinders, when the disconnection occurs alternately, so that the wear of the cylinder is almost the same, but due to the increased stroke body fuel injection provides better quality of work on the modes of small feeds and idling (reduced unevenness of rotation of the shaft increases efficiency), but also may reduce turnover, which increases the efficiency of use not only in the transport engines, but in the main marine, stationary, diesel and for industrial use.
The use of sensors of the rotation angle of the crankshaft and the position of the body fuel injection together with the control unit, driver frequency generator of sinusoidal oscillations of the electric current and the Executive mechanism allows you to automate the engine management on the modes of small feeds and the minimum stable speed under load and at idle.
Figure 3 shows the functional diagram of the device for controlling operation of the engine on the modes of small feeds and minimum steady speed under nagruzke and at idle, an embodiment of the proposed method.
The device contains a motor (diesel) 1 flywheel 3, the automatic speed regulator 10 with the output lever 11, the body fuel injection (fuel injection pump 7) with the rail 8, the control unit 13 with the driver frequency, the generator of sinusoidal oscillations of electric current 12, the actuator (THEM) in the form of an electric solenoid 9 with a movable anchor 2 and the sensors of the rotation angle of the crankshaft 5 and the position of the body of the fuel supply 6, and the angle sensor crankshaft 5 has two timer angle set through 180° PCB (half turn) 2-stroke engine and one timer for four-stroke, position sensor body fuel injection 6 is equipped with a timer position of authority fuel injection, triggered when the load is less than 30%, and the control unit 13 and the generator of sinusoidal oscillations of electric current 12 are electrically connected with each other and included in the power supply circuit 14, and the signals from the position sensors of the body of the fuel supply 6 and the rotation angle of the crankshaft 5 is fed to the input control unit 13, the output of which is connected to the input of the generator of sinusoidal oscillations of electric current 12, and the output of the latter is electrically connected with the actuating mechanism in the form of an electric solenoid 9, contactless installed n the body fuel injection 7 with the rail 8.
The operation of the device is as follows. When the load is below 30% by the signal of the sensor 6, the control unit 13 with the driver frequency provides a start command to the generator 12 sinusoidal oscillations of electric current through THEM 9 create the oscillatory motion of the rail body fuel injection 7 with frequency and amplitude (according to the description of the method, see figure 1) in addition to the basic signal from the automatic speed regulator 10, which determines the speed of the engine 1. The controller 10 provides the average position of the slats for a given mode of operation. To reduce power electric solenoid 9 transmission from the output lever 11 on the rail 8 may be run elastic through the spring connection, thus it is necessary to choose the stiffness of the spring so as not to disturb the work of SARC on transient conditions (see figure 4, POS), as, for example, it is implemented on diesels 64 18/22, 12/14 4H and other angle Sensor 5 through the control unit 13 generates a phase position signal generator of sinusoidal oscillations of electric current 12 in relation to the selected cylinder number (as shown in figure 1 for the method of control). The phase offset is selected when the finishing device, this meant that the delay in the range from the minimum steady speed under load and to Regis is and idling almost remains the same, that significantly simplifies the configuration. For 2-stroke engine installed 2 timer angle 4 as known in the practice of the pins on the surface of the flywheel 3 under inductive sensors, such as sensor 5. The start control unit is offset signal from the sensor 5, so almost off half of the cylinders occurs with the same probability in the process of operation. For 4-stroke engine is used similarly to the same timer position 4 (analysis of the work presented in "the way"). The device operates in automatic mode, providing comfortable working conditions for staff. When changing the operation mode (the load is outside the regime of small flows), the control unit disables the generator of sinusoidal oscillations and SARC reach the standard mode.
1. The method of controlling the operation of the diesel on the modes of small feeds and minimum steady speed under load and idling, which consists in creating an automatic vibrational effects on the body fuel injection, characterized in that when the load is less 30% of the nominal signal of the position sensor body fuel injection on the body of the fuel injection is supplied in addition to the impact from the automatic speed control signal from the block with driver frequency through the generator of sinusoidal oscillations of the amplitude and frequency of the electric current, synchronized by means of the angle sensor crankshaft with its angular position.
2. Device to control the operation of the engine on the modes of small feeds and minimum steady speed under load and idling, containing the engine (diesel), automatic speed control, body fuel injection, the control unit, the actuator and the sensor, wherein the engine is equipped with an angle sensor crankshaft with two timer angle set through 180° PCB (half turn) 2-stroke engine and one timer for four-stroke, the position sensor body fuel injection, the control unit with the driver frequency generator of sinusoidal oscillations of electric current, actuator in the form of an electric solenoid, contactless mounted on the body of the fuel injection, while the control unit with the driver frequency and the generator of sinusoidal oscillations of electric current electrically connected with each other and included in the power supply circuit, and the signals from the position sensors body fuel injection and rotation angle of the crankshaft is fed to the input of the control unit with the driver frequency, the output of which is connected to the input of the generator of sinusoidal oscillations of electric current, and the output of the placenta which it is electrically connected with the actuating mechanism in the form of an electric solenoid.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: prior to switching on ignition gaseous fuel is injected. Then, also before switching on ignition, auxiliary fuel is additionally injected.
EFFECT: fuel savings, decreased harmful emissions.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: method of starting the ICE running on fuel contained in the tank comprises estimation of fuel amount, fuel volatility (PVR), fuel being injected into engine cylinder at starting subject to estimated fuel volatility (16). Estimated fuel volatility (15) is replaced by preset magnitude (20) at starting after replenishment.
EFFECT: easier starting at frost.
14 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed invention can be used for generation of four-stroke ICE sync signal NOCYL for ICE with uneven number of cylinders C1, C1, C3 with the help of electronic control system 7. Said NOCYL signal allows identification of preset moment at engine cylinder thermodynamic cycle. Sync signal is determined proceeding from TDC signal that identifies the position of every cylinder and signal Cg, Bn indentifying kinematics of crankshaft at fuel every ignition. Note here that both signals are generated on the basis of crankshaft position transducer 22. Proposed method comprises the steps whereat engine is operated for preset time interval with fuel ignition at engine every revolution, characteristic signal Cg, Bn is calculated with check magnitude at first second revolutions, sync signal NOCYL is re-initiated if sync signal is misphased.
EFFECT: decreased emission of contaminants.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in utilisation of lubing oil heat and cooling water for heating, oil circulation, executing all preparatory jobs for starting and running standby diesel generator and starting diesel generator. Method covers automated and synchronous control over fuel and supercharge air feed at various operating conditions by means of three-pulse combination electronic fuel feed controllers and at various air pressures in the entire range of static loads and sharp variations of load. Regulation of lubing oil and cooling water temperatures is adapted to actual conditions, loads are distributed among diesel generators operated in parallel subject to control criterion and actual mean load thereto. Invention covers also forced synchronous outage of supercharging turbo compressor and diesel generator at normal and emergent conditions.
EFFECT: power savings, higher efficiency and reliability of starting and efficiency of diesel generator.
8 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: this method in combination with cold start and/or warming-up at an idle operation of internal combustion engine (1) is used to start engine (1) by means of a cold start mode with preset values of engine operating parameters; quantity of accumulated one or several hydrocarbons in at least one component of exit gas neutralisation is estimated and the cold start mode of a motor is activated, if according to estimation quantity of peaks of HC-desorption stipulated by combustion gases of filler exceeds preset limit value.
EFFECT: method provides possibility of heating of components of exit gas neutralisation and allows defining exact time of engine warming-up with possibility to stop an active mode of the motor cold start, thus allowing to avoid fuel overflow or at least to restrict it.
20 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises the following jobs: (a) feeding first amount of fuel in combustion chamber in compression stroke by pre-injection to produce partially homogeneous premix in combustion chamber, (b) feeding main amount of fuel in combustion chamber by main injection and combustion of fuel-air mix by self-ignition. Beginning of pre-injection is selected to allow premix to ignite after short delay of ignition while beginning of the main injection is selected to allow main amount of fuel to be injected during combustion or directly after combustion of said premix. Pre-injection is executed at crankshaft turn through 22° to 100°, in particular 25° to 30°, before piston TDC. Main injection is executed at crankshaft turn through 20° before piston TDC to 20° after TDC. Main injection is divided into some partial injections. In starting ICE, first partial injection is executed at crankshaft turn through 2° before TDC to 2° after TDC, while second partial injection is executed at crankshaft turn through 2° to 5° after TDC.
EFFECT: fast starting, higher reliability.
10 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system comprises storage battery, device to disconnected the latter from onboard circuit, electric starter, starting contactor terminals, capacitive power accumulator made up of capacitors interconnected in series or in parallel. Charge circuit of said power accumulator comprises current-limiting resistor and diode to shunt said resistor. System includes also additional contactor with closing contacts to connect storage battery with said capacitive power accumulator prior to starting locomotive diesel engine, contactor with closing contacts, transducers of accumulator charge current and voltage, controlled rectifier of accumulator charge, unit to generate and indicate charge voltage, and pulse-phase control unit. Said accumulator is connected to controlled rectifier output via contactor with closing contacts. Rectifier power input is connected to charge generator output. Voltage transducer is connected parallel with power accumulator. Outputs of current and voltage transducers are connected with voltage generation unit input and indication unit input. Output of voltage generation unit is connected to pulse-phase control unit with its output connected to control input of controlled rectifier. Capacitive power accumulator is charged automatically without interference of engine crew after starting of locomotive diesel. Charge indication unit allows visual control over charge current and voltage.
EFFECT: higher reliability and longer life, automated charging.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed electric starter comprises storage battery (1), starter (2), traction relay comprising winding (3) and make contact (4), starting switch (5), capacitive storages (6), (7) and (8), short-term make button (9), threshold elements (10), (11) and (12), decoder (13) and interrupter disks (14), (15), (16), (17), (18), (19) and (20) with control electrodes.
EFFECT: starter higher starting current.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in that enrichment percentage (%Enrich) is determined in ICE cold start as the function of memorised fuel evaporability (Vmem) and engine is started using predetermined enrichment percentage (%Enrich). Additionally, forecast start quality (MarkPred) is determined prior to starting the engine. Measured start quality (MarkMeas) is determined during initial increase in engine rpm. Correction (Vcorr) for memorised fuel evaporability (Vmem) is determined as the function of comparison between measured start quality (MarkMeas) and forecast start quality (MarkPred) for memorised fuel evaporability (Vmem) to be edited by using correction (Vcorr) for memorised fuel evaporability (Vmem).
EFFECT: method of determining fuel evaporability and ICE cold starting.
86 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to engines of vehicles. According to proposed method fuel is injected into engine combustion chamber and to increase amount of fuel to be injected at temperature lower than operating temperature of internal combustion engine, warming up index fWL is determined. Said index fWL is found using base or main index fG and index fLA which depends on load. Load dependant index FLa is found for different operating conditions independently from base or main index fG. Method uses control element, permanent memory or flash memory for control unit of internal combustion engines of vehicle which stores program orientated for operation in computer, mainly, in microprocessor suitable for implementing the method. Internal combustion engine of vehicle is designed for implementing the method being furnished with control unit making it possible to determine internal combustion engine warming up index fWL to increase amount of fuel injected at temperature lower than operating temperature of internal combustion engine.
EFFECT: provision of required flexibility and simplified operation at simultaneous improvement of operating parameters of internal combustion engine at warming up.
11 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ICE application in various machines incorporating an electromechanical transmission. The proposed method of stabilising the ICE minimum specific fuel rate by automatically adjusting the ICE operating conditions via a feedback circuit connected to the electromechanical transmission components consists in presetting the engine shaft rpm corresponding to the minimum specific fuel consumption, measuring the said shaft rpm variation at varying outer moment of resistance, comparing the resulted value with the preset one, amplifying the difference signal and feeding it to the AC generator excitation current control circuit input to make the aforesaid moment to comply with that developed by ICE. Note that at the same time, the electric power accumulator output voltage is measured and compared with two preset levels. Given any departure from the aforesaid preset levels, a signal is generated to cut off the ICE in case the voltage exceeds the preset level, or to cut in the ICE in case the measured voltage is lower than the preset one that allows operating the ICE in intermittent service.
EFFECT: stabilisation of minimum specific fuel rate and optimisation of ICE operating conditions at varying electromechanical transmission engine loads, simpler ICE design.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; engines.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for disconnection of engines in case of emergency situations and to compression brakes of engine trucks. Device for emergency shutting down of internal combustion engine and deceleration of vehicle by engine contains member for closing section of intake pipe line, closing member position setter and compressed air source. Closing member position setter is made in form of crankshaft speed limit pickup, oil pressure drop pickup, cooling liquid temperature rise pickup, and engine retarder control pushbutton. Intake pipeline section closing member is made in form of spool series-connected by pneumatic cylinder, in upper part of which calibrated hole communicating with atmosphere is made with fuel-feed valve connected with fuel-feed main line and with each of above-indicated pickups through check valve, and signal lamp and with engineering retarder control pushbutton and is connected in series with compressed air source. Pickups and engine retarder control pushbutton are connected in parallel.
EFFECT: improved reliability and efficiency of engine in operation, enlarged functional capabilities.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: electronic controller of diesel engine crankshaft rotation frequency comprises four symmetrically arranged electromagnets (5), an anchor (3), four permanent multi-pole magnets (4), sensors of engine rotation frequency (8), mass air flow (9), position of a rack (1) of a high-pressure fuel pump (HPFP) and a controller (13). Electromagnets (5) are made from a magnetic conductor (7). The magnetic conductor (7) is assembled from separate sheets of steel. Windings (6) are wound onto the magnetic conductor (7). Windings (6) are controlled by the controller (13) independently on each other. The HPFP rack (1) is connected to the anchor (3). Electromagnets (5) move the rack (1) of the HPFP.
EFFECT: reduced time of controller actuation and improved accuracy of tracking.