Method for recultivation of tailing dumps

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and may be used for recultivation of anthropogenic structures and strengthening of dust-producing surfaces. The method includes treatment of stored tailings with a binding compound, sowing of perennial herbs and compaction of the surface layer. At the same time previously, for formation of a pedogenic layer, they treat the surface of the tailing dump with a zeolite hydraulic mix at the ratio of zeolite-water equal to 1:2 and perform tillage of the surface layer. And treatment of soil with a binding compound, sowing of perennial herbs and compaction of the surface layer is carried out simultaneously, at the same time binding compounds are water-soluble polymers.

EFFECT: creation of a pedogenic layer due to application of zeolite tuffs onto the surface of the tailing dump, making it possible to exclude application of fertilisers, to strengthen development of herbal root systems, thus to increase efficiency of biological recultivation of a tailing dump.

2 cl, 2 ex, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for remediation of man-made structures and fastening dusty surfaces.

A known method of reclamation of tailings by protecting the soil from wind erosion, including the preparation of an aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol and applying it to the surface of the soil. In the ground pre contribute vegasonline, which is used as the powder bentonite clay. Additionally, in the surface layer of the soil contribute perennial grasses seeds, fertilizer and humus in the form of powder mixed with the bentonite clay (see RF patent №2267514, IPC SC 17/40, publ. 10.01.2006).

The disadvantage of this method of reclamation of tailings is low efficiency of protection of the surface layer of soil from wind erosion due to the removal of seeds from the formed layer and poor seed germination.

A known method of reclamation of tailings based on sandy soils, including the application of lime and organic fertilizers depleted in humus soil, Grebneva at pre-treatment, the surface of the created soil put a layer of plugging a total volume of not less than 20% of the pore volume generated by the fertile layer, conduct Grebneva, organic fertilizers applied in the form of ground vegetation and/or other forms of up to 40% of the volume of the ridges by distributing them in the furrows between the ridges, spend Razvilka previously formed ridges with the incorporation of organic matter and with simultaneous application of biologically active agents that promote rapid pregnany organics, 30-40 days again contribute organic matter and conduct the re-formation of the ridges with simultaneous irrigation crushed organic biologically active drug and the sowing of the seeds of cultivated plants (application for invention No. 2003130388, IPC AV 79/02 from 10.05.2005).

The disadvantage of the proposed method of reclamation of tailings is the complexity and long-term operations for the reproduction of lands alienated man-made objects of the mining industry.

Closest to the claimed technical solution is the way to restore disturbed lands when placing tailings providing sowing seeds of perennial grasses with a top culture with simultaneous application of mineral fertilizers. Crops rolled down and handle 3-7%water emulsion latex in the amount of 1,5-3,0 l/m Perennial grasses and cover culture seeded ordinary way interleaved rows (see RF patent №2030851, IPC AV 79/02, publ. 20.03.1995).

The disadvantages of this method are the high labour costs by using water-soluble latexes, the addition of mineral fertilizers, low efficiency is formirovaniya soil-forming layer for seed germination.

The technical result of the proposed method is the creation of soil-forming layer by applying zeolite tuff on the surface of the tailings to prevent fertilization, to enhance the development of the root system of grasses, thus increasing the efficiency of biological reclamation of tailings.

The result is achieved that the method of reclamation of the tailings, including the processing of stored tailings binder composition, the sowing of perennial grasses and compaction of the surface layer, characterized in that, for the formation of soil-forming layer, a surface treatment tailings the zeolite slurry at a ratio of the zeolite-water 1:2 and the loosening of the surface layer and soil binder composition, the sowing of perennial grasses and compaction of the surface layer takes place simultaneously, with the binder composition used water-soluble polymers.

The method is also distinguished by the fact that the application of a zeolite slurry is carried out in the direction of the retaining dam tailings for disposal of sewage in the settling structure with the aim of further reuse it in the process.

The essence of the invention lies in the formation of soil-forming layer caused by the deposits on the surface of the tailings zeolite slurry, the introduction of seeds of perennial grasses in the formed layer, the surface treatment binder composition of reagents based on water-soluble polymers and mechanical rolling the obtained soil to retain moisture.

The formation of soil-forming layer on the surface of the tailings is carried out by applying the prepared mineral slurry (zeolite-water) at a ratio of T:W - 1:2, by applying it to the surface of the tailings pond, removal of the clarified liquid phase for use in circulation, subsequent loosening of the zeolite layer with stored waste in the tailings pond. Subsequent operations of the proposed method - making in the generated soil layer water-soluble polymer simultaneously with the seeds of perennial grasses and subsequent mechanical rolling surface layer. For carrying out the process of loosening, as well as making a formed in the soil layer water-soluble polymers, simultaneously with the seeds of perennial grasses, and subsequent mechanical compacting the surface, it is advisable to use the device for fixing the dust-forming surfaces of tailings and dumps of rocks (RF patent No. 2175065, IPC E21F 5/02 from 20.10.2001).

Applying the slurry on the basis of zeolitic tuffs promotes aeration of the soil and root system development, PR is the maximum growth of plants, holds roots in the area sufficient moisture. In this case, the zeolite works as a storage tank for the most important nutrients that allows you to shift the pH from acidic to alkaline, excluding the addition of mineral fertilizers. Depending on the soil properties, the introduction of zeolite increases productivity by 17-30% in the first year and 20-50% in the second, and the effect persists for a long period of time.

As a binder composition, it is recommended to use water-soluble polymers, such as PAA-GS, Praestol 2540.

For sowing seeds are recommended, adapted to specific climatic conditions of the region.

Characteristic herbs are presented in table 1.

Table 1
Type grassComponent content, %
ProteinFatFiberBEVCalciumPhosphorus
The awnless brome11,52,327,340,1 0,40,15
The Siberian wildrye9,11,726,238,80,40,49
Wheat grass beskoravainy8,31,327,041,50,40,13

Surface application of water-soluble polymers contributes to the formation of bound crust on the surface through education through adsorbed macromolecules colophony ties between the fixed particles, which prevent the removal of seeds from soil-forming layer by wind erosion and precipitation.

The method is as follows.

Coating the surface of the tailings zeolite slurry is carried out by grinding of zeolite tuff to class size - 0,074 mm, followed by addition of water from settling construction and application of slurry by suction dredge across the surface of the tailings toward the retaining dam, which has a drain pipe water (see figure 1).

Figure 1 shows the module preparation and application of the slurry, where 1 - hosto anilide; 2 - the main dam; 3 - pond; 4 - pump station; 5 - site preparation of zeolite suspension; 6 - receiving socket; 7 - outlet, 8 - dredger; 9 - swivel design; 10 - attachment.

The module is made using a water circulation system water supply. Powdered zeolite is supplied to the node in the preparation of zeolite suspension 5. Water pumped by the pump station 4 from the pond tank 3, the pipeline is also served in the node slurry preparation 5. Next, the suspension using hoppers 8 is supplied to the surface of the tailings. Uniform application of slurry across the surface of the tailings is turning mechanism 9 with the nozzle 10. Water on the surface moves in the direction of the main dam 2, where the tube aspirates 11 flows into a settling pond 3.

For the preparation and dispensing of reagents reagent set station (UPND-1).

The whole process of making a given reagent solution at the stations and its subsequent dosing is done in three stages:

- filling the tanks of solvent (water) and a reagent;

- preparation of a set concentration of the working solution;

- optimization of dosing schedules of working solutions.

The first stage of mixing is carried out with mechanical stirring in a mortar tank. The second stage re is eshiwani is carried out in tanks with turbulence in the flow and circulation pumps. As a rule, the same pump is used to pump fresh water into the mortar and service tanks.

Transportation and deposition of working solutions of reagents and seeds on the surface of the tailings is a device for securing dusty surfaces (see RF patent №2175065), improved installation for depositing seeds. Setting allows you to adjust the supply of seeds to choose their optimal consumption.

Device for securing dusty surfaces includes drives, roller, pneumatic wheels, feed tank, feed piping, fill device, a nozzle for supplying reagent and for cleaning the inner surfaces of disks and allows you to perform several operations at the same time loosening the introduction of the reagent, making seeds, rolling. The use of this device economically feasible than conventional agricultural equipment.

Example 1. On the site of the tailings area of 100 m2subject to reclamation, put a layer of zeolite slurry with a weight of 160 kg of zeolite was Then made by loosening the resulting layer from the surface of the tailings, followed by inoculation of a mixture of seeds of perennial grasses at the rate of 30 kg/ha, followed by surface treatment with polyacrylamide PAA-GS 0,1%concentration the rate of 1.5 l/m2. Then check the Dili rolling. All operations were performed by the device for securing dusty surfaces. Germination of seeds was observed 5 days after planting.

Example 2. The method was carried out as in example 1, except for the integrated use of chemicals: lime and Praestol 2540, the optimal consumption of a 5%solution of milk of lime is 1.5 l/m2, 0.1% solution of Praestol 25401 - 1.5 l/m2it's much better reduces the dustiness of the air.

1. Method of reclamation of the tailings, including the processing of stored tailings binder composition, the sowing of perennial grasses and compaction of the surface layer, wherein the pre, for the formation of soil-forming layer, a surface treatment tailings the zeolite slurry at a ratio of the zeolite-water 1:2 and the loosening of the surface layer and soil binder composition, the sowing of perennial grasses and compaction of the surface layer takes place simultaneously, with the binder composition used water-soluble polymers.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the application of a zeolite slurry is carried out in the direction of the retaining dam tailings for disposal of sewage in the settling structure with the aim of further reuse it in the process.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: sowing of herbs and hard-shrub species is carried out in indents of uneven surface of mine dumps. Simultaneously with that Nitraria sibirika is sown into grooves cut on the tops of process crests of dumps.

EFFECT: reduced time for complete design coverage of anthropogenically damaged lands with plants.

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method includes filling of the mined space to the border of the upper level of ground water with construction wastes, arrangement of the drainage layer with construction wastes, formation of a hill in the centre of the pit by dumping of stripping rocks with subsequent terracing of hill slopes and arrangement of places for burial of remains, at the same time underground tomb structures are arranged on terraces, being designed for several graves, besides, each tomb structure is made with hydraulic insulation, drainage system, drainage and ventilation systems, at the same time the ventilation system is additionally equipped with a separate air duct installed with an angle of inclination of not more than 35 degrees and made in the form of a hollow vertical channel filled with stems of cane located in the ground in close proximity from the tomb structure with the possibility to connect each subsequent grace to it in the tomb structure.

EFFECT: reduced labour costs and costs of recovery works, rational usage of land.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method includes filling of a mined-out space of a quarry to the border of the upper level of ground water with construction wastes, arrangement of a drainage layer with construction wastes, formation of a hill in the centre of the mined-out quarry from stripping rocks with terracing of its slopes, installation of a drainage system, retaining walls, and arrangement of places on terraces for burial of remains, at the same time retaining walls for terraces are made of reinforced concrete cylindrical piles by means of their submersion in soil, pile caps are rigidly connected to each other with the help of concrete mortar, and on terraces they arrange underground vault structures with hydraulic insulation, water disposal system, drainage and ventilation systems, at the same time the first burial is made for depth of more than three meters, and the distance from the cover of the last burial to the level of terrace surface ground shall make at least one meter.

EFFECT: rational use of restored land areas.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method includes separate extraction, movement and piling of soil layer and stripping rocks, mining of a quarry field, filling of the mined space of the pit with construction wastes and further compaction. Then terracing is carried out at one of pit slopes with the help of a bulldozer. Places for burial of remains are arranged on terraces. On the other slope of the pit a vertical wall is arranged for burial of urns with ashes of deceased, where horizontal rows of niches are arranged, being made by means of horizontal pushing of pipe sections of rectangular cross section.

EFFECT: reduced labour inputs and cost of recovery works, rational use of land areas.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: separate excavation of soil layer and overburden rocks, their movement and stocking into individual strip dumps is performed; open-pit field development, laying and levelling of overburden rocks and their compaction is performed to form an impervious screen. Then, backfill material is added, which consists of a mixture of overburden rocks and non-organic wastes - dust of electrostatic precipitators from cement production and citrogypsum from production of citric acid in the following ratio (wt %): overburden rocks : dust of electrostatic precipitators from cement production : citrogypsum = 2 : (1 - 1.5): (0.2 - 0.3).

EFFECT: reduction of adverse effect on the environment owing to avoiding open-area storage of wastes, and production of citric acid, and their use as part of backfill material during recultivation of open pits.

1 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: root layer is formed due to removal, loading, transportation and application to the dump surface of overburden rocks from top overburden bench, which consist of fertile soil layer and basement rocks. Then, vegetation cover is formed using the planting material treated with complex biological preparation.

EFFECT: reduction of reclamation periods; increase in durability of cultivated forest and grassy ranges on reclamated lands.

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: separation of tailings into fractions is performed at tailing drain points on inclined surface, on which system of settling trenches with reinforced-concrete trays laid in them is created. Width of the tray bottom is equal to width of bucket of extraction-loading equipment. Then, mechanical cleaning of settling trenches from conditioning tailings is performed.

EFFECT: reduction of impoverishment of tailings and costs for development of useful components.

3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flooding of worked out peatlands in the restoration of peat bogs. The method is carried out in the autumn-winter period with the establishment of a stable average daily air temperature below the freezing point of water with use of ice blocks made in the form of polyhedra. Near the available source of fresh water the blocks of ice are produced. Then the blocks manufactured using the vehicle are moved to the mapped areas of worked out peatlands and put in few layers in the structure in the form of a polyhedron. At that at each mapped area of worked out peatlands, depending on the area of the site one or more structures from blocks of ice are erected.

EFFECT: increased level of fire safety in the areas of worked out peatlands, reduced level of the risk of emergencies and improved overall environmental situation around the worked out peatlands.

2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of recultivation, in particular, to restoration of disturbed lands located in overmoistened areas. The method is based on stimulating the processes of natural overgrowing and including a complete or partial removal of layer of sand previously applied to the bog to a residual layer above the surface of the bog 1-15 centimetres.

EFFECT: method enables to stimulate the natural overgrowing of disturbed lands, particularly wetland areas with the settlement and development of local wild plant species.

4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method includes water draining from an open pit, filling of a worked-out area. At the same time the worked-out area is filled with a mineral mass containing metals; water draining from the open pit and worked-out area filling are carried out simultaneously. Besides, the volume of the filled material is comparable to the volume of drained pit water, metals are extracted from the drained pit water by means of electric exchange sorption, technical water produced after sorption is divided into two flows, one of which is sent to process needs of production, and the other is sent via an electric cavitation plant to produce active oxygen, then is sent back to the pit to activate the process of internal pit leaching.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of water-logged pits reclamation.

1 ex, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: aqueous mulching composition contains lignosulphonate, carbamide, Na-carboxymethyl cellulose, potassium chloride and, as natural additives, Andreaeopsida moss and Larix kaempferi larch needles, in different amounts which are reflected in versions of the polymer-natural mulching compositions.

EFFECT: use of said compositions improves the environment.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: mulching composition contains lignosulphonate, carbamide, Na-carboxymethyl cellulose, potassium chloride, natural additives - Andreaeopsida moss and Larix lariciana larch needles, and water.

EFFECT: wider range of soil mulching compositions.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: mulching composition contains lignosulphonate, carbamide, Na-carboxymethyl cellulose, potassium chloride and, as natural additives, Pallavicina moss and Larix cajanderi larch needles, and water with defined ratios of components.

EFFECT: wider range of soil mulching compositions.

3 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: mulching composition contains lignosulphonate, carbamide, Na-carboxymethyl cellulose, potassium chloride, water and, as natural additives, Pellia endiviifolia moss and Juniperus Blue Alps juniper needles.

EFFECT: wider range of soil mulching compositions.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: aqueous mulching composition contains lignosulphonate, carbamide, Na-carboxymethyl cellulose, potassium chloride and, as natural additives, Pallavicinia moss and Juniperus h. Wiltonii juniper needles, in different amounts which are reflected in versions of the polymer-natural mulching compositions.

EFFECT: improvement of the environment.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: aqueous mulching composition contains lignosulphonate, carbamide, Na-carboxymethyl cellulose, potassium chloride and, as natural additives, Sphaerocarpus moss and Juniperus virginiana Nana Compacta juniper needles, in different amounts which are reflected in versions of the polymer-natural mulching composition.

EFFECT: improvement of the environment.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: aqueous mulching composition contains lignosulphonate, carbamide, Na-carboxymethyl cellulose, potassium chloride and, as natural additives, Takakiopsida moss and Tamafiscifolia juniper needles, in different amounts which are reflected in versions of the polymer-natural mulching composition.

EFFECT: use of said compositions improves the environment.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: mulching composition contains lignosulphonate, carbamide, Na-carboxymethyl cellulose, potassium chloride and, as natural additives, Polytrichopsida moss and Larix kongboensis larch needles, and water.

EFFECT: wider range of soil mulching compositions.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: mulching composition contains lignosulphonate, carbamide, Na-carboxymethyl cellulose, potassium chloride, water and, as natural additives, Jungermanniales moss and Juniperus x. media Gold Coast juniper needles.

EFFECT: wider range of soil mulching compositions.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: mulching composition contains, wt %: lignosulphonate 0.1-0.4, carbamide 0.2-0.6, Na-carboxymethyl cellulose 0.3-0.4, potassium chloride 1-3, and as natural additives - Sphaerocarpus moss 10-15 and Larix cajanderi larch needles 8-9, water - the balance. The amounts are reflected in different versions of the polymer-natural mulching compositions.

EFFECT: use of said compositions improves the environment.

3 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of agriculture, in particular to revegetation. Method includes sowing perennial grasses with introduction of mineral fertilisers. Vermiculite substrate with granules up to 2-4 mm and pH from 6.5 to 7.2 is placed on ground in up to 1 cm layer. Seeds of grasses are sown on substrate surface with their irrigation with water solution of mineral fertilisers. After that, substrate surface is covered with polymer film, which is removed on 5-7 day. Vermiculite substrate represents swollen vermiculite with pH from 6.5 to 7.2, obtained by method of high-temperature burning at temperature up to 850°C with regulation of rate and temperature of burning, containing wt %: silicon oxide (SiO2)-34.0-36.6; iron oxide (Fe2O3)-5.6-6.5; aluminium oxide (Al2O3)- 9.1-9.9; magnesium oxide (MgO)-24.7-26.6; iron oxide (FeO)-0.20-0.27; titanium oxide (TiO2)-0.40-0.47; calcium oxide (CaO)-1.02-1.22; manganese (Mn)-0.05-0.07; potassium oxide (K2O)-0.70-0.87. Before application of vermiculite substrate layer on very dense ground, its tillage is carried out.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase efficiency of formation of sown culture phytocenoses and their longevity, initiate processes of seed germination and further growth and development of herbaceous plants and reduce terms of formation of culture phytocenoses.

3 cl, 3 ex

Up!