Method of erection of underground horizontal water intake of combined structure
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering construction, namely, to water intake structures, namely, to water intake structures, and may be used for water intake from underground sources with shallow beds of underground water. The method of erection of an underground horizontal water intake of a combined structure, including a water receiving trench 1 and a water collection well 7, consists in laying of gabion mats 2 in longitudinal rows on the bottom of the water receiving trench 1 with drainage devices. Gabion mats 2 are made of light fascines and perforated pipes, laid in alternating rows and rolled into a gabion net. On top of gabion mats 2 along the trench they lay flexible mats 5, made of a drainage filler, which is made of tight rows of light fascines rolled into a geonet. In the end part of the trench there is a rigid tray 6 of rectangular cross section, the cantilever part of which with an inclination enters into a water collection well 7. Gabion mats with drainage devices are laid from the trench to the middle of the tray.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of operation of a water intake structure and reduced labour intensiveness of construction.
The invention relates to hydraulic construction, namely water intake structures used for the abstraction of water from underground sources in shallow deposits of groundwater.
Relative to the closest technical solution is the way underground horizontal intake [1, 2], including the manufacture of intake stone serenatas trenches and drainage wells. The main disadvantage of this technical solution is the low efficiency and the need of a large number of stone material.
The purpose of the invention is improving the efficiency and reducing the complexity of the construction.
This goal is achieved by the fact that the method of construction of underground horizontal intake, including intake trench and drainage well at the bottom of the water intake trench longitudinal rows of stacked gabion mattresses with drainage device, consisting of lung fashin and perforated pipes laid in alternating rows and wrapped in gabion mesh, on top of gabion mattresses along the trench is placed a flexible mattress, consisting of drainage aggregate, which is made of a dense series of light fashin wrapped in the geogrid, and in the mouth of the trench provide rigid tray rectangular cantilever portion with a slope of I is the CIO into the drainage pit, this gabion mattresses with drainage device stack from the trench until the middle of the tray.
1 shows a longitudinal section of the main site horizontal underground water; figure 2 is the same as in the plan; figure 3 is a cross section of underground horizontal intake; figure 4 - gabion mattress; figure 5 is a flexible mattress; figure 6 shows a light fashina of dry reeds.
Underground horizontal water consists of water intake trench 1, gabion mattresses 2 with drainage device, made of light fashin 3 and perforated pipes 4, stacked in layers and wrapped in gabion mesh. Top gabion mattresses 2 longitudinal rows of stacked flexible mattresses 5, made of light fashin 3, wrapped in the geogrid. In the mouth of the trench 1 is arranged in a rigid tray 6 of rectangular cross section placed on the slope of the trench with the console entry in the catchment of the well 7. For collecting water from the well 7 is arranged in the suction pipe 8.
The method of construction of underground horizontal intake is done and works as follows.
First, prepare a sufficient volume of dry and Mature cane and brought it to the place of construction of water intake. Then reed made the necessary amount of light fashin 3 of them, stacking layers with perforated pipes 4, manufacturing is poured gabion mattresses 2. From the lungs fashin 3, turning them into geogrid 4-5 pieces, and made flexible mattresses 5. Later in the aquifer ground, with a small depth of the watertable, develop water intake trench 1 required depth and width, and hole drainage sump 7. After planning the bottom of the pit under the drainage well 7, and the bottom of the trench 1 under gabion mattresses 2, a flexible mattress 5 and the rigid tray 6. The pitch of trench 1 in the direction of the well 7, providing effective admission and discharge profiltrovavshih water is 0.02...of 0.05. Then at the same time build a drainage well 7 and the rigid tray 6 made of concrete, reinforced concrete or other safe polymer material. After dialing the required strength of the materials of the well 7 and the tray 6 is placed along the trench in two solid lines gabion mattresses, so that the perforated pipe 4 (adjacent mattresses 2), respectively, included in each other by lines of slope and water flow. Thus gabion mattresses 2 mounted along the entire length of the trench 1 to the middle of the hard tray 6. Top gabion mattresses stack also longitudinal rows of flexible mattresses 5, with dense rows in two layers with ligation and attach them to the gabion mattresses 2. Gabion mattresses can have the following dimensions: 30×20×120 cm 35×25×150 cm, 40×30×200 cm and others. Flexible mattresses 5 make the length of 150-200 cm and the diameter is rum 20-25 cm Then on top of flexible mattresses stack corresponding to (removed from the aquifer) ground to the top of the trench with a uniform seal to its natural state. In the end in the drainage pit 7 mount the suction pipe so that the inlet pipe is positioned above the bottom 30 see After construction the area around the diversion structure plan and equip so that runoff water does not penetrate nor in trench 1, nor in the well 7.
Underground horizontal intake combined structure, constructed by the proposed method works as follows. Because the groundwater level is above and flexible gabion mattresses, water flows by gravity to a flexible mattresses 5 with good water intake properties. To gabion mattresses 2, where the water penetrates through the water intake holes in perforated drainage pipes 4, which (because of the slope) transportation and ingress of water through the hard tray 6 in the catchment of the well 7. Light Pasini 3, made from dried reeds are good draining material, which retains its properties (without decomposition) 15-20 years. After 12-15 years of age may be replaced by draining the material intake of the trench, i.e. replaced and shifted gabion 2 and a flexible mattress 5. To ensure efficiency the efficient operation of the facilities of drainage wells it is necessary to provide continuous sampling of water through the suction pipe stationary pumping station or the downhole pump.
Underground horizontal intake combined structure, constructed by the proposed method, the most effective can be used in coastal and floodplain areas of the aquifer soil with the depth of the unconfined groundwater level to 7 PM
The method of construction of underground horizontal intake is designed to supply a small settlement, agricultural enterprises, farms and individual farms.
1. Ammori Water. The diversion structure. - Kiev.: High school. Head publishing house 1984. Pp.163-165.
2. Abramov I. The water supply. -M.: 1982 - s-194.
The method of construction of underground horizontal intake combined structure including the water intake trench and drainage wells, characterized in that at the bottom of the water intake trench longitudinal rows of stacked gabion mattresses with drainage device, consisting of lung fashin and perforated pipes laid in alternating rows and wrapped in gabion mesh, on top of gabion mattresses along the trench is placed a flexible mattress, consisting of drainage aggregate, which is made of a dense series of light fashin wrapped in the geogrid, and the end portion of the trench provide rigid tray rectangular cantilever part of it is done with a bias enters into the drainage pit, this gabion mattresses with drainage device stack from the trench until the middle of the tray.
SUBSTANCE: the device comprises a system of injection wells, output wells and water distribution network with wells and surge units for aerosol moisturing. The injection wells contain gas-vapour or electric generators installed along the outer frame and inside the aquifer. The output wells contain pumps. The water distribution network with wells and surge units for aerosol moisturing is installed on the irrigated plot of the field. The gas-vapour generator contains a combustion chamber. The combustion chamber has a lid on one of its sides with an inlet valve to feed pressurized air from the piston compressor. Another side of the combustion chamber is fitted with outlet from extracting burned gas, combined nozzles for injecting the mixture of fuel thermal breakdown products and conductive fluid. The combined nozzles are installed on the combustion chamber wall in series one after another. The burner nozzles are installed adjacent to combined nozzles, they are used for injecting hot products of thermal breakdown of conducting fluid and products of burning the gaseous fuel-air mixture. The burner nozzle is connected with the piston valve mechanism. The piston valve mechanism contains a cylinder with a piston and a spring. The cylinder is fitted with a duct feeding pressurized air from the receiver. The receiver has a back flow valve and ducts fitted water-injecting nozzles. The ducts are connected with the cylindrical part of the valve mechanism. The cylindrical part of the valve mechanism has a blow valve for releasing the gas-vapour mixture into the atmosphere and a flange for fixation on the casting pipe of the injection well. The injection well is connected with the tubing string. The surge unit contains a receiving chamber. The receiving chamber has a back flow valve with water pressure. The receiving chamber is connected with the mixing chamber. The mixing chamber is fitted with a nozzle, and the surge unit is installed on a pillar. The pillar is connected inside the well to the water distribution network. The water network has a hinge connection to change the inclination angle of the bore, a jointed support used to rotate it the bore on the platform and a combustion chamber with expanding nozzle. The burner nozzles have a frame with hoses for conductive fluid feeding. The hoses are connected with cylindrical ducts. The cylindrical ducts are located inside the frame in the insulated layer. The electrodes are installed on one side of the cylindrical ducts. The electrodes are connected to the surge generator. Nozzles are installed on another end of cylindrical ducts. The nozzles are installed at an angle in relation to each other and are connected to the spraying nozzle blasting chamber. The spraying nozzle has a bottom with gas stream outlets.
EFFECT: the construction ensures high production yield of crops.
3 cl, 14 dwg
FIELD: water-supply system, particularly automatic water discharge from pipes, for water-lifting pipe and tower (vessel) protection against water freezing, for well and submersed electric pump protection against operational imperfection, well head protection against mudding and contamination, especially countryside water intake wells.
SUBSTANCE: automatic discharge valve comprises body with inlet and outlet orifices and lever with shutoff member, weight, bolt and nut arranged in the body. One lever part may abut upon inner body surface parts opposite to seat to close shutoff member as pump delivery increases at the time of admissible minimal supply. One lever end is pivotally connected to the body. Another lever end is bent. Valve also has outlet made as discharge pipe provided with seat and connected to side body surface. Valve has fork member. Seat and shutoff member surface touching it are flat. Discharge pipe with seat, lever and fork are made of plastic. Lever has liquid flow divider acting on the weight. In the case of increased pressure upstream of valve the divider is located from low lever side. If said pressure is between high and low values the divider is arranged over weight and space between weight and divider is equal to washer thickness. When said pressure is low lever is provided with additional liquid flow divider arranged over weight and space between weight and divider is equal to washer thickness. Water supply device using said valve is also disclosed.
EFFECT: increased device reliability and extended electric submersible pump operation time, decreased maintenance, construction and well killing costs.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: water supply facilities, particularly water-intake structures to supply underground water for domestic water supply, hydraulic engineering and irrigation purposes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves constructing horizontal drains; forming and equipping shaft well; creating additional well in parallel to one adapted to take water from lens arranged on salt ground water, wherein depth of well for salt ground water delivery is 1-2 m greater than lower level of fresh water lens. Horizontal drains and lower end of water-lifting pipe in shaft well is at upper salt ground water level. Additional well is provided with draining net to remove salt ground water for irrigation of areas with salt-resistant plants located beyond fresh water lens. Fresh water is produced from lens in amount of 45-85% of annual precipitation volume. In the case of salt water ingress in shaft well water is differentially extracted from main and additional wells.
EFFECT: provision of all-the-year-round fresh water supply and creation of favorable conditions for salt-resistant plants growing in neighboring area.
FIELD: agricultural melioration, particularly water supply in arid zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating radial drain system including tubular drains in explored area with lens border and along with fresh water output determination at ground salt water level; arranging bottomless water drain pit in lower point in which tubular drains meet each other, wherein the drain pit is made as reinforced concrete sleeve with lid provided with orifice; inserting water intake pipe in the orifice so that lower end thereof is inside lens at salt ground water level and upper water intake pipe end is over opened sand lever and is provided with valve; creating closed pit having triangular cross-section in explored area surface along periphery thereof; forming atmospheric precipitation collecting pits in radial directions, wherein the pits are gutters inclined towards water intake pipe; collecting atmospheric precipitations with closed pit and gutters; filtering atmospheric precipitations with sand layer located over drain system and delivering thereof into reinforced concrete collar of water drain pit via tubular drains; using the collected water for domestic use in amount of 60-80% of annular precipitations; preventing of plant grow on open sand within closed pit zone. In the case of salt water ingress in water intake pipe valve is temporary closed.
EFFECT: possibility of stable all-the-year-round fresh water supply.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: water production from boreholes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling production and injection borehole systems; penetrating borehole by perforation thereof; applying vibroacoustic pressure oscillations to formation, wherein the pressure oscillations are excited by acoustic borehole tools lowered in boreholes; producing water from boreholes. Injection borehole pipes are not perforated and are filled with working liquid. Acoustic oscillations are initially applied to production boreholes so that pressure in production boreholes preliminarily filled with fracturing liquid should be at least 2 times greater than formation breakdown pressure. Acoustic borehole device is located within perforation area. After crack opening water is lifted from production boreholes. During water lifting acoustic pressure oscillations are applied to formation through injection boreholes.
EFFECT: provision of water production in dry territories, increased economy and efficiency.
FIELD: water supply systems, particularly for underground water intake and transportation.
SUBSTANCE: the gallery is built of natural stone without the use of grout. The gallery is arch-shaped and has semispherical vaults. The gallery is installed on underlaying confining layer.
EFFECT: increased operational efficiency and quality of water to be taken.
FIELD: water supply.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comes to creating watertight barrage within the limits of zone of influence of water intake, provision of reduction of underground water runoff beyond the limits of barrage, accumulation and discharge of underground water in underground water storage. Barrage to partially or completely overlap water-bearing horizon in power and width is formed by freezing part of ground of water-bearing horizon. According to first version, freezing is carried out by means of heat exchanger communicating with atmosphere, and at drop of air temperature below 0oC, natural or forced ventilation is effected, intensity of ventilation and corresponding change of sizes of freezing zone, depending on position of levels of underground waters in underground water storage are regulated. According to second version, freezing is carried out by means of sealed heat exchanger filled with coolant with provision of circulation of coolant in heat exchanger, intensity of circulation is regulated and sizes of freezing zone are changed depending on position of underground water levels in underground water storage.
EFFECT: provision of possibility to control hydrogeological conditions at reliable water discharge in required volume, prevention of underflooding of engineering structures.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil-producing industry.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method of purification of the underground potable water at a crude production. The method provides for limitation of traffic of pollutions by construction of boreholes and pumping in of solutions of reagents. Along the contour of the site of possible pollution they make a net of boreholes with the a controlled inter-pipe and drill string-borehole annulue space - a compound - boreholes, the distance between which and a number of steps is chosen depending on porosity and permeability of rocks. The steps of the compound-boreholes are placed perpendicularly to the traffic route of the natural stream of the underground potable water, and a pumping in of the solutions of reagents is made through annulue space and inter-pipe space of compounds - holes simultaneously with a crude and a gas production from a pay. The technical result is a reliable provision of purification of underground potable water at simultaneous production of a crude and a gas.
EFFECT: the invention ensures a reliable provision of purification of underground potable water at simultaneous production of a crude and a gas.
FIELD: water supply systems.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating water-impermeable barrage in transversal river station partly or fully closing water-bearing horizon along thickness and width thereof; reducing underground outflow outside barrage; accumulating underground water in underground water-storage pool in high-water period of year and consuming water in low-water period; arranging air pumping devices within water off-take influence area; performing periodic air pumping into above devices to create water-impermeable barrage and underground water-storage pool in upper barrage pond and repeating air pumping into above devices as underground water level falls. When underground water accumulates in unconfined water-bearing horizon in cold year period trench is excavated in area of air pumping devices location, vegetation and blanket of snow are removed to increase ground frost zone.
EFFECT: possibility to control hydrogeological regime, increased reliability of water supply in required amount during all working period.
2 cl, 2 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and land reclamation and can be used in laboratory and production testing, design, construction, reconstruction, repair and maintenance of closed horizontal pipe drainage on lands intended for agriculture in the implementation of precision agriculture, as well as in industrial, municipal, townsite and other territories. The method consists in increase the service life of closed horizontal pipe drainage, comprising the elements hidden under a layer of soil-ground: drainage pipes with standard service life, connecting parts, protective filter materials, padding the pipes, volume filters and backfilling. The closed horizontal pipe drainage is carried out using elements which standard service life is not lower than the standard service life of the main element - the drainage pipes.
EFFECT: project intensity of soil-ground drying and expanded reproduction of soil fertility during the service life of the drainage pipes is provided, the costs of the current and general maintenance of elements of horizontal pipe drainage or reconstruction of the drainage system as a whole are reduced, as well as the restoration of soil fertility, disturbed during performance of these works, the conditions for implementation of precision agriculture in a particular field are provided.
SUBSTANCE: mole-drainage pipe is made with the projection inverted inside the pipe and located along its length. The pipe consists of two parts. The parts of the pipe are connected via a flexible element. The flexible element provides the ability of folding the pipe in the vertical plane. On the inner projection of the pipe there are straightening ribs. There is a slit between the ribs along the entire length of the pipe.
EFFECT: invention enables to increase the outflow of ground water and to simplify the process of laying the pipes in the ground.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system under galega herb on mineral soils with varying degrees of gleying includes subsurface drainage to collector drains and providing for, due to the distance between them, their depth and diameter of the pipe laying, required to grow plants with glei normal drainage of soils in the period of research, with the water load rated probability exceeding. The closed drainage arranged in sandy loam (option 1) or loamy (option 2) soils with intensive gleying horizons of the soil profile , lies no deeper than 60 cm (option 1) or no deeper than 70 cm (option 2) from the surface of the soil, with the depth of drains of at least 1.3 m (option 1) or at least 1.5 m (option 2), and the change in its drain length not exceeding 0.2 m (option 1) or not more than 0.3 m (option 2). Drainage lines are made without local areas with a reverse bias on the longitudinal profile, and the length of their incline-free areas does not exceed 5 m distance between drains, their diameter and length of the pipe and the pipe diameter of the closed water reservoir correspond to a load of 5% probability of exceeding, providing for the drainage rate on the date of galega herb vegetation resumption as at least the capacity of the topsoil (humus layer), plus 10 cm (option 1) or + 15 cm (option 2), at the beginning of pre-sowing period - at least 60 cm (option 1) or at least 70 cm (option 2) for sowing and growing periods, and in the late autumn harvest - at least 80 cm (option 1) or at least 100 cm (option 2).
EFFECT: intensity of drainage, which guarantees successful cultivation of galega herb in one place without replanting for 30 years or more in sandy loam and loamy soils of varying degrees of waterlogging, and prevention of the possibility of formation of root plugs of plants in hollow drainage pipes, damage to plant from fungal diseases, root rot and loss of plants from excessive moisture content, which provides for a multi-year period of high yield of galega herb.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system includes drainage pipes of higher strength installed with a drainage inclination in an earth bed. Drainage pipes are arranged inside the earth bed body using a method of horizontal directional drilling. End sections of pipes protrude beyond limits of earth bed slopes and are connected to each other in a closed system, the outlet of which is made as capable of connection of compressor equipment. Sections of the drainage pipes arranged in the bed body are made as evenly perforated.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve draining properties of a system and bearing capacity of a road base by increasing a drying zone, realisation of the possibility to regulate drying process, and also reinforcement of an earth bed.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises k experimental drainage systems - versions of R replication with n number of experimental drains, connected with a closed header k-R, made of pipes with water impermeable walls without joints and water receiving holes and entering an inspection drop hydrometric manhole. M number of parallel pipes of closed headers enter the inspection drop hydrometric manhole at the same time and are made with a section with entering drains and an idle part. As the experimental drainage system version is moved away from the inspection drop hydrometric manhole, the idle part of the closed header of the previous experimental drainage system-version is shorter than the idle part of the closed header of each subsequent experimental drainage system version. Pipes of closed headers entering the inspection drop hydrometric manhole are equipped with a cantilever water outlet and are laid in one trench in tiers in different parallel vertical planes.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve conditions for mechanisation of field works, to perform reconstruction and repair of each header and its drains, without interfering with other headers, to reduce number of weed seed pilots.
SUBSTANCE: connection of drain pipes 1 and 2 includes a coupling placed onto end sections of pipes, in the form of a flexible toroid-shaped chamber 4 with a filler 5 from an elastic compressible material having a toroid shape, the surface of which is coated with an anti-friction lubricant. The toroid-shaped chamber 4 is made from a non-elastic shell, and end sections of drain pipes are made with longitudinal rounded corrugations 6. The outer perimeter of cross section of the corrugated part of pipes is equal to the perimeter of the cross section of the outer surface of the chamber shell, and length of corrugations on each end section of pipes is equal to the coupling length.
EFFECT: invention achieves required density of connection of drainage pipes and simplified coupling design.
SUBSTANCE: controller comprises a well 7, a stop element in the form of a valve 4 installed in it on the head of the drain, and the valve is connected with levers of a hinged mechanism, and a float 8. The lever mechanism is made as capable of free contact with the floating float 8. The float is installed in an additional chamber 6. The lever mechanism is installed on the horizontal axis 12. Besides, the axis of the lever mechanism divides it into two unequal parts 14 and 15, the top one of which is more than the bottom one. On the top part of the arm 14 there is a counterbalance reservoir 17 hingedly fixed, the centre of gravity of which is placed above the horizontal axis of rotation. On the bottom part of the arm 15 there is a mechanism hingedly fixed to change position accordingly above the float at elevations of maximum and minimum water level in the float chamber.
EFFECT: increased reliability of a device, higher accuracy of control and possibility to adjust system operation into a drying mode.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device to join drainage pipes 1 and 2 comprises connection elements 4, which are installed in holes 3 near ends of joined pipes and are made in the form of two cylindrical plugs with ball-shaped endings 7, equal to diameters of holes connected to each other with a link. Each connection element 4 is made as Z-shaped. The link in the middle part 5 has width equal to width of a water-receiving gap 6 equal to thickness of the pipe wall. Plugs with ball-shaped endings are introduced into holes of joined pipes, one at the inner side, and the other one at the outer side.
EFFECT: improved reliability of water-receiving gap fixation and prevention of pipes collision against each other in process of mechanised installation.
SUBSTANCE: drain opening is closed with the plug with a branch pipe provided with a branch with a valve and a dispensing container. The branch is connected by the hose to the exhaust pipe of the internal combustion engine, and the exhaust gases are fed into the drain cavity. The dispensing container is filled with fine powder of colloidal copper. The valve is opened, and the powder is fed into the drain cavity. The supply of gases is stopped when the dispensing container is completely empty. The colloidal copper powder together with the stream of exhaust gases is fed onto the inner surface of the drainage pipes and the slits of the drainage pipes.
EFFECT: increased intensity of suppression of life activity of iron bacteria.
SUBSTANCE: method of performance control of transverse drains on catena lies in determining the timeliness of their lowering of the level of groundwater, and ensuring the required drainage rate. To implement the method the measurement of position of the depression curve in the drain spacing on the established wells is carried out. To do this, between the wells the distance is specified depending on the distance between the drains. The first and the last wells in the drain spacing are located in the trench where the drains are stacked. The second and the penultimate wells are located at one metre from the drains. The remaining wells are located taking into account the asymmetry of the depression curve between the transverse drains. The distance from the upper and lower drains is calculated based on the distance Ev. The distance Ev is defined as the distance from the vertical at the point on the depression curve with its tangent line, parallel to the soil surface, in which there is a minimum drainage rate - the maximum approximation of the groundwater level to the soil surface.
EFFECT: improvement of drainage performance and improvement of effectiveness of use of drained mineral soils of catena.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly to consolidate slopes or inclinations to be eroded by ground waters.
SUBSTANCE: method for slope protection against landslide by diverting ground water with the use of drainage mine tunnel, through filters and upward dewatering wells involves excavating mine tunnel beginning from lower point of original ground under water-bearing horizons with tunnel elevation for water gravity flow, wherein mine tunnel extends parallel to direction of water flow from water-bearing horizons; excavating mine tunnel in different directions perpendicular to above flow direction; performing drilling vertical venting wells at tunnel ends beginning from original ground; drilling upward dewatering wells in water-bearing horizons; drilling vertical wells from original ground used as through filters crossing all water-bearing horizons; connecting thereof with cross-headings excavated from mine tunnel; installing valves at through filter ends; providing filtering members at place of intersection between upward dewatering wells and vertical wells with water-bearing horizons; forming water removal channel in mine tunnel and connecting thereof with original ground; drilling hydraulic observing wells beginning from original ground along line of through filters to control water level in water-bearing horizons.
EFFECT: increased reliability; possibility of diverting 85-90% of water contained in water-bearing horizons.