Heat exchanger reactor

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger reactor includes a shell (1) in the form of a flattened cone with bottoms (2) and (3), heat carrier input and output pipes (4) and (5) for the tube space, and heat carrier input and output pipes (6) and (7) for the shell space. One bottom, namely bottom (2), features a concavity (8) (if seen from below the bottom) in the centre. The shell (1) features a heat effect compensator (9). A thin-wall hollow cone (10) for flow distribution through small (11) and large (12) orifices is mounted in one bottom, namely bottom (3).

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of heat exchanger due to even distribution of flow speed through the whole volume, and reduced dimensions.

6 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of heat and can be used in power, petrochemical and other industries, in particular in processes with large thermal effects.

Known input device for tangentially fed into the apparatus a fluid medium, where it is made in the form of a cone. The diffuser reduces the input speed of the fluid. However, it is made by bending, so the environment becomes rotational movement inside the apparatus in the form of a vortex flow. When this vortex flow having a greater velocity in the peripheral region of the device, in the Central part of the slow, especially the vertical component of velocity. Therefore, in order to maximize uniform flow distribution inside the device, there is a deflecting element. It is located downstream from the diffuser and rejects the vortex flow in the direction towards the Central part of the apparatus. The result is a fairly good distribution of the flow inside the apparatus (Patent RU 2445997, B01D 3/30, B04C 5/04 publ. 27.03.2012).

This input device is a large internal volume of the apparatus, it is difficult in design, but also increases the overall weight of the apparatus and the flow resistance.

Known reactor, with own mixing zone fast heat sink. The mixing apparatus consists of VI is Reva camera, rough distribution scheme and the actual distribution device. In a vortex chamber serves the reacting liquid and the cooling liquid, where they are fully mixed in the vortex flow. The mixture of two liquids out of the vortex chamber in the rough distribution scheme, where the mixture is distributed radially through cameras located in the form of rays emanating from the center. Then the mixture through razbryzgivatelja plate supplied to the plate with bubble caps. After that, the mixture is fed to the catalyst layer. Offers other options for the location of elements of the mixing and distribution device (Patent US 006098965A, publ. 8.08.2000 F280D 21/00, B01F 3/00).

The reactor with the proposed apparatus the mixing zone fast heat sink can be used only for certain values of the costs of operating environments, because the swirl chamber at high costs may have an unacceptable resistance, and cap plates would cease to work. In the rough distribution system in long chambers of the radial distribution, and the reflectors can occur in the reverse process, namely some separation, especially gas-liquid and liquid-vapor mixtures. The effectiveness of the mixing and distribution is not installed, especially in case of simultaneous use of the vortex ka is a career and tarelchatyj devices and of coarse the distribution system. The mixing apparatus generally has a high intensity and low versatility.

Known shell-and-tube apparatus used as a reactor for carrying out heterogeneous catalytic exothermic reactions. The flow of the reaction mixture enters the tube space from the top through the tangential inlet located at the top of the top plate. Reaction mass is passing through the tube with the catalyst exits through the bottom tangentially located inlet. For removal of the heat of reaction annulus serves the coolant. It comes from the bottom through a tangential entry and special distribution ring located inside at the bottom of the reactor. The output of the coolant going through the top nozzle. The design of the top output device similar design input. Thus, in the annular space reaches a fairly uniform washing external surfaces of the pipes (Kirk, Otmer, Encylopedia of Chemical Technology, New York, 1965).

The disadvantage of the reactor is uneven reaction mixture in the tube. Tangential entry mainly causes the circular motion of the flow in the upper plate, decorated internal configuration of the bottom and the surface of the tube. Medium dense part of the pot is ka bad scatters and, sliding on the tube grid covers only a certain part of the tubes. In another part of the tubes are received lots of flow, with lower densities and velocities. The flow is slightly delayed in the bottom. Different linear velocity in the pipes is especially noticeable at high mass and volumetric speeds.

Closest to the claimed invention, the exchanger-reactor, which includes a housing in the form of a truncated cone with a concave in the direction of its vertical axis surface with the heads, the nozzles of the input and output of the heat transfer pipe and the annular space. Inside the body is a tube bundle, which consists of at least two rows of conical tubes, fixed ends in the holes in the grates on concentric circles. The pipes are tilted simultaneously in two directions: with an inclination to the vertical axis of the housing and with the additional tilt, executed by displacement of the ends in the circumferential direction, that is, the arcs of circles into tube sheets. These slopes are opposite in adjacent rows of tubes. When this inclination is made in the range of 0.5 to 50.0 degrees from the vertical plane passing through the vertical axis of the housing. In this implementation there is no need to amplify the input parameters of the heat carrier, which saves heat elektrichesky energy. (Patent RU 2451889, IPC F28D 7/08, publ. 25. 05. 2012).

The disadvantage of this heat exchanger-reactor according to the invention is the lack of uniformity of feed of the coolant in the pipe and the annular space. Part received in the bottom of the flux reflected from not occupied by the pipe surface is directed to the middle of the stream, where the density is higher. A small part of the fond medium dense flow, and a large part reflected from the stream, and keeping a curvilinear trajectory, hitting the walls of the bottom. As a result, the vortices is determined by the size of the bottoms, on the route: the entrance of the coolant pipe lattice - medium dense part of the flow - wall - pipe grate. As shown by the mathematical model, the speed in the middle of the stream and secondary tubes of the tube bundle above almost twice as compared with the velocity in the peripheral areas above the tube sheet and the peripheral tubes. In the case of applying multi-component mixtures can occur some separation on the molecular mass, which is unacceptable when using an exchanger-reactor as chemical reactors. The complexity of manufacturing the case, especially for heat exchanger-reactor of large unit capacity is also a disadvantage. The absence of the compensator limits its use for processes with large temperature different is due to (Δt).

The technical result, which directed the present invention is to improve the uniformity and intensity of heat transfer in all parts of the exchanger-reactor, the efficiency of the processes with large thermal effects, as well as to improve reliability and efficiency in operation.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the exchanger-reactor, comprising a housing in the shape of a truncated cone with a concave surface to the bottoms, the nozzles of the input and output of the heat transfer pipe and the annular space, the tube, the holes are fixed in concentric circles inclined to the axis, at least two rows of tubes, made in the form of truncated cones, in addition, the pipe will also inclined offset for arcs placing them all on one of the tube sheets, and in the same row of tubes inclined offset by arcs of circles, placing them all on one of the tube sheets in the opposite direction relative tilt offset in the adjacent row or in adjacent rows, and in the Central tube placed thermal and other sensors, the new is that in the center of the bottom, on the side of the coolant in the tube space, has a concavity directed wide end towards the tube d is etki, and at the bottom, located on the outlet side of the coolant from the tube space, fixed hollow cone with holes located against the top of the thread around the Central tube has a zone formed by the first row of inclined pipes, starting from the Central pipe.

Concavity is made and oriented so that the density reflected from the concavity of the flow is evenly distributed over the surface of the tube.

Concavity are removable along with tangential connection of the input fluid.

Connections input and output of the heat transfer pipe and the annular spaces are located tangentially.

The body of the exchanger-reactor consists of two parts connected by a thermal compensator, and the division of the body into two parts and join them with a thermal compensator implemented at the level of 0.58-0.65 height, measured from the big tube.

Figure 1 presents a General view of the exchanger-reactor, figure 2 - its schematic representation, figure 3 is a section view along a-a from figure 1.

The exchanger-reactor (1) includes a housing 1 in the form of a truncated cone with the bottoms 2 and 3, the nozzles 4 and 5 input and output coolant pipe space, the nozzles 6 and 7 of the input and output fluid annulus. On the Central part of one of the bottoms, in particular of the bottom 2, there is a concavity 8 (which if you look inside the bottom). The housing 1 is equipped with a compensator 9 thermal influences. In one of the bottoms, in particular in the bottom 3 (2), fixed thin-walled hollow cone 10 to the dispenser flows with 11 small and large 12 holes. The housing 1 with two ends of the sealed tube sheets 13 and 14, which is fixed (Fig 3 view a-a) of the Central pipe 15 and inclined pipes 16 (grating 14 figure 3 not shown). Around the Central tube 15 is formed free from the details of area 17, bounded by the first row of tubes 16, counting from the Central axis of the apparatus. When the heating medium supply pipe space below (figure 2) through the pipe 5, the design of the bottom 3 should be similar to the structure of the bottom 2, and Vice versa, the design of the bottom 2 is similar to the structure of the bottom 3.

The exchanger-reactor operates as follows.

The coolant pipe space enters tangentially through pipe 4 into the concavity 8, where the flow, changing the direction, shape, and divided into many small streams flowing pipes 15 and 16 of the tube bundle. In the case of countercurrent, concurrent with the coolant pipe space, the second fluid enters the annulus through a tangential entry 7, where the heat transfer through the walls of the pipes 15 and 16 between the two fluids. The output fluid from the annulus through tangentially location the config pipe 6. The coolant pipe space after exiting the pipes 15 and 16 through the flow distributor 10 and tangentially located inlet 5 is sent out.

The design and orientation of the concavity 8 is designed so that the reflected and scattered flux is directed in the direction of the focus concavity, which is far enough to the cross-sectional area of its beam was at the level of the tube 13, no more and no less than its square. Since, due to the small distances, the beam reflected flux undergoes only extending to the surface of the tube, it has the same density and velocity at all points in contact with the tube sheet. Consequently, the density and velocity of the beam flow is also the same in the pipes 15 and 16. In the case of the feed tube space of multicomponent mixtures in contact with the wall of the concavity 8 is an additional mixing. Because the distance inside of the bottom 2 is negligible, the redistribution of the components does not occur, the beam flux in a very short period of time reaches the pipes 15 and 16.

However, when the output flows from the pipes 15 and 16 speeds are somewhat different. When the execution of the outlet pipe 5 in the middle of the bottom plate 3, coming out of the pipes 15 and 16 threads, located closer to the center, against which there is an outlet opening, the spytyvayut less resistance, than outflows from the periphery of the pipe 16. Therefore, the speed of the Central threads is greater than the peripheral speed. Additional site in the form of a hollow thin-walled cone 10 with holes 11 and 12 of different diameters, increasing in the direction from the vertex to the base of the cone, equalize the difference in resistance. Flows through the small holes 11 located closer to the top of the cone, have more resistance than air flows through large openings 12 located closer to the base of the cone 10. Flows through the peripheral pipe 16 passing through the large holes 12, are experiencing some resistance, but to a lesser extent than passing through the small holes 11. All threads in the approach into the outlet pipe 5 have almost the same speed. The alignment of the flow rates inside the bottom 3 affects the flow velocity inside the pipes 15 and 16.

Heat exchangers-reactors designed to operate under high temperature, equipped with a thermal compensator 9. It is located at the level of 0.58-0.65 height from the large tube 14 and includes the upper and lower halves of the housing 1.

According to the present invention, in the centre of the annulus around the Central pipe 15 is a memory area 17 (3), formed the first is t the Central axis near the inclined pipe 16. Its volume is sufficient for part of the incoming flow was more directed in the radial direction.

When performing input and output nozzles in the annular space tangentially 6 and 7, the initial impact on the pipes 15 and 16 of the incoming coolant is happening on a wider area than classic type, i.e. perpendicular to the tangent plane on the surface of the housing 1. Local overheating or cooling less.

Usually, when a tangential entry, most of the flow goes around the circle, then as part of the flow path toward the center and up, less. Therefore, at various points in the annulus velocities will be different. The non-uniformity of velocity causes non-uniformity of heat transfer in tube and pipe spaces. According to the invention, when the input fluid in the annulus from the bottom through the pipe 5 from the side of the large diameter of the housing 1 and the pipes 15 and 16, tangentially component of velocity of the fluid in the upward movement decreases because of the increased resistance caused by a gradual narrowing of the housing 1 and the space 17 between the pipe 16. At the same time, by decreasing tangential velocity and due to the radial aspirations of the flow in area 17, where there is less resistance, grows vertically component. The result is - speed equalized much earlier than in the prototype, in the lower area of the annulus. When the input carrier top side small diameter through the pipe 6 tangentially component of the flow velocity as it passes downwards decreases because of the expansion of the housing 1, the space between the rows of tubes 16 and zone 17. At the same time for the same reasons, reduced vertical component of velocity. In the result the velocity components in the annular space remain in the same proportions in which they were when the coolant flows from the bottom up (When you enter from the top and bottom of the gravitational component of the flow velocity was not taken into account).

Thus, in the proposed heat exchanger-the heat sink is achieved a uniform velocity distribution throughout its volume, thus avoiding local overheating and cooling, which increases its efficiency and thus reduce its overall dimensions. In addition, the use of split case design and compensator, allows to increase the versatility of the exchanger-reactor, i.e. to use it in the processes under more severe conditions with high reliability and efficiency.

1. The exchanger-reactor, comprising a housing in the shape of a truncated cone with a concave surface to the bottoms, pipe input and output those who of lonavala pipe and annular spaces, tube, the holes are fixed in concentric circles inclined to the axis, at least two rows of tubes, made in the form of truncated cones, in addition, the pipe will also inclined offset for arcs placing them all on one of the tube sheets, and in the same row of tubes inclined offset by arcs of circles, placing them all on one of the tube sheets in the opposite direction relative tilt offset in the adjacent row or in adjacent rows, and in the Central tube placed thermal and other sensors, characterized in that the center of the bottom, which on the side of the coolant in the tube space, has a concavity directed wide end of a side tube and bottom, located on the outlet side of the coolant from the tube space, fixed hollow cone with holes located against the top of the thread around the Central tube has a zone formed by the first row of inclined pipes, starting from the Central pipe.

2. The exchanger-reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that the concavity is made and oriented so that the density reflected from the concavity of the flow is evenly distributed over the surface of the tube.

3. The exchanger-reactor according to claim 2, characterized in that the concavity is made removable C the one with the connection of the input fluid.

4. The exchanger-reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that the nozzles of the input and output of the heat transfer pipe and the annular spaces are located tangentially.

5. The exchanger-reactor according to claim 1, characterized in that the housing consists of two parts connected by a thermal expansion joint.

6. The exchanger-reactor according to claim 5, characterized in that the separation of the body into two parts and join them with a thermal expansion joint is made at the level of 0.58-0.65 height, measured from the large tube.



 

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1 dwg

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