Method of increasing service life of closed horizontal pipe drainage
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and land reclamation and can be used in laboratory and production testing, design, construction, reconstruction, repair and maintenance of closed horizontal pipe drainage on lands intended for agriculture in the implementation of precision agriculture, as well as in industrial, municipal, townsite and other territories. The method consists in increase the service life of closed horizontal pipe drainage, comprising the elements hidden under a layer of soil-ground: drainage pipes with standard service life, connecting parts, protective filter materials, padding the pipes, volume filters and backfilling. The closed horizontal pipe drainage is carried out using elements which standard service life is not lower than the standard service life of the main element - the drainage pipes.
EFFECT: project intensity of soil-ground drying and expanded reproduction of soil fertility during the service life of the drainage pipes is provided, the costs of the current and general maintenance of elements of horizontal pipe drainage or reconstruction of the drainage system as a whole are reduced, as well as the restoration of soil fertility, disturbed during performance of these works, the conditions for implementation of precision agriculture in a particular field are provided.
The invention relates to agriculture and land reclamation and can be used in laboratory and production testing, design, construction, reconstruction, maintenance and operation of the closed horizontal pipe drainage on agricultural land when implementing precision farming, and industrial, municipal, township and other areas.
Closed horizontal pipe drainage is designed to work effectively for many decades. This is only possible if the drainage material is not subject to ageing and to degradation and drainage filters "fatigue".
It is known that the closed horizontal pipe drainage includes various drainage materials and design elements: drains - ceramic, plastic, porous concrete, asbestos cement, concrete, wooden and zhelobkovye; fittings - couplings, tees, plastic sleeves and elbows, stub; protective filter materials (SPM) - roll surround, to the last, in addition to protecting water inlets roll SFM include powder drains; filling the trench porous material, soil topsoil or humus horizon and the excavated soil (irrigation and water management. Drainage: References : the K / authors; Comp. Ehicles; edited Bespalova. - M.: Association "Ecost", 2001. - S...160).
In reclamation practice for pipe connection drain line is known to use a variety of structures connecting elements made of different materials. Connecting the nodes are divided into two groups: a looming on the outer surface of the pipe (nozzle, tees) and inserted into the cavity drains (couplings, bushings, elbows, plugs, intake coupling devices). Couplings are manufactured from polyethylene of high and low density with the addition of secondary raw materials. Coupling-based polymer resins made from milled peat, clay, sawdust, straw, mineral wool, fiberglass, microcephaly fabric, jute burlap with a thickness of 2...3 mm (:Netreba NN. Technology drainage works. - L.: The Ear. Leningrad. separa-tion, 1982. - P.12...20; Serikov A.A., Gladyshev SV Technology reclamation work in the regions. - L.: The Ear. Leningrad. separa-tion, 1984. - Pp.118...122; Gulyuk, and other Guidance for reclamation fields / Under the General editorship Whistla. - St. Petersburg: Izd-vo Polytechn. University, 2007. - S, 96...97).
It is known the use of plastic fittings for ceramic drainage in Belarus: crosses, tees, reducers, elbows, plugs, fixing sleeves (Reclamation: Day. Directory / group of authors, Under BS. Ed. by Acad. Of agricultural Sciences Aigurka. - Mn.: Belarusian. The owls. Day., 1984. - S). Know and apply the filter sprinkled (ibid, s) and materials (ibid, s). For protective filters drains use fiberglass canvas type BB-S BB-G, BB-T, as well as filtering materials - coarse sand, gravel, crushed stone, gravel, gravel-sand mixtures, fibrous peat, turf, moss, straw, spruce branches, Heather and sawdust.
The materials used for drainage works shall be resistant to fluctuations in temperature and mechanical pressure of the soil, as well as to the effects of soil and ground water, the root system of plants and microorganisms. Use of natural and artificial SFM, reclamation practice - mostly the latter. Higher strength than fiberglass, has a non-woven needle-punched fabric. Find application of the coupling - internal and external, adapter for connecting pipes of different diameters and other (Artemiev, Z.N., Elizarov B.A., Lukashenko P.K. Organization and technology of drainage works. - L.: Agropromizdat. Leningrad. separa-tion, 1988. - P.48...59).
Famous and technical solutions for drainage elements aimed at improving the efficiency of their actions, are protected by copyright certificates: A.S. SU # 905365, CL. EV 11/00, 1980; A.S. SU # 1126659, CL. EV 11/00, 1984; s SU # 1308695, CL. EV 11/00, 1987; A.S. SU # 1463858, CL. EV 11/00, 1987; A.S. SU # 1604910, CL. EV 11/00, 1987; A.S. SU # 1802045, CL. EV 11/00, 1991.
A device for trenchless plastic drainage filter elements: continuous backfilling of sand and gravel mixture or columns from it and filtering blocks or bundles (:Netreba N.N., 1982. - S, see above; Artemiev, Z.N., Elizarov B.A., Lukashenko P.K. Organization and technology of drainage works. - L.: Agropromizdat. Leningrad. separa-tion, 1988. - S). Known and experience in the application of elements of drainage in Germany (Eggelsmann & Manual drain / Lane. with it. Vingarenkol; Ed. and Annot. Presidentmay. - M.: Kolos, 1984. - P.185...209).
In the Russian Federation on the basis of a systematic approach life pottery drainage is assumed equal to 75 years, plastic - 30 years, plank - 20 years. If there is no pipe, no pipe drainage. Therefore, the service life of clay pipes - at least 75 years, and plastic - not less than 30 years, plank not less than 20 years (Handbook, 2001. - S - prototype).
Despite the large number of technical solutions aimed at improving the efficiency of drainage structures, pipes and other drainage elements in reclamation practices often see the termination or reduction of their operation, resulting in reduced reliable hydrological effect of subsurface drainage systems. ricin is applying for drainage drainage elements with different dates of service. Drainage elements with a small lifetime, leaving the system often require repairs or even reconstruction of the drainage system as a whole.
The problem solved by this invention is the durability of subsurface drainage and reliable hydrological steps in operation for at least the normative life of the drain pipes.
The technical result obtained from the solution of the set task is to ensure the design intensity drying of soils and expanded reproduction of soil fertility during the life of the drain pipe, reducing costs in the current or capital repairs of items in horizontal pipe drainage or reconstruction of the drainage system as a whole, as well as in reducing the cost of restoring the fertility of the soil disturbed by these works, in providing conditions for implementation of precision farming in a specific field.
Put in the invention the problem is solved by the fact that the method of increasing the longevity of the closed horizontal pipe drainage, including hidden under a layer of soil elements: drainage pipes with standard life, fittings, protective filter materials, powder tubes, volumetric filters and filling the trench, is the fact that that closed horizontal pipe drainage is carried out using elements of the regulatory service life of which is not below the standard of life of the main element and drainage pipes.
The use of drainage elements that meet the requirements, achieved the expected technical result. In this case, the service life see calendar duration of operation of the drainage pipes from the date of entering the drainage system in operation before the occurrence of the limit state specified in the technical specifications on the pipe.
This invention is aimed at ensuring the longevity of the closed horizontal pipe drainage for at least the normative life of the drain pipes. The durability of drainage elements first experience in the laboratory and then in the field in different places, different topography, the addition of soils and their properties, water properties, methods and accuracy of execution of drainage works and use of drained soils. New elements of drainage must be carefully tested before applying them on a large scale. The final conclusion about the possibility of their application in a wide scale may be given only after completion of field tests on an experimental or pilot production on the drain systems. In accordance with the above application of the claimed method of increasing the longevity of the closed horizontal pipe drainage includes the following operations:
1. Testing of new elements of the drainage in the laboratory, discussion of results and making the decision to continue testing in the field.
2. The selection of the drainage elements for field tests.
3. The construction of an experimental or pilot plots.
4. Testing of new elements of the drainage in the field on an experimental or pilot plots, distinguished:
types of water supply;
- adding and soil properties;
methods and means of drainage;
- properties of the discharged excess water;
- methods of drainage;
- drained soil.
5. Processing of primary data materials field tests.
6. Discussion of test results on scientific and technical advice and decision-making about the use of new elements of the drainage in the practice of draining soil.
7. Use new elements of the drainage system under the land drainage, drainage systems operation at the production sites and the use of drained lands.
Below are some examples of specific performance horizontal trobc the addition of drainage on requiring draining soils with naturally water supply:
In snowy winters freezing depth of soil can with a certain probability to exceed the depth of backfill drainage lines. In this case, stagnated in drainage pipes water freezes, forming ice plugs that melt later. Drainage is virtually inactive in the spring and pre-sowing periods, and during this time he would take on average about 70% of the total drainage outflow of excess water per year. In addition, education of the tubes are cases of fracture of the tubing drains: entering drainage systems fail due to the destruction of ceramic tubes with alternating freezing and thawing. According to You and Sveglia (Serikov A.A., Gladyshev SV 1984; see above), and also Tigiev (:Netreba N.N., Daishev TI Basic requirements for the construction of drainage systems. - M.: Kolos, 1973. - 112 C.), it took place in Leningrad region. In Western Siberia, according to Vchalov (Maglev VK Study of pottery drainage on flood sod-gley soils in the conditions of Western Siberia. In collection: "the Drainage of heavy soils / edited Bespalova. - M.: Kolos, 1981. - Pp. 102), ice tube met only in places artificially created kinked drain line. In the conditions of Western Siberia damage pipes are not fixed.
The result of the research of drainage systems, made Immersionism (Krivonosov IM Features drainage slabovodopronitsaemyh soil / Tr. Sevdiyim, vol XII. - L., 1957. - 67...69), it was found that the freezing of water in the drainage pipes can really take place, but caused it in the first place, not laying depth of drainage, and the presence of drainage pipes drainage depressions. Drains that have the correct slope, appeared in this period free from ice. Due to the slow melting of ice in the drainage pipes drain line off from work during the spring period (the Experience of land drainage closed drainage / authors: A. Balchunas and others; Ed. by Allyance. - M.: Kolos, 1975. - S).
Immersionism found that tube drains laid at a depth of 1.2 m, formed mostly by fine roots of this weed. The penetration of roots occurred in closed depressions where stagnant water in drains. Tube of small roots, resembling a dense felt cylinders, completely covering the drain holes.
In the Novgorod region in the mid-nineteenth century Niezalezne carried out work on creation of a plant for the production of drainage pipes made of baked clay and drainage closed drainage of land in the manor of Matejkova located in 4 km from Karanovo. About the destruction of clay pipes is not reported.
On the territory of Belarus in 1856...1863 AMC slowski made, similar work Niezaleznaja. He has conducted research on the effectiveness of the drainage of the land pottery closed drainage area at the Mountain-Gorki land Institute. About the destruction of clay pipes is not reported.
On the object Podgorica" in the Tver region in 1969 founded the private tile drainage on sod-podzolic loamy gleyic soils, formed on the moraine. Slope drains inner diameter of 50 mm is not less than 0,003, the lining of the joints are glass wool, powder tubes 15...20 cm soil sredneokulturennyh topsoil, backfill trench up to the topsoil removed when implemented passage trenches bog soil mixed with soil arable layer. Longitudinal profile of the drainage lines executed without closed local areas with reverse bias. Drainage works successfully for 40 years: current period provides the intensity of sewage of not less than 1.0 l/(s ha), which is not below the project, increasing the permeability of soils with age drainage.
In 1968 the object Podgorica" in the Tver region was laid and plastic drainage, and in 1969 - the drainage of the pipe-filters made of porous expanded clay, concrete connected by means of plastic couplings. On 18th year of operation in plastic drains recorded occurrence cont the different cracks and the flow of soil into the cavity of the pipe. After a year in the clutches of plastics fixed cracks around the perimeter.
Lifetime pottery drainage is 75 years, plastic - 30 years (Handbook, 2001.- S; see above). The use of connecting elements made of plastic is not valid for the connection of clay pipes. Subsurface drainage is covered with a layer of soil. Repair and replacement items of plastic material should be held more frequently. Thus broken clay pipes, three-dimensional filters, filling the trench, increasing nevironment area soil fertility in terms of the total reduction that is incompatible with the implementation of precision farming.
In Lithuania, at 80 years of age pottery drainage permeability backfill drainage trench was 1.5 times higher than loamy soil in between the (experience of the drainage..., 1975. - P. 166; see above).
It should be noted the rapid failure of filtration blocks harnesses and especially because of their silting at the device trenchless plastic drainage in heavy slabovodopronitsaemyh soils. The result was a broken hydraulic connection of drains with the top layer and was not provided to project the intensity of the drainage of the soil.
The reduction in permeability backfill drainage trenches and the reduction of diversion of excess water below the project were recorded on the 6th year of validity drena is and the object Kiseleva" in the Tver region. Cause: siltation SFM trenchless plastic drains in silty soils in areas where SFM were applied waste clothing manufacture, and construction of drainage was carried out in the wet period of the year.
The results of field testing of drainage systems quickly discussed at the joint STC on integrated land reclamation Tver region, decisions were taken to increase the effectiveness of reclamation works.
The IMPLEMENTATION of the INVENTION
In practice the claimed method of increasing the longevity of the closed horizontal pipe drainage is implemented by performing the operations listed above.
For drainage of agricultural lands closed drainage is mainly used pottery and plastic pipes. In the Russian Federation on the basis of a systematic approach life pottery drainage is assumed equal to 75 years, plastic - 30 years (Handbook, 2001. - S). If there is no pipe, no pipe drainage. Therefore, the service life of clay pipes - at least 75 years, and plastic - not less than 30 years. This is a requirement for suppliers of pipes.
Pottery pipes. Tubes manufactured in accordance with GOST 8411-74 and buried in the ground in accordance with applicable technical specifications and construction standards, and the government is (SNiP), have a service life of not less than 75 years with the observance of the rules of operation of drainage systems (Handbook, 2001. - S...131, 576). This is confirmed by many years of observation and practice using drained soil, destruction of pipes is not observed (Sites IM Krivonosov in the Leningrad region; the areas in Karelia on the Olonets plain in a former farm Victory, Pitka Creek, OPH Karelian experimental irrigation station; the objects in the Tver region: Podgorica, Grebneva, Nekrasov, Bakhireva and others).
Plastic pipe. Tubes manufactured in accordance with TU 6-05-1078-78, THE 33-291-83 and THE 33-100-78 laid in the ground in accordance with applicable specifications and SNiP, have a lifespan of at least 30 years, subject to the rules of operation of drainage systems (Handbook, 2001. - P.131, 576). This is confirmed by many years of observation and practice using drained soil, destruction of the tubes for 30 years is not observed (the object of the Tver region: Kiseleva, Nekrasova, Podgorica, Gubina and others).
To ensure their service life drain connection ceramic tiles with collectors is carried out using ceramic fittings and connection of plastic pipe segments, drains and sewers and plastic drains and pottery collectors with plastic fittings.<> PROTECTIVE FILTER MATERIALS
The service life of drainage depends on SFM. Are mainly used roll SFM.
In accordance with the list above works carried out in the laboratory filtration tests supplied to the drain of the non-Chernozem zone of the roll SFM. This applied Method of determining permeability rolled SFM for drainage, approved by the USSR Minvodkhoz, 25 may 1988, according to which SFM must meet the following requirements:
1. The surface of the material should be smooth, without sharp bulges, tears, laminations and inclusions.
2. Material thickness at a load of 20 kPa corresponding to the depth of drainage shall be not less than 0.6 mm
3. The initial filtration coefficient (Kfo) at a load of 20 kPa shall be not less than 86,4 m/day.
4. The material must retain its properties when transported and stored under atmospheric conditions during the year (at temperature from minus 40 to 60°C) with alternating wetting and drying, with the change of aerobic and anaerobic conditions in water with a total mineralization of up to 50 g/l and pH from 3.5 to 9, and under the influence of microorganisms, producing coal, Apple and humic acid.
5. The material must withstand at least 50 cycles of freezing and thawing (in water is saturated condition) without any signs of failure.
Supplied to the drain of the non-Chernozem zone (Tver, Leningrad, Kirov and other areas) the material has a thickness, δm:
the filtration coefficient Kfo:
and at the end of 3 days filtering - period corresponding to the maximum duration of drainage of gravitational water from the soil layer (in this period of time is required and the maximum intake capacity of the drainage), the filtration coefficient KF3as a rule, sharply decreased and amounted to:
Based on the results of long-term observations of the effect of drainage systems concluded that to ensure the service life SFM not less than the life of clay pipes with a duration of 75 years, the filtration coefficient SFM should be:
Tofo≥to 86.4 m/day,
and to ensure the service life SFM not less than the lifetime of plastic pipes 30 years:
Tofo≥to 86.4 m/day,
The thickness of SFM at a load of 20 kPa corresponding to the depth of pottery and plastic drainage shall be not less than 0.6 mm
The requirements must meet SFM provided for draining mineral soils closed drainage.
FILLING DRENAN THE SECOND TRENCH
Backfilling of drainage trenches should have a high permeability. To provide the desired service life backfill drainage trench not less than the service life of pipes shall be provided between the permeability of soil k and trench backfill kC, the thickness of the soil layer h and the width of the trench bt:
the determination of k and kCcarried out under the condition of discharge of excess water during transient operation of drainage in accordance with the patent RU 2421723 (2011).
The maximum inflow of water to the backfill does not exceed its water intake capacity and drainage capacity of the drainage line must eliminate the possibility of stagnation of water in the backfill drainage trench (this is confirmed by the absence of an overhang of the level of soil and groundwater above Drenai), which ensures the absence of closed depressions on the bottom of the drains, and in conjunction with depth of drains, the greater the depth of penetration of the root system of the plants in the trench, and eliminates the possibility of formation of root plugs of plants in the cavity drain pipes.
This requirement is implemented with the above-mentioned objects implementing the use of a Potter and plastic pipes.
The expected technical result during their service life on the drain pipe is achieved only in the case if the drainage of the soil is carried out in accordance with the claimed invention.
The method of increasing the longevity of the closed horizontal pipe drainage, including hidden under a layer of soil elements: drainage pipes with standard life, fittings, protective filter materials, powder tubes, volumetric filters and filling the trench, wherein the closed horizontal pipe drainage is carried out using elements of the regulatory service life of which is not below the standard of life of the main element and drainage pipes.
SUBSTANCE: mole-drainage pipe is made with the projection inverted inside the pipe and located along its length. The pipe consists of two parts. The parts of the pipe are connected via a flexible element. The flexible element provides the ability of folding the pipe in the vertical plane. On the inner projection of the pipe there are straightening ribs. There is a slit between the ribs along the entire length of the pipe.
EFFECT: invention enables to increase the outflow of ground water and to simplify the process of laying the pipes in the ground.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system under galega herb on mineral soils with varying degrees of gleying includes subsurface drainage to collector drains and providing for, due to the distance between them, their depth and diameter of the pipe laying, required to grow plants with glei normal drainage of soils in the period of research, with the water load rated probability exceeding. The closed drainage arranged in sandy loam (option 1) or loamy (option 2) soils with intensive gleying horizons of the soil profile , lies no deeper than 60 cm (option 1) or no deeper than 70 cm (option 2) from the surface of the soil, with the depth of drains of at least 1.3 m (option 1) or at least 1.5 m (option 2), and the change in its drain length not exceeding 0.2 m (option 1) or not more than 0.3 m (option 2). Drainage lines are made without local areas with a reverse bias on the longitudinal profile, and the length of their incline-free areas does not exceed 5 m distance between drains, their diameter and length of the pipe and the pipe diameter of the closed water reservoir correspond to a load of 5% probability of exceeding, providing for the drainage rate on the date of galega herb vegetation resumption as at least the capacity of the topsoil (humus layer), plus 10 cm (option 1) or + 15 cm (option 2), at the beginning of pre-sowing period - at least 60 cm (option 1) or at least 70 cm (option 2) for sowing and growing periods, and in the late autumn harvest - at least 80 cm (option 1) or at least 100 cm (option 2).
EFFECT: intensity of drainage, which guarantees successful cultivation of galega herb in one place without replanting for 30 years or more in sandy loam and loamy soils of varying degrees of waterlogging, and prevention of the possibility of formation of root plugs of plants in hollow drainage pipes, damage to plant from fungal diseases, root rot and loss of plants from excessive moisture content, which provides for a multi-year period of high yield of galega herb.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system includes drainage pipes of higher strength installed with a drainage inclination in an earth bed. Drainage pipes are arranged inside the earth bed body using a method of horizontal directional drilling. End sections of pipes protrude beyond limits of earth bed slopes and are connected to each other in a closed system, the outlet of which is made as capable of connection of compressor equipment. Sections of the drainage pipes arranged in the bed body are made as evenly perforated.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve draining properties of a system and bearing capacity of a road base by increasing a drying zone, realisation of the possibility to regulate drying process, and also reinforcement of an earth bed.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises k experimental drainage systems - versions of R replication with n number of experimental drains, connected with a closed header k-R, made of pipes with water impermeable walls without joints and water receiving holes and entering an inspection drop hydrometric manhole. M number of parallel pipes of closed headers enter the inspection drop hydrometric manhole at the same time and are made with a section with entering drains and an idle part. As the experimental drainage system version is moved away from the inspection drop hydrometric manhole, the idle part of the closed header of the previous experimental drainage system-version is shorter than the idle part of the closed header of each subsequent experimental drainage system version. Pipes of closed headers entering the inspection drop hydrometric manhole are equipped with a cantilever water outlet and are laid in one trench in tiers in different parallel vertical planes.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve conditions for mechanisation of field works, to perform reconstruction and repair of each header and its drains, without interfering with other headers, to reduce number of weed seed pilots.
SUBSTANCE: connection of drain pipes 1 and 2 includes a coupling placed onto end sections of pipes, in the form of a flexible toroid-shaped chamber 4 with a filler 5 from an elastic compressible material having a toroid shape, the surface of which is coated with an anti-friction lubricant. The toroid-shaped chamber 4 is made from a non-elastic shell, and end sections of drain pipes are made with longitudinal rounded corrugations 6. The outer perimeter of cross section of the corrugated part of pipes is equal to the perimeter of the cross section of the outer surface of the chamber shell, and length of corrugations on each end section of pipes is equal to the coupling length.
EFFECT: invention achieves required density of connection of drainage pipes and simplified coupling design.
SUBSTANCE: controller comprises a well 7, a stop element in the form of a valve 4 installed in it on the head of the drain, and the valve is connected with levers of a hinged mechanism, and a float 8. The lever mechanism is made as capable of free contact with the floating float 8. The float is installed in an additional chamber 6. The lever mechanism is installed on the horizontal axis 12. Besides, the axis of the lever mechanism divides it into two unequal parts 14 and 15, the top one of which is more than the bottom one. On the top part of the arm 14 there is a counterbalance reservoir 17 hingedly fixed, the centre of gravity of which is placed above the horizontal axis of rotation. On the bottom part of the arm 15 there is a mechanism hingedly fixed to change position accordingly above the float at elevations of maximum and minimum water level in the float chamber.
EFFECT: increased reliability of a device, higher accuracy of control and possibility to adjust system operation into a drying mode.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device to join drainage pipes 1 and 2 comprises connection elements 4, which are installed in holes 3 near ends of joined pipes and are made in the form of two cylindrical plugs with ball-shaped endings 7, equal to diameters of holes connected to each other with a link. Each connection element 4 is made as Z-shaped. The link in the middle part 5 has width equal to width of a water-receiving gap 6 equal to thickness of the pipe wall. Plugs with ball-shaped endings are introduced into holes of joined pipes, one at the inner side, and the other one at the outer side.
EFFECT: improved reliability of water-receiving gap fixation and prevention of pipes collision against each other in process of mechanised installation.
SUBSTANCE: drain opening is closed with the plug with a branch pipe provided with a branch with a valve and a dispensing container. The branch is connected by the hose to the exhaust pipe of the internal combustion engine, and the exhaust gases are fed into the drain cavity. The dispensing container is filled with fine powder of colloidal copper. The valve is opened, and the powder is fed into the drain cavity. The supply of gases is stopped when the dispensing container is completely empty. The colloidal copper powder together with the stream of exhaust gases is fed onto the inner surface of the drainage pipes and the slits of the drainage pipes.
EFFECT: increased intensity of suppression of life activity of iron bacteria.
SUBSTANCE: method of performance control of transverse drains on catena lies in determining the timeliness of their lowering of the level of groundwater, and ensuring the required drainage rate. To implement the method the measurement of position of the depression curve in the drain spacing on the established wells is carried out. To do this, between the wells the distance is specified depending on the distance between the drains. The first and the last wells in the drain spacing are located in the trench where the drains are stacked. The second and the penultimate wells are located at one metre from the drains. The remaining wells are located taking into account the asymmetry of the depression curve between the transverse drains. The distance from the upper and lower drains is calculated based on the distance Ev. The distance Ev is defined as the distance from the vertical at the point on the depression curve with its tangent line, parallel to the soil surface, in which there is a minimum drainage rate - the maximum approximation of the groundwater level to the soil surface.
EFFECT: improvement of drainage performance and improvement of effectiveness of use of drained mineral soils of catena.
SUBSTANCE: method is carried out by means of heading of containers, such as a cutting cylinder, onto a monolith. At the same time previously the soil is sampled. For this purpose a site is chosen, and in its centre a circular trench is dug with depth of not more than by 25 mm lower than the height of the cutting cylinder, belting the untouched soil, representing a truncated cone in shape, the diameter of the upper base of which is by 10…15 cm more than the inner diameter of the cutting cylinder, and the diameter of the lower base is more than the inner diameter of the cutting cylinder by 15…25 cm. From the soil left untouched the monolith is cut with the diameter of at least by 6 mm smaller than the inner diameter of the cutting cylinder and the height that is at least by 25 mm smaller than the cylinder height. At the same time the cylinder is periodically put on the monolith, using it as a template to monitor the diameter of the cut monolith. After cutting of the monolith and putting of the cutting cylinder on it, the cylinder is pushed into soil, until its upper layer levels with the monolith surface. In the space between the inner surface of the cutting cylinder and the outer surface of the monolith four Z-shaped supporting monolith-supporting plates are inserted with height equal to 3/4 of the cutting cylinder height. Evenly they are distributed along the cylinder perimetre and put on its upper edge. The slot between the inner surface of the cutting cylinder, the soil monolith and its supporting plates is filled with a molten waterproof material, having lower temperature of melting, for instance, a mineral wax. Afterwards the monolith is cut at the bottom at the lower edge of the cylinder, it is installed on the solid surface, packed and delivered to the area of filtration tests performance.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of soil filtration coefficient detection and accuracy of establishment of land reclamation system parameters, efficiency of using reclaimed soils, expanded zone of application of monoliths for detection of filtration coefficient.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly to consolidate slopes or inclinations to be eroded by ground waters.
SUBSTANCE: method for slope protection against landslide by diverting ground water with the use of drainage mine tunnel, through filters and upward dewatering wells involves excavating mine tunnel beginning from lower point of original ground under water-bearing horizons with tunnel elevation for water gravity flow, wherein mine tunnel extends parallel to direction of water flow from water-bearing horizons; excavating mine tunnel in different directions perpendicular to above flow direction; performing drilling vertical venting wells at tunnel ends beginning from original ground; drilling upward dewatering wells in water-bearing horizons; drilling vertical wells from original ground used as through filters crossing all water-bearing horizons; connecting thereof with cross-headings excavated from mine tunnel; installing valves at through filter ends; providing filtering members at place of intersection between upward dewatering wells and vertical wells with water-bearing horizons; forming water removal channel in mine tunnel and connecting thereof with original ground; drilling hydraulic observing wells beginning from original ground along line of through filters to control water level in water-bearing horizons.
EFFECT: increased reliability; possibility of diverting 85-90% of water contained in water-bearing horizons.
FIELD: land-reclamation, particularly drainage building in flooded irrigated lands.
SUBSTANCE: method involves digging out channel in a single drainage machine pass by plow-type ditcher; dumping dug out fertile ground on channel brows in banks; digging out trench by operative tool of drainage machine; laying drainage pipe and covering thereof with ground; filling channel with fertile ground. Fertile ground layer is loosened before trench digging out along drainage pipe laying axis, wherein width of loosened ground strip is not less than operative tool width. Loosened ground is laid on channel brows. Trench is dug out by chain operative tool of narrow drainage machine performing reverse rotation and extracted ground is placed between trench walls and drainage machine bunker to cover drainage pipe moved into trench by guiding means. Trench is backfilled with ground with the use of two pairs of banks, which provides successive filling trench with ground and loosened fertile ground.
EFFECT: increased efficiency due to prevention of trench wall compaction, reduced power inputs.
FIELD: hydraulic and reclamation building, particularly in permafrost zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating planned embankment on territory to be developed; performing surface water drainage from embankment. Embankment slope provide water flow to water receiving means and drainage of surface water from adjoining areas. Ground water flowing from adjacent areas are drained during and/or after embankment erection and removed from embankment body. Motor roads and in-territory water draining channel systems are used as water receiving and draining means within the boundaries of territory to be developed. Water diversion ditch system is used for water removal from outside the territory to be developed. Water diversion ditch system are formed along embankment perimeter and above slopes reinforced from embankment side. Motor roads are built on embankment top, wherein motor road pavements are located beneath embankment surface. Embankment has slopes directed towards roads. Motor roads have longitudinal and transversal slopes providing surface water flow along roads to water draining channel system, which drains water into water diversion ditch system. Surface water flows into water diversion ditch system from embankment areas located at a distance from motor roads due to inclining above areas towards water diversion ditch system, which directs water to purification system or to natural temporary or permanent water channels. For ground water removal from embankment body drainage layer is placed in embankment so that drainage layer diverts accumulated water to water diversion ditch system, which is also used to remove ground water entering from areas located adjacent territory to be developed.
EFFECT: simplified structure, reduced labor inputs, provision of stable and effective protective system operation.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: irrigation building, particularly for laying collector-and-drainage system in the case of high ground water level (which is below plough-layer).
SUBSTANCE: method involves erecting pits along drain lines having inclined walls, wherein pit wall inclination is less than natural filtering material slope; filling the pits with filtering material along drain-installing machine travel so that filtering material volume is equal to that of blinding material; laying drain lines along pit axes with narrow-trench drain-installing machine after drain-installing machine bin is filled with filtering material up to level above ground water one, wherein drain laying rate exceeds rate of water percolation from watered ground of trench backfill; maintaining constant filtering material level in the bin due to supplying thereof from pit; additionally leveling and compacting upper filtering material surface. Device comprises main machine, active working tool with reverse operating chain rotation, guiding draining pipe chute and bin. Bin has front cutting part, expandable transversal walls and longitudinal walls bending in vertical plane. Receiving windows are formed in longitudinal walls. Splitter located in front of working tool is mounted on working tool frame and may perform vertical displacement. Splitter comprises plough and side wings enclosing working tool from two sides and connected to plough in front wing parts and to hinges in rear parts thereof. The hinges are connected to bin in front of receiving windows having additional wings installed behind receiving windows to allow installation angle change. Device has gate extending at 3°-4° angle to drain line and located in lower bin part.
EFFECT: increased capacity and drain laying quality, as well as following drainage operational efficiency.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building and irrigation and drainage construction, for agricultural land, underground building parts, roads, and slopes reclamation.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises perforated drainage pipe connected to drain web having extensions, filtering diaphragm and thickened parts in joint areas. The thickened parts are provided with through orifices for bolts receiving. Nuts are screwed on the bolts. Drainage pipe has horizontal slot with bent upwards ends in which drain web in installed.
EFFECT: improved draining efficiency and increased speed of excessive water draining from ground.
FIELD: land reclamation, particularly to lay drain collection system in zones having ground water level above drainage laying level.
SUBSTANCE: method involves loosening fertile ground layer along drain laying axis; digging out channel; forming kerbs of excavated fertile ground; developing trench with chain working tool performing reverse rotation without ground lifting to surface; laying drainage pipe; backfilling the trench and the channel. Pulp consisted of crashed ground and water is extracted from lower trench part during drainage laying and the extracted pulp is supplied into channel or to surface of material used for trench backfilling. Device comprises basic machine, active working tool rotated in reverse direction, drainage pipe tray, box-like hopper with front cutting part, namely knife including post and plowshare. Suction dredge is installed inside the plowshare. Suction dredge has suction line communicated with zone between active working tool and knife through windows formed in front plowshare section. Pressure supply pipeline is communicated with distribution pipelines through intermediate pipeline and bypass gate operated by lever mechanism.
EFFECT: increased productivity and quality of drainage laying in water-saturated ground.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to protect building structure built of clay ground against flooding in the case of bedded mineral deposit mining under the structure.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting dewatering wells in maximal ground subsidence zones over breakage heading center; drilling horizontal drainage wells from dewatering wells at depth, which is less than distance to neutral line at ground layer bent, but is greater than structure foundation erection depth. Well lengths are determined from mathematical expression with taking into consideration parameters of layer cutting and ground shifting process characteristics.
EFFECT: increased clay ground dewatering and structure protection against flooding.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises lying the drain system with the converging drains on the control section, making observation gates within the converging drains, observing the parameters of the operation of the drain system, and comparing the parameters with the permissible values. The drains are provided with mouth and source sections of parallel drains. The lengths of the source and mouth sections of the parallel drains are chosen to be no less than the half of maximum distances between the sources and mouths of the converging drains, respectively.
EFFECT: enhanced precision of control.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises making diverging drainage canals in the area to be drained. The mouths of the bed sections are connected with the collector through the underground pipelines. The flow rates are measured and water is sampled in the mouths of the underground pipelines and in the mouths of the canal section beds connected to the collector. The concentrations of contaminants in the samples is measured, and the results are compared with the permissible values.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumptions.
FIELD: mining, particularly to protect objects to be developed and located in shifting basing against flooding with ground and surface water.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming water-receiving excavations made as drains, pits or wells; draining and removing water; predicting ground surface relied after ground deformation before underground work performing; marking out flat shifting basin bottom and zone characterized by maximal relief depression; forming pit in area of maximal relief depression; arranging water drain at shifting basin boundary; forming ground water removing wells. Pit volume, well depth and well pitch are determined from mathematical relations.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.