Method for automatic control of thermal state and functional parameters of technical devices

FIELD: physics; control.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space, aviation, radio engineering, instrument-making and mechanical engineering and can be used in all industries for automatic control of the thermal state and functional parameters of technical devices. The method for automatic control of the thermal state and functional parameters of technical devices involves setting and determining the type and parameters of thermal functions of technical devices, from which values of thermal functions during operation of the devices and downtime thereof are calculated, and making adjustments in actuating devices through a numerical control computer system upon reaching the calculated values of set acceptable values. The method involves determining the type, the time variation characteristics of standard laws of thermal functions of the position, movement and state of technical devices, heat-loaded parts thereof, assemblies and components during heating and cooling thereof for each controlled functional parameter during operation of a technical device and during downtime thereof. Statistical characteristics of the time variation of thermal functions of heating and cooling for each controlled functional parameter during operation of the device and during downtime thereof are established during multiple tests. The obtained characteristics of the time variation of thermal functions in the working volume of the technical device during operation and downtime thereof are then used to calculate the value and/or position and/or movement and/or state of the controlled functional parameter in accordance with the operating time or downtime, for the current range of positions, movements and states of heat-loaded parts, assemblies and components of technical devices, and when values and/or positions and/or movements and/or states reach, with given probability, set acceptable values, the controlled functional parameter of the technical device is adjusted through a numerical control computer system by changing and acting on current parameters and functioning characteristics which define the level of the thermal conditions or state of heat-loaded devices.

EFFECT: high accuracy of functioning of technical devices, high reliability thereof, stability of maintaining the level or range of values of functional output parameters of the position, movement and state of technical devices during operation thereof, carried out without using additional mechanisms, devices and systems for measuring temperature and/or thermal deformations and/or the position and/or movement and/or state of heat-loaded parts of devices.

6 dwg

 

The invention relates to space, aviation, radio, instrument-making and machine-building areas and can be used in all areas of the economy for the automatic control of a thermal condition and functional parameters of technical devices, as well as various technical and technological devices, machines and systems, the operation of which is based on information and computer numerical control systems.

Known for thermal control system of the spacecraft (RF patent No. 2151720, B64G 1/50, F28D 15/00, 2000) contains a closed fluid path from a fluid, comprising the controller of the flow sensitive element of thermostat, before which additionally has a calibrated tee with removable calibrator flow on one of its outputs, the first output calibrated tee is connected to the input of the sensing element and the second output reported by the pipeline with a liquid path between the electric unit and the output of the sensing element of thermostat. With the aim of obtaining an acceptable frequency of oscillation of the temperature of the coolant in the liquid path of thermal control system for use with various repeaters; interconnectivities element or time constant, characterize its inertia quantitatively determined from the solution of the differential equation of the transition process of the sensing element. The time constant of the sensing element can be changed only by changing the heat transfer coefficient, which can be changed only by changing the flow rate of the fluid surrounding the sensor element.

The disadvantage of this invention is a complex structural scheme and the impossibility of accounting for random parameters and characteristics that define the operation of the sensing element.

Known for thermal control system of the spacecraft (RF patent No. 2196079, B64G 1/50, B64G 1/00, F28D 15/00, 2003) with hydraulic circuits and systems for selection, supply and discharge of heat, including in the form of thermoplast and the emissivity of the external radiators included in the path specified thermal control system, each monoblock is equipped with spaced parallel at a given distance one from the other heat pipes, and the end parts of the heat pipes, forming a zone of condensation, United by a plate of thermally conductive material in a separate thermoplate, with each thermoplate through thermally conductive material is fixed to the tube with capillary structure, role of the capillary pump and forming the evaporation zone contour heat energy to the pipe, each group thermoplate connected in parallel to each other and connected to an external radiative using pipelines.

The disadvantage of this invention is also complicated structural scheme and the impossibility of accounting for random parameters and characteristics that define the work thermoplast.

Known heat exchanger (patent RF №2199068, F28D 15/00, 2003), containing connected by a pipe partially filled with coolant evaporator with a pipe for the supply of the gases above him capacitor, an adjustable stop valve in the pipeline and the pipe at the bottom of the condenser is connected with the atmosphere inside the capacitor perpendicular to the base height are partitions with the channels on one of the outer sides of the capacitor is slotted convector, and further comprises a button located under the evaporator, the heating chamber of the evaporator with a pipe for supplying hot gases, the evaporator consists of two chambers connected by a pump, an internal source of heat, slotted convector formed by adjacent surfaces of the chambers of the evaporator, a second adjustable stop valve and nozzle in the lid of the capacitor.

The disadvantage of this invention is also complex design scheme, the impossibility of accounting for random parameters and characteristics, identifying the operation of the evaporator, and adjustable shut-off bodies, reducing the reliability of the system.

Known cooling method (patent RF №2367857, F25D 21/02, F25B 3/00, 2009) drinking water for the machine dosed spill drinks, including water supply in tank metered volume, use thermoelectric effect of the Peltier element for discharge of the heat and cooling water to a temperature not below 0°C and above +4°C, and manage the process cooling water by regulating the power to the Peltier element and the heat from his heat-absorbing and heat dissipating elements.

The disadvantage of this invention is the impossibility of accounting for random parameters and characteristics which the heat-absorbing and heat dissipating elements, as well as lack of control of thermoelectric parameters of the Peltier element.

The known method (A.S. No. 1041226, CL B23B 25/06, 1983) automatic compensation of thermal displacement of the spindle machine tool with numerical control, in which the compensation of thermal displacement of the spindle is carried out according to standard dependency on the timing and frequency of rotation of the spindle.

The disadvantages of all these inventions is that they do not take into account the random nature of the parameters that determine the magnitude of the temperature characteristics, the values change the tempo of the atmospheric temperature environment, require complex systems measurement and control, implement the management of only one functional parameter, limited technical and technological purpose of the control object may not be modified control parameters and values during operation, do not take into account the required reliability of the control.

It is obvious that the distinctive features of known technical and technological devices are the need to control thermal condition and functional parameters that change during the course of their work, because the input energy is not spent on the process of functioning, scatters and accumulates in the structure of technical devices, leading to uneven changes in the initial thermal state of the parts, parts, mechanisms and systems, increasing their heat content, and therefore, when applying thermal process causes the change set functional parameters of the position, movement, and status of technical devices, parts, parts, mechanisms and systems.

The change in position, which is defined by three linear and three angular displacements due to temperature effects and can be both absolute and relative between the functional elements.

Change movement due to temperature the effects characterized by the path (absolute or relative) and the characteristics of the speed, acceleration and other dynamic components.

The status is determined by the temperature and thermal deformation of parts, details and elements that are determined by the ratio of input and exhaust heat, and the join conditions and their degrees of freedom.

The task of the invention is to provide a method of automatic control of thermal condition and functional parameters of technical devices, which would allow to improve the accuracy of the functioning of technical devices, increasing their reliability, stability level or range of values for the functional output parameters of position, movement and status of technical devices during their operation, carried out without the use of additional mechanisms, devices and systems for measuring temperature and/or thermal deformation, and/or position and/or movement, and/or status thermally loaded parts of the device.

This object is achieved in that in the known method of automatic control of thermal condition and functional parameters of technical devices, consisting in establishing and determining the type and parameters of thermal fu the capabilities of technical devices which count values of thermal functions during operation of the device and during their downtime, and the introduction of a correction in the Executive bodies through a computer system numerical control in moments of achieving the calculated values of the set of valid values, according to the present invention determine the appearance, characteristics changes over time typical regularities of thermal functions of the position, movement, and status of technical devices, it is thermally loaded parts, units and components at their heating and cooling for each managed functional parameter during operation of the technical device and when it is idle, for a range of positions, movements, and States of thermally loaded parts, units and components of devices specified conditions the functioning and operation, taking into account the speed and type of changes in the ambient temperature, which is set when multiple tests of statistical characteristics of the time variation of thermal functions of heating and cooling for each managed functional setting operation and shutdown and the resulting characteristics of the time variation of thermal features in the working volume of the technical device in the process of his work and at idle count value, and/or position and/or movement, and/or status is probleemiga functional parameter in accordance with the time or idle, for the current range of positions, movements, and States of thermally loaded parts, units and components of technical devices, and in moments of achieving the calculated value with a given probability values and/or positions and/or movements and/or conditions established for them in the valid values due to the required accuracy range of settings for each managed functional parameter, perform the adjustment managed functional parameter of the technical device through a computer system numerical control by the changes and the impact on current parameters and characteristics of operation that determine the level of thermal conditions or state of the heat-loaded device.

The invention is illustrated by drawings.

Figure 1 shows typical patterns of change in temperature, position, movement and functional parameters of the technical devices during heating-cooling.

Figure 2 shows schematic diagram of the formation of the random nature of the heating and cooling system.

Figure 3 shows a typical thermal features speed changes for different types of heating / cooling devices.

Figure 4 gives the illustration of the principle and the diagram of a method of automatic control of thermal state and the functional parameter is mi technical devices in sequential mode change operation.

Figure 5 shows a schematic diagram of a method of automatic control of thermal state of the automatic control of a thermal condition and functional parameters of the technical devices when considering random components of the heating and cooling system.

Figure 6 shows the functional diagram of the method of automatic control of a thermal condition and functional parameters of technical devices with computer information system numerical control.

The claimed invention is as follows. After Assembly technical devices make his test in the standard state or established specifications programs. The results of these tests determine the appearance, characteristics changes over time of thermal functions of heating and cooling for each managed functional parameter during operation of the technical device and when it is idle. This definition is carried out for a range of positions, movements, and States of thermally loaded parts specified by the conditions of functioning and operation. This fixed the speed and type of changes in the ambient temperature. These tests are conducted repeatedly, the results of which establish the statistical characteristics of the time variation of thermal functions n is grave and cooling for each managed functional parameter during operation of the technical device and at idle. Analysis of changes over time of thermal functions of heating and cooling for each managed functional parameter during operation of the technical device and downtime are the "passport" of a tested device, generic parameters which enter in the computer system numerical control. Next, in operation of the device and during downtime on the obtained function changes thermal changes over time in the working volume of the technical device of a computer system over a specified time interval calculates the magnitude and/or position and/or movement, and/or state managed functional parameter in accordance with the time or downtime, for the current range of positions, movements, and States of thermally loaded parts.

In moments of achieving the calculated value with a given probability values and/or positions and/or movements and/or conditions set for them by the valid values due to the required range of accuracy for each managed functional parameter, perform the adjustment managed functional parameter of the technical device by modifying and/or impact on current values, parameters and characteristics of managed functional parameters and/or changes and the impact on the level of Teplova the mode or state of thermally loaded parts of technical devices. This effect, in some cases, may also be used with special corrective devices microzoning managed computer system functional parameters.

The method is based on the fact that the time variation of thermal functions of heating and cooling for each managed functional parameter during operation of the technical device and when downtime occurs according to standard patterns, functions (Figure 1), characteristic for a given design and layout solutions for each mode of operation, in accordance with the mutual relative position of the heat-stressed parts, assemblies and parts. Moreover, the model function, its character, the speed of heating-cooling and the value of the determined mode of operation (e.g., current strength or speed) and the change in the ambient temperature and can be determined by various standard functions (figure 1) for different modes and not always coincide with each other. In addition, the magnitude of the change in time of thermal functions of heating and cooling for each managed functional parameter is a random variable (figure 2), the characteristics of which are determined by the quality of manufacture of the device, heat exchange conditions and are its individual parameters.

During operation of the device at a known mode the am and time to work on them calculate the values of thermal features on the previously established and entered in the computer management system standard functions (figure 1) for the current state and/or position and temperature the environment at this current time. Next make the change for each managed functional setting the direction and magnitude of the calculated function values with a specified probability (figure 5), thereby conserved during operation, a relatively stable and constant heat rejection function of heat-loaded device.

When the stop device is not working or working at a lower mode when there is a reduction of heat and cools technical devices, parts and components, knowing the model function cooling, their characteristics and the cooling time (or work at a lower mode), produced in a computer system similar to the calculation of thermal features and also make the change for each managed functional setting the direction and the magnitude of the calculated function value and a given probability, thereby conserved during operation, a relatively stable and constant heat rejection function of heat-loaded device.

In all cases, thermal characteristics of the tempo or speed of heating-cooling are not stable constant for all modes and is defined as the mutual relative position of thermally loaded the elements, units and components, and ambient temperature, sequence and time of operation of the technical device in different modes and corresponding thermal history of the device.

The heat exchange of any body or system of bodies (technical device is a body or system of bodies) with the environment obeys the Newton's law of Ramana and occurs on the surface of the body. For the case where the device is, as a system of bodies, is heated by energy sources, randomly distributed inside the body or on its borders, and on the assumption that the power sources are constant in time, the temperature of the medium is constant, the heat transfer coefficient and thermal material parameters do not depend on temperature and time, heating time can be divided into stages (according Hemicontractive) irregular and regular thermal regimes (Dulnev GN. Heat and mass transfer in electronic equipment. M.: Higher school, 1984. - 248 S.).

In regular mode, the change of the temperature field in time has a simple form, since the onset of this regime is the natural logarithm of the temperature difference between any point of a body changes with time in a linear fashion.

Thus, thermal features thermally loaded parts, parts and components of technical devices are subject to the laws of regular heat the new regime and describes a simple exponential (as shown by numerous experimental studies, dependence (figure 1):

where δ ty- the temperature in steady state, m is the rate of heating (cooling) of a homogeneous body:

Here α, λ, c,a, γ -, respectively, the heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, specific gravity;

M, V, S, respectively, the mass, volume, and area of the heat-release surface; Ψ is the coefficient of non - uniformity of the temperature field (in practical cases, if α is not a tends to infinity, we can take Ψ=1).

To determine ψ we can use the expression Yarysheva N.A.:

where Kn is the criterion G.M. Kondratieff; Biv=αRv/λ - Biot; Rv- generalized body size, equal to the ratio of the volume of the body to the surface.

If the temperature Tcthe environment and the capacity Q of the heat sources technical devices are functions of time, to determine the function of thermal behavior you can use the expression:

,

where TnTCH, Qn- the initial value of the temperature of the body, the environment and the heat flux, Twith- ambient temperature, C=γV. From (4) it follows that at Twith=Tn=Twith(τ)=const and for the heat flux Q=Q(τ)=const

East is CNIC heat dissipation permanent and does not depend on time, the ambient temperature is constant and equal to the initial temperature of the device (Q=Q(τ)=const, Tc=Tn=Twith(τ)=const):

If the power dissipation is absent, the change in ambient temperature occurs exponentially to the steady state

The total dependency changes (thermal conduct) regulations, movement and condition of parts, assemblies and mechanisms of technical devices because of their thermal deformation δU(ni) can be written in the following form:

where δU(ni), δU(0ni) - the value of temperature, deformation, respectively during heating and cooling;

L1, L2the value of temperature, deformation in steady mode temperature stabilization;

T0- the current value of the ambient temperature;

ni is the i-th mode of the device;

m1nim2nim0ni- rate or heating rate on the i-th mode;

m0ni- rate or cooling rate during the transition from i+1 to i-th mode;

m0=m0nithe tempo or speed of the cooling device when the device;

K0Knithe coefficients of proportionality.

where Kα is the rate of change of heat is outdate for different modes rabotayuschaya, q - exponent, defined by the ratio of the criteria Reynolds and Grashof.

Then the typical regularities of changes in the functions of the position due to thermal deformation of thermally loaded parts, assemblies and mechanisms of technical devices δU(ni) can be written in the following form:

1. When m1=m2, L1=L2always U=0, and the function is a straight line. Taking into account the random components of the formation parameters of functions U get a strip parallel to the time axis, the width of which is equal to the variance value.

2. When m1=m2and L1>L2the function U in time varies according to the exponential law, and its value is always positive (see figure 1, line 7).

3. When m1=m2and L1<L2the value of the function U at time varies according to the exponential law, and its value is always negative (see figure 1, line G). 4. When m1>m2, L1=L2U=L1-L2=0 in the steady state when τ→∞.

The first derivative (2) through the period of time τebecomes zero, and the function U takes the extreme value of:

The second derivative over the time period T takes the form:

The value of the function U over the time period τeis determined by the expression:

The second derivative is a negative (∂2U/∂τ2<0) values, and it will correspond to line 5 in figure 1.

5. When m1<m2and L1=L2the value of the function U=L1-L2=0 in the regime τ→∞. The second derivative (∂2U/∂τ2>0) is positive (line 5' in figure 1).

6. When m1>m2and L1>L2the value of the function over the period of time defined by equation (3), reaches its maximum, which is determined by the equation (4). The second derivative ∂2U/∂τ2<0 (the function is line 3 in figure 1).

7. When m1>m2and L1<L2the value of the function ∂2U/∂τ2<0 reaches its maximum after a period of time τe(3), then in the steady state value functions become negative:

and will be positive when L2<0, m1>m2, L2/L2<m2/m1i.e. the function has the alternating character (line 6 in figure 1).

If ∂2U/∂τ2=0 and ∂U/∂τ<0, the function has an inflection point, and its value is always negative (line 7' 7) if the condition. The time after which the function reaches a point of inflection,.

8. When m1<m2and L1>L2the value is the function 4 (see 1) reaches its minimum (∂2U/∂τ2>0) over the time period τethen in steady state the function values become positive (L1-L2>0):

when L2>0, m1<m2and L1/L2>m2/m1i.e. the function has the alternating character ((see figure 1, line 4). If ∂2U/∂τ2=0 and ∂U/∂τ>0, the function has a point of inflection and its value is always positive (see figure 1, line 7), provided.

9. When m1<m2and L1<L2the function reaches its minimum (∂2U/∂τ2>0) (see figure 1 line 3'),

Thus, the characteristics of the typical functions of change of thermal state are common to all types of technical and technological devices (machines, facilities and entered into the memory of computer information systems numeric control technical or technological devices, and the values of these characteristics after the test device is also stored, which are the individual values of each product.

Therefore, characteristics, and parameters for determining "the way" thermal state technical devices are:

Δ ty- the temperature in steady state at the i-th mode;

L1, L2the value of deformation (of temperature) steady state temperature stabilization;

ML1, ML2- the value of the mathematical expectation C deformation value (temperature) steady state temperature stabilization;

σL1σL2- value average standard deviation of the deformation rate (of temperature) steady state temperature stabilization;

m1nim2nim0ni- rate or heating rate on the i-th mode;

m0nitempo or speed when cooling with (1+1)-th to i-th mode;

m0=m0nithe tempo or speed of the cooling device in the absence of its work;

Kα, K0, Knithe coefficients of proportionality;

Δiset a valid value of the i-th controlled functional parameter;

the probability Pi(t) reaches Δia valid value of the i-th controlled functional parameter.

The probability Pi(t) is determined by the expression:

Consider the process of automatic control of thermal condition and functional parameters of technical devices (4, 5, 6) since the inclusion of a technical or technological products on the modes n1n2n3during the time of the work in these modes, respectively, t1, t3, t5; t1=t1(n3), t2=t2(n2)-t1(n2), t3=t3(n1)-t2(n1), when the cooling gap is drop - the cooling rate is equal to, respectively, m0while cooling, when switching from a large mode at least with n1n3,the cooling rate is equal to, respectively, m03.In this case, shows the control principle, the functional argument, when the calculation of thermal state of technical devices are made without taking into account random components.

Figure 5 shows the principle of automatic control of thermal condition and functional parameters of the technical devices when working on the modes n1and n2when control is based on random components. If the probability of reaching thermal state of the functional parameter is equal to 0.5, in this case, the control corresponds to the same case when random components are not taken into account and time management will be much more, i.e. the value of [t2(n2) P(t)=0,5]-[t2(n2) P(t)=0,997], and the achievable precision is reduced (figure 5).

Functional diagram of the method of automatic control of a thermal condition and functional parameters of technical devices with the computer information system is shown in Fig.6., where the dashed line shows the devices that would apply based on other control methods as shown in the prototype.

Automatic control thermal condition and functional parameters of technical devices technical or technological products (position, movement, status) as at heating and cooling produced through established for each managed functional parameter value Δi. The value of Δiand probability (figure 4, 5, 6) achieve Pi(t) is set for each condition or operation on the basis of the desired value of the functional parameter (or precision) and the need to ensure its preservation in time, and entered into the memory of the computer system numerical control technical devices.

At the start of the technical device or process products and the beginning of his work in the computing device computer information systems computer numerical control data is received on the current time t1, the operation mode of the functional parameter ni, the current position and state of the functional parameters of the heat-loaded device, the ambient temperature. The values of the functional parameters are calculated continuously with fixed increment of time ∆ Tifunction (1-8).

The period of time Δtiholding the CNC system of estimated thermal displacement of the spindle axis δU(ni) must be selected from the range 0- ∆ Tiwhen the following conditions are true:

Upon reaching calculated by (1-8) values temperature (offset, state) for each functional parameter equal to Δiand its probability Pi(t), is a management position, movement and status using a computer control system by changing the functional parameter control heat-loaded device in the desired direction. After time t1switches the operation mode to n2while the algorithm of the automated system repeats. If the specified probability Pi(t) achieve the temperature values (regulations, state) for each functional parameter equal to Δinot provided, the management of functional parameters is made at the moment of its achievement. Likewise described is the operation of the control system in the regime n3etc.

Upon cooling, the calculation also takes place continuously through the time periods Δti. When it reaches temperature values (regulations, state) for each functional parameter equal to Δiwith probability Pi(t) management of functional parameters is made at the moment of its achievement.

Thus, during the entire period of operation is the automatic control of a thermal condition and functional parameters of the technical devices. In any period of operation, the control parameters can be set or modified using the unit of assignment of functional parameters.

Using the proposed method allows for a significant increase in the accuracy of the functioning of technical devices, increasing their reliability, stability level or range of values of output parameters of position, movement and status of technical and technological devices during their operation without the use of additional mechanisms, devices and systems for measuring temperature and/or thermal deformation, and/or position and/or movement, and/or condition of the heat-loaded device.

Analysis of the claimed technical solution for compliance with the conditions of patentability showed that specified in the independent claim, the symptoms are significant and interrelated with the formation of stable aggregates, unknown at the date of priority of the prior art required characteristics, sufficient to obtain the desired synergistic (sverhsummarny) technical result.

Thus, the above data confirm that the implementation of the use of the claimed technical solution the following cumulative conditions:

object embodying the claimed technical solution, when the th implementation is intended for automatic control of thermal state of the heat-loaded device with the computer system numerical control, can be used in all areas of space, aviation, electronic, engineering and production engineering for automatic control of thermal state of the heat-loaded device technical and technological machines and equipment;

for the declared object in the form as it is described in the independent clause following formula, confirmed the possibility of its implementation using the above described in the application or known from the prior art on the priority date tools and methods;

object embodying the claimed technical solution, its implementation is able to achieve perceived by the applicant of the technical result.

Therefore, the claimed object meets the requirements of patentability "novelty", "inventive step" and "industrial applicability" under the current law.

A way to automatically control thermal condition and functional parameters of technical devices, consisting in establishing and determining the type and parameters of thermal functions of technical devices by which the count value of thermal functions during operation of the device and during their downtime, and the introduction of a correction in the Executive bodies through a computer system numeric driven the I in a moment of achieving the calculated values of the set of valid values, characterized in that determine the appearance, characteristics changes over time typical regularities of thermal functions of the position, movement, and status of technical devices, it is thermally loaded parts, units and components at their heating and cooling for each managed functional parameter during operation of the technical device and when it is idle, for a range of positions, movements, and States of thermally loaded parts, units and components of the devices specified by the conditions of functioning and operation, taking into account the speed and type of changes in the ambient temperature, which is set when multiple tests of statistical characteristics of the time variation of thermal functions of heating and cooling for each managed functional option when working device and at idle and on the obtained characteristics of the time variation of thermal features in the working volume of the technical device in the process of his work and at idle count value, and/or position and/or movement, and/or state managed functional parameter in accordance with the time or downtime, for the current range of positions, movements, and States of thermally loaded parts, units and components of technical devices, and in moments of achieving the calculated value with a given probability values, and/or p. the application, and/or movements and/or conditions established for them in the valid values due to the required accuracy range of settings for each managed functional parameter, perform the adjustment managed functional parameter of the technical device through a computer system numerical control by the changes and the impact on current parameters and characteristics of operation that determine the level of thermal conditions or state of the heat-loaded device.



 

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4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of determining desorption activation energy involves heating adsorbent samples; recording cumulative variation of the mass of the sample with temperature and time using a derivatographic method in non-isothermal conditions; determining extremum temperature of the desorption process; plotting a curve in coordinates of calculating desorption activation energy using the formula Eac=19.11 tg α·ξ, where tg α is the tangent of the slope of the straight line plotted in coordinates of ξ is the ratio of scales on the abscissa axis to scales on the ordinate axis; h is the deviation of curve of cumulative variation of the mass of the sample from the neutral axis; F is the area under the curve of cumulative variation of the mass of the sample, bounded by the neutral axis; f is the area under the curve of cumulative variation of the mass of the sample at any moment in time; T is absolute temperature; n is the order of reaction; a portion of adsorbent weighing 20-100 mg is used for heating; the adsorbent has dispersity of 3-7 mcm and is pre-saturated with a sorbate; heating is carried out in the temperature range of 50-400°C.

EFFECT: high reliability and accuracy of determining desorption activation energy.

1 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the field of instrumentation equipment and may be used to diagnose technical condition of building structures. According to the method, analysis of design and normative documents of a building structure is carried out, criteria of suitability are established, as well as their permissible values, instrumentation survey of building structure elements is performed, actual parameters and characteristics of building structure element materials are defined, as well as actual parameters of the condition and characteristics of soil foundation. At the same time actual values of parameters of damages, defects and links are identified in separate components of structural elements of a building structure; detected defects are classified, based on processing of data of multi-parameter spatial defect report, specific values of building structure elements suitability criteria are specified and compared to permissible values. Based on the produced results, suitability of building structure elements is established in general for further safe operation, as well as required types of repair, possible future damages and insufficiency of bearing capacity.

EFFECT: increased validity of object condition forecasting results and reduced labour intensiveness of control.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes an optical cuvette in which there is a dielectric diaphragm having a hole at the centre, and two electrodes lying on both sides of the diaphragm and connected to an electric power supply unit, a laser for probing the formed thermal lens, and a unit for measuring laser radiation with an input diaphragm, equipped with a semitransparent plate, lying at an angle of 45° to the incident laser beam and directing the radiation into the hole of the diaphragm of the cuvette, and a reflecting mirror lying behind the cuvette on the path of the laser beam. The apparatus also has a unit for monitoring stability of operation of the laser with an input diaphragm and a laser radiation modulator, lying on the path of the laser beam behind and in front of the semitransparent plate, respectively, and a control and recording unit. Outputs of the units for measuring laser radiation and monitoring stability of operation of the laser are connected to inputs of synchronising detectors whose outputs are connected to the input of the control and recording unit. The output of the latter is connected to the input of the laser radiation modulator.

EFFECT: high accuracy, sensitivity and reproducibility of measurements.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology; material quality control.

SUBSTANCE: method involves testing lubricant material sample in presence of air with stirring constant volume under optimum temperature selected with its dependence on lubricant base and a group of operational properties during a time interval characterizing equal oxidation degree taken into account. Acting in equal time intervals, absorption coefficient is measured for luminous flow absorbed by oxidized lubricant material by applying photometry methods. Viscosity and thermal oxidative stability coefficient Ktos are calculated by using relationship like Ktos = Ka μ0in, where Ka is the luminous flow absorption coefficient of oxidized lubricant material; μ0 and μin are the viscosities of oxidized and initial state lubricant, respectively. Graphic dependence of thermal oxidative stability coefficient against luminous flow absorption coefficient of oxidized lubricant material is plotted. Rate of oxidation end products release and their influence upon tested lubricant viscosity growth is determined from plot slope angle tangent with respect to abscissa axis after inflection point. The inflection point coordinates are used for determining the starting point the oxidation end products release begins.

EFFECT: high reliability of estimation method.

4 dwg

FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises determining the values of the inform-parameter for various reference petrols, plotting calibration dependence of the inform-parameter on the octane number, determining the value of the inform-parameter of a sample of petrol to be analyzed, determining octane number of the petrol to be analyzed from the calibration curve, and measuring density and temperature of the sample. The value of the inform-parameter is determined from measuring the surface tension of the sample. The octane number is calculated within temperature range 10-40oC.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determining.

1 tbl cl, dwg

FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises determining composition and concentration of phase in equilibrium two-phase mixture by analyzing heat effects of reactions.

EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities and reduced labor consumption.

FIELD: non-destructive inspection.

SUBSTANCE: temperatures at inner and outer surfaces of tested area of multilayer objects are registered periodically during predetermined time interval. Value of heat conductance coefficient of the layer of interest is set multiple and density of heat flow is calculated which heat flow goes through selected surface of tested area. For any value of heat conductance coefficient the calculated density is compared with really achieved value of density to be determined through he same surface of interest. Then that value of heat conductance coefficient is selected which meets the condition of comparison. Heat flew density is determined by means of reference plate which is mounted onto selected area of tested part. Temperatures at surfaces of reference plate are registered and density of heat flow is determined which goes through surface of reference plate and density of flow through surface of reference plate is determined which surface is adjacent to selected surface of tested part.

EFFECT: improved truth of data.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: measuring equipment.

SUBSTANCE: thermo-indicating paint is applied to metallic sample of symmetric section, prepared by thermal couples. Unevenly current sample is heated by electric current up to chosen temperature. Current ducts are cooled down concurrently. Sample is exposed for a preset time duration. Sample temperature field is registered. Distances from a chosen point on sample to points of preparation of thermal couples and line of transfer of color of indicator paint are determined. Graph of temperature distribution along sample length is built. Temperatures of color transfer are determined from aforementioned graph.

EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, higher speed of operation.

1 dwg

FIELD: measuring engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises measuring the output signal from the sensor that is set in the reaction chamber in the period of heat relaxation process. The cyclic process is converted into the pseudo-continuous one by means of formation of the transferring process so that to provide the heat-exchange Bio criterion to be constant and its value to range from 0.001 to 0.1. After the completion of the process, the heating is immediately stops. On reaching the concentration balance between the reaction chamber and the ambient fluid, the next heating cycle begins.

EFFECT: decreased power consumption and period of measuring.

1 cl

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: method can be used for measuring linear expansion coefficient of hard bodies within wide temperature range. Lattice period for whicker crystal is determined preliminary by X-ray method. Change in lattice period is calculated depending on temperature and coefficient to be found is determined while taking mentioned dependence into account.

EFFECT: reduced labor input.

1 tbl

FIELD: thermo-physical research.

SUBSTANCE: subject flat sample of known thickness through heat source of given specific power is brought to heat contact by plane with flat standard sample, having lesser thermal resistance, than subject sample, and additional heat source previously mounted thereon. External surfaces of subject and standard samples with thermo-isolated side surfaces are thermostatted at given temperature and temperature in contact plane is measured. Instead of researched sample, additional standard sample is mounted, identical to main one, efficient thermal resistance of standard samples is determined depending on specific power of additional heat sources in same temperature conditions, at which it is required to determine heat conductivity of subject sample. Then, subject sample is mounted again and specific power of additional heat source is selected, for which efficient thermal resistance of standard sample within error limits coincides with thermal resistance of standard sample, and its heat conductivity is determined.

EFFECT: increased precision.

1 dwg

FIELD: analytical methods.

SUBSTANCE: sample is heated together with pyrite to temperature Tn = (0.45...0.55)(TL-TS)+TS in container with magnesium oxide lock and, before hydrostatic weighing is performed, paraffin layer is deposited onto surface of sample. Summary content of gases is found in terms of following equation: where M1 and M1* are masses of sample before and after heating, respectively, g; M1' mass of sample after heating and deposition of paraffin, g; M2' mass of sample in water after heating and deposition of paraffin, g; V and V' are specific volume of distilled water at temperatures of corresponding weighing, cm3/g; Ta ambient temperature, °C; Th heating temperature of sample, °C; TL and TS are liquidus and solidus temperatures of test alloy, respectively, °C.

EFFECT: increased reproducibility and accuracy in testing aluminum alloy semimanufactured products for summary gas content.

1 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: the invention refers to the field of measurements of thermal condition of a solid body and a surrounding medium.

SUBSTANCE: the arrangement has a thermovision chamber and a converter( a sensor for definition of characteristics of heat emission). The sensor is a plate-"wall" of an arbitrary form out of elastic material in which an opening of a corresponding form is made. The form of the plate and the form of the opening are defined by configuration of the investigated field. The both surfaces of the plate are covered with thin layer of material with high thermal conduction - a foil. At that the foil directed to the investigated surface, covers the whole square of the plate of the sensor and the opening it , and from the other side - it also covers the whole square of the plate but it has an opening identical to the opening of the plate.

EFFECT: arrangement allows to define with high degree of accuracy and reliability the meanings of characteristics of thermal emission - a thermal flow and coefficient of thermal emission from a solid body in a gas medium enveloping it and also to cut down expenditures of time and to increase safety of the work of a man at conducting the indicated measurements.

3 dwg

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