Heat-resistant polycrystalline diamond composite

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of heat-resistant polycrystalline diamond composites for production of cutting elements. On the boundary of division on the substrate of ceramic material, metal or cermet applied is heat-resistant diamond plate, which contains a layer of first impregnating material, selected from VIII group of periodic system of chemical elements or eutectic composition of said elements and placed between lower surface of said heat-resistant diamond plate and upper surface of said substrate. Material of coating from boron nitride, graphite or aluminium oxide is applied on the surface of said diamond plate, except the surface on the boundary of division. After that, applied on each other heat-resistant diamond plate and substrate are subjected to thermal cycle, consisting of heating, temperature support and cooling, ensuring transition of, at least, part of said impregnating material into liquid state for migration into heat-resistant diamond plate and into said substrate in the area of the boundary of division for their connection to each other. Said first impregnating material is used in amount, ensuring, at least, 90% of its transition into material of said substrate and plate.

EFFECT: production of working elements of metal-processing instrument, external part of which possesses high hardness, with internal one possessing high shock viscosity, is ensured.

41 cl, 10 dwg

 

CLAIMS PRIORITY

[1] This application is a partial continuation of application for U.S. patent No. 12/056595, registered on March 27, 2008, which, in turn, is a translation of the application for French patent No. 0754061, registered on March 27, 2007, and has a priority of said application, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference to the latest.

BACKGROUND of the INVENTION

The technical field

[2] the Present invention relates to the production of heat-resistant polycrystalline (TSP) diamond composites, in which the diamond layer attached to the substrate.

Description of current level of technology

[3] Drilling tools presents drill bits equipped with cutting elements for cutting or grinding of materials such as rock. These cutting elements, which is the working part of the tool, in most cases manufactured using the substrate carbide, a hard but brittle material, which is applied to the layer of synthetic diamond. The fragility of the material of the cutting elements is a particularly serious disadvantage when such tools are used for drilling formations containing rocks of different hardness, which, due to the heterogeneity of the developing formation, can lead to shock Naga is oskam, which can lead to the formation of cracks in the cutting elements, thus contributing to their deterioration or breakage of the cutting elements.

[4] To reduce the risk of premature wear or breakage of the cutting elements of the cutting elements are created with the backing of screen printed cermet (ceramic-metal composite material), the inner part which is superior in ductility outer surface. Thus, the increased resistance of the inner part of the cutting element (due to the use of the plot, with a high content of binding phase) and at the same time maintaining good cutting ability (through the use of the plot, with low content of binding phase, which is in contact with the rock).

[5] To obtain such cutting elements, known as the cutting elements with gradient structure or a gradient characteristics, referred to as functionally gradient material (FGM), it was proposed to create a cermet low density with gradient of porosity, and impregnate their binding phase in order to increase the plasticity of the inner part of such a cermet grade. However, this method is not suitable, in particular, for systems of the tungsten carbide - cobalt (WC-Co), because it leads to the partial destruction of the carbide structure that existed prior to treatment, and, accordingly, do not provide the required characteristics the specifications specifications cutting element.

[6] it was Also proposed to create a cermet with a gradient composition, with a hard outer surface and a plastic inner part by natural (i.e. in the absence of external pressure) sintering in the solid phase multilayer element, each layer of which has its own composition. However, this method does not allow to achieve full compaction of the material and, accordingly, requires further expensive treatments hot isostatic pressing. In addition, the preparation of the cermet grade with a gradient composition is complex, as it requires a number of elementary layers of different composition, which can be applied to each other. Finally, this method, being complex and expensive, it is not possible to ensure continuity of the gradient composition. Accordingly, kermet, thus obtained, contains a sequence of layers with substantially different hardness and coefficient of expansion, for which there is a risk of delamination separation of adjacent layers along their border.

[7] in order to eliminate the disadvantages of solid-phase sintering proposed to produce such materials by natural liquid phase sintering, which allows you to quickly, at once, to obtain a material with a fully dense, uniform structure. However, the disadvantage of this method is one the significant weakening of the gradient composition by migration of fluid between the layers of small thickness. In addition, quite unexpectedly, it was found that the gradient of the composition remains intermittent, if the dwell time in the liquid state remains below a critical value, after which there is a complete homogenization of the cermet grade.

[8] for various reasons the above methods are not suitable for industrial production drilling tool with acceptable performance characteristics, such as wear resistance of the surface, as well as the ductility or toughness of the inner part.

[9] in Addition, in order to increase the service life of cutting tools, it has been proposed to be applied to the surface of the cermet hard coatings of nitrides, carbonitrides, oxides, or borides. Such methods are described, for example, in U.S. patent No. 4,548,786 and 4,610,931, descriptions of which are incorporated into the present application by reference to these patents. However, the drawback of these methods is that they only increase the resistance of the cermet grade abrasive wear; however, this increase in wear resistance is achieved only at small depth (a few microns). In addition, since the coating and the cutting element are different in nature, due to thermomechanical stress may crack or peel layer along the boundary between kermet and the diamond layer.

[10] it was Also suggested to combine the time to improve the wear resistance of the surface and the resistance of the cermet-type WC-Co, providing contact cermet grade, containing carbon in substochiometric quantities, with a saturated carbon in the gas phase (methane). Under the action of temperature carbon gas phase diffuses into the specified substochiometric kermet and reacts with the η-phase in accordance with the chemical equation 2C + Co3W3C (η-phase) → 3WC + 3SD that leads to the separation of cobalt, which migrate towards areas with a lower content of cobalt. However, the disadvantage of this method, described in particular in U.S. patent No. 4,743,515 (the description of which is incorporated into the present application by reference), is that the result is the gradient of the binding phase with a high content of cobalt 1-2 mm larger, and the inner part of the cermet grade remains fragile, because it consists of η-phase, and prone to cracking under the action of repeated shock loads.

[11] it was Also proposed to produce a cutting tool having a special structure, in particular a honeycomb structure, the advantages of which include a combination of high wear resistance and high toughness. With such functional microstructure of the cermet offer a compromise between the characteristics of plasticity and brittleness, which is of interest, but still insufficient for use in sukasana purposes. This composite material is the subject of U.S. patent No. 5,880,382 (the description of which is incorporated into the present application by reference).

[12] In General, known methods of attaching the polycrystalline diamond plate (also known in the art diamond layer to the substrate using a combination of high pressure and high temperature (WDT) to create a sintered polycrystalline diamond composite (PAC). The chemical bond between the diamond layer and the substrate are formed in the sintering process by connecting carbon bonds (in the diamond layer) with metallic bonds of the substrate. Mechanical fixing is ensured by the shape of the substrate and the diamond layer, the differences between the physical properties of the substrate and the diamond layer and the gradient of the interface between the substrate and the diamond layer.

[13] In the art will also use the leaching of the diamond layer in order to improve its resistance to abrasive wear and thermal stability. This leaching process usually removes metal-solvent catalyst (e.g., cobalt) from the whole of the diamond layer or any part of it. However, the removal of cobalt from the diamond layer can reduce the possibility of establishing a lasting connection between the specified layer and the substrate.

[14] ustasha application refers to the published patent application U.S. No. 2008/0185189 from 7 August 2008, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference. The reference describes a method for heat-resistant heavy-duty composite containing polycrystalline diamond plate (also known in the art diamond layer), which is established on a substrate. Polycrystalline diamond plate made of heat-resistant polycrystalline (TSP) diamond material and the substrate is made of ceramic, metal, or cermet grade. On the back (bottom) surface of the polycrystalline diamond plate on the front (upper) surface of the substrate supported by additional elements of the interface. These additional elements of the interface increase the strength of the connection polycrystalline diamond plate with the substrate. Between the rear surface of the specified polycrystalline diamond plate and the outer surface of the specified substrate is placed intermediate material (for example, the brazing alloy), contributing to the connection plate to the substrate. Then, to provide the specified connection by means of brazing process using high pressure and high temperature (e.g., brazing). These additional elements of the interface in combination with the use Prohm is the filling of brazing provide a solid connection of the diamond plate to the substrate, which allows you to reduce or eliminate the possibility of exfoliation.

[15] Under the impregnation means the enrichment of any liquid is completely dense system solid / liquid, in which at least the solid phase is in the form of crystals that can change shape due to the liquid is absorbed, resulting in higher energy stability of this system. This enrichment of the liquid occurs under the action of forces generated by the pressure of migration that exist in such systems. Infiltration - the enrichment of any liquid is not fully dense system solid / liquid under the action of only one force, caused by capillary action (also called capillary pressure). Impregnation comprises the third phase, called the unfused phase (gas phase), in addition to the two condensed phases (solid/liquid).

BRIEF description of the INVENTION

[16] According to one embodiments of the invention the method comprises the overlay on a substrate of heat-resistant diamond plate on the boundary, which contains a first layer of impregnating material located between the bottom surface of the specified heat-resistant diamond plate and the upper surface of the substrate; and impact on superimposed on each heat-resistant diamond plate, podlog is thermal cycle, consisting of heating, temperature maintenance and cooling, which converts at least part of the specified first impregnating material in the liquid state for migration as a heat-resistant diamond plate and the substrate in the region of the interface with the aim of integrating these heat-resistant diamond plate and the substrate to each other. Thus, there is a substrate treatment first impregnating material from the specified layer and infiltration heat-resistant diamond plate first impregnating material from the specified layer.

[17] the method also includes the education of the substrate by selecting a block of dense material formed by solid particles, dispergirovannykh in the binding phase, where on the surface the specified block has at least one portion of impregnation; ensure contact of the specified portions of impregnation on the surface of the specified block with a second impregnating material properties which contribute to the local enrichment block binding phase; and impacts to the specified block in contact with a second impregnating material suitable thermal cycle consisting of heating, temperature maintenance and cooling, which translates, at least part of the said second impregnating material and binding phase unit in the liquid state for local and gradual the frame of enrichment specified block of dense material binding phase by absorption through the specified area impregnation.

[18] this substrate may be a block kermet type WC - bundle, where the material ligament choose among Co, Ni and Fe, and where the first impregnating material produced from the same material ligaments.

[19] this substrate may be a block of tungsten carbide, where the first impregnating material is obtained from cobalt and where heat-resistant diamond plate is subjected to the leaching of cobalt for removing embedded cobalt atoms.

[20] According to another variant embodiment of the invention the method comprises: applying to the substrate a heat-resistant diamond plate according to the first border section, which contains a first layer of impregnating material located between the bottom surface of the specified heat-resistant diamond plate and the upper surface of the substrate; overlaying the specified substrate on the block impregnation formed from the second impregnating material at the second interface with the bottom surface of the substrate; and impact on superimposed on each heat-resistant diamond plate, the substrate and the block impregnation thermal cycle consisting of heating, temperature maintenance and cooling, which translates at least a portion of the first impregnating material in a liquid state for migration, as in heat-resistant diamond plate and the substrate in the border region section is for the purpose of connection of these heat-resistant diamond plate and the substrate between them, and which converts at least part of the second impregnating material in the liquid state for migration in the lower surface of the substrate for local and gradual enrichment of the indicated substrate.

[21] According to another variant of the invention, the method includes: education of the substrate by providing a contact area impregnation on the surface of a block of dense material with a block impregnation, where the specified block impregnation formed of any impregnating material, and the impact on the specified block of dense material and block the impregnation of the first thermal cycle consisting of heating, temperature maintenance and cooling, which translates, at least part of the said impregnating material in the liquid state for migration through the specified area impregnation on the surface of the substrate for local and gradual enrichment of the indicated substrate. After the formation of the substrate, the process also involves: applying a heat-resistant diamond plate enriched substrate on the interface, including the bottom surface of the specified heat-resistant diamond plate and the specified area impregnation on the surface enriched substrate; and impact on superimposed on each heat-resistant diamond plate and enriched substrate second thermal cycle consisting of heating the while, temperature maintenance and cooling, which translates, at least part of the said impregnating material in the liquid state for migration from enriched substrate in a heat-resistant diamond plate through the second interface in order to connect these heat-resistant diamond plate and enriched substrate between them.

[22] According to another variant of the invention, the method includes: a package containing the diamond plate, the lower surface of which rests on the upper surface of the substrate along the interface; and the impact on the specified package thermal cycle including heating, temperature maintenance and cooling, to cause the migration of atoms of the material impregnation specified in diamond plate across the border section with the aim of integrating these diamond plate and the substrate to each other.

[23] the method also includes local and gradual enrichment of the substrate through the upper or lower surface of the binding phase by impregnation. The enrichment method includes providing contact impregnating material to the surface of the substrate at the site of penetration and the impact on the above substrate and impregnating material thermal cycle consisting of heating, temperature maintenance and cooling, which translates at least a portion ukazannoj the impregnating material in the liquid state for migration through the specified area impregnation of the substrate with the aim of local and gradual enrichment of the indicated substrate.

[24] This method also provides for the presence of a specified layer of impregnating material along the interface between the bottom surface of the specified diamond plate and the upper surface of the specified substrate; however, the specified thermal cycle causes the migration of atoms impregnating material from the specified layer in these diamond plate and the substrate.

[25] As a variant, if the upper surface of the specified substrate contains an increased number of atoms impregnating material in the area of the interface with the bottom surface of the specified diamond plate, indicated thermal cycle causes the migration of atoms impregnating material from the enriched substrate in the diamond plate.

A BRIEF DESCRIPTION of GRAPHIC MATERIALS

[26] the Following is a more detailed but non-limiting description of the present invention with reference to the accompanying drawings, where

[27] On FIGA depicts a cross section of the cutting element of the drill tool, containing a substrate on which by a process of impregnation fixed diamond layer;

[28] On FIGU shows a transverse section of the package materials used to produce the cutting element shown in FIGA;

[29] On FIGS depicts the individual components of the package depicted in FIGU;

[30] FIGURE 2 is a graph Ter the systematic cycle of impregnation, used for batch processing of materials depicted on FIGU, in the manufacturing process of the cutting element shown in FIGA;

[31] FIGURE 3 is a scheme of obtaining cutting element depicted in FIGA, by impregnation;

[32] FIGURE 4 is a scheme for obtaining solid block of cermet grade with a solid outer surface and internal viscous part by impregnation;

[33] FIGURE 5 is a graph of thermal cycle of impregnation dense block cermet grade with a solid outer surface and a viscous inner part;

[34] FIG.6 is a diagram of a section of dense cermet grade, impact strength of the inner part of which was enhanced by impregnation;

[35] FIG.7 is a graph showing the relationship between the height of the cermet grade and content binding phase;

[36] FIG is a scheme of obtaining diamond plate, attached to a dense block of cermet grade with a solid outer surface and internal viscous part, by impregnation;

[37] On FIGA depicts a cross section of the cutting element of the drill tool, containing a substrate on which by a process of impregnation fixed diamond layer;

[38] On FIGU shows a transverse section of the package materials used for obtaining cutting element depicted in FIGA;

[39] On FIGS depicted in sukatani package materials and presents a more realistic change of the gradient content of the binding phase;

[40] FIGURE 10 is a circuit receiving the cutting element shown in FIGA, by impregnation.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION of GRAPHIC MATERIALS

[41] On FIGA depicted in the cross section of the cutting element of the drill tool containing substrate 10, on which by a process of impregnation fixed diamond layer 12. Polycrystalline diamond plate (also known in the art diamond layer) 12 is attached to the upper surface of the substrate 10. Polycrystalline diamond plate 12 is made of heat-resistant polycrystalline (TSP) diamond material and the substrate 10 may be made of ceramic material, metal or cermet grade (metal ceramic composites). In addition, the substrate 10 may also represent a block of functionally graded dense sintered cermet grade as described in the present application description (this option is indicated by the dotted lines 52; see also FIGS and line 52 changes the gradient content of the binding phase).

[42] On FIGU additionally depicts a package of materials used for obtaining cutting element depicted in FIGA. On FIGS shows the individual components of the above package, separated from each other. To make the cutting element shown in FIGA create thermosta the cue polycrystalline diamond material of the insert 12. Selected original heavy-duty material, such as diamond, processed using high pressure and high temperature (WDT) to obtain the sintered plate heavy-duty material. As starting material can be selected and other materials, such as cubic boron nitride or a mixture of diamond and cubic boron nitride. In the process VDT use a catalyst, such as cobalt, contributing to the formation of connections between particles of the diamond; this catalyst material is moved in the so-called internodes. The catalyst material can flow from the substrate, attached to the said polycrystalline diamond plate, or can be mixed with the diamond powder when forming plate. If you use substrate-catalyst, such a substrate after processing is completed VDT removed, for example, grind, leaving only or mostly only the plate of polycrystalline diamond material.

[43] afterwards, the plate of polycrystalline diamond material may be subjected to acid leaching with the purpose of obtaining a plate of heat-resistant polycrystalline (TSP) diamond material. Can be used any known process of leaching. For example, all the plate material can be immersed in desire is my remedy for acid leaching. Or treatment with acid may be only a part of said plate. The choice of leaching is provided to the specialists in this field of technology. It should also be noted that for some species the intended use of the plate 12 in the leaching does not need.

[44] the Surface of the plate 12, which must be connected to the substrate 10, for example the lower surface of the plate 12, cover with a thin layer 14 of impregnating material-catalyst, such as cobalt (or other material of the VIII group of the periodic system of chemical elements or any eutectic alloy of these elements). Or instead, a thin layer 14 of impregnating material-catalyst (cobalt) may be covered with the upper surface of the substrate 10. Or the same layer 14 impregnating material-catalyst (cobalt) may be covered as the lower surface of the plate 12 and the upper surface of the substrate 10. In any case, it is important to ensure the presence of a thin layer 14 of impregnating material-catalyst (cobalt) between the two surfaces of the substrate 10 and the diamond plate 12, to be connected. The amount of impregnation of the catalyst is determined so that in the process described in this application impregnation and infiltration into the substrate 10 and the plate 12 has got at least 90% (in the preferred embodiment, 95%, is in an even more preferred variant more than 98%).

[45] subsequently, the substrate 10 and the diamond plate 12 is folded together, placing the diamond plate 12 over the substrate 10, as shown in FIGV. The shape of the lower surface plate 12 and the upper surface of the substrate 10 can be selected so that these surfaces contain appropriate flat areas on the boundary of section 19, or as mutually complementary surface on the boundary of section 19, as described in published patent application U.S. No. 2008/0185189 from 7 August 2008, When folding of these structures layer 14 impregnating the catalyst is between diamond plate 12 and the substrate 10.

[46] On the surface of the heat-resistant plate 12, which will not have to come into contact with the substrate 10, for example, all the surface of the plate 12, except for the bottom, a thin layer 16 of the protective coating, for example of graphite, boron nitride or aluminum oxide. In the preferred embodiment, on the other unprotected surface of the substrate 10 also apply a thin layer 16 of the protective coating. Specialists in the art will understand that the layers 14 and 16 can be depicted on FIGU violation of the scale, just to show their presence and relative location.

[47] As shown in FIGURE 3, the assembled package containing substrate 10, the diamond plate 12, impregnating layer 14 and layer the coating 16, depicted on FIGU, placed in a crucible 38, which is chemically inert in the temperature range of the heat treatment, for example made of aluminum oxide, which is placed in an oven 39, providing the atmosphere with the desired properties; it may be a vacuum furnace or a furnace that uses nitrogen or argon. Furnace 39 should provide the possibility of achieving a sufficient temperature so that the impregnating material layer 14 has reached the fully or partially liquid state. In addition, this oven should provide high speed heating and cooling, so you can adjust the exposure time of the packet at a temperature above the eutectic temperature (above which occur impregnation and infiltration). Specified furnace can be a resistance furnace, induction furnace, microwave oven, or the installation of spark plasma sintering (SIS).

[48] In the furnace 39 package is subjected to high temperature heat treatment (for example, in the range of 1300-1400°C) in a protective atmosphere. As a protective atmosphere can be used in vacuum, nitrogen or argon. The specified high temperature heat treatment lasts the necessary exposure time. In the process the specified heat treatment and, in particular, at high temperature to be maintained within the required time, the layer 14 impregnating material-the cat who lyst (cobalt) reaches a partial or complete change of phase state with the transition from solid to liquid. In the liquid state of the specified layer 14 impregnating material-catalyst (cobalt) plays the role of the impregnating material, which penetrates through migration (see arrows) inside the substrate 10 (by impregnation), and the diamond plate 12 (through infiltration) in the field, respectively, the upper and lower surfaces that define the boundary 19 between the diamond plate 12 and the substrate 10. Migration of atoms impregnating material-catalyst (cobalt) layer 14 contributes to the binding of the diamond plate 12 to the substrate 10. The material of the protective coating 16 prevents the penetration of the atoms of the material-catalyst (cobalt) layer 14 through any other surface other than the bottom surface of the plate 12 and the upper surface of the substrate 10. This protection is important for maintaining the heat resistance, achieved during the preceding process, controlled leaching of cobalt, especially for the upper surface of the plate 12. In addition, it affects the kinetics of the migration of the impregnating material-catalyst within both the substrate 10 and the plate 12, allowing for controlled gradual distribution of phases.

[49] After the specified heat treatment allocation (see the dotted line 18) a cobalt concentration depends on the distance to the initial interface 19 between the diamond plate 12 and the substrate 10 (see FIGA). Linking the diamond plate 12 to the substrate 10 is due to migration of cobalt on the boundary of section 19. The resistance of these connections depends on the size of the carbide grains and the original content of cobalt in the substrate, and the surface covered with cobalt. Thus, the diamond plate 12 contains a plot of 15 top surface, used for leaching cobalt, providing resistance and abrasion resistance, and a portion 17 of the bottom surface of the diamond plate 12 through the interface 19 is characterized by a continuous distribution 18 cobalt content, which enables linking of the diamond plate 12 to the substrate 10 and represents the elastic phase.

[50] the Heat treatment, which is subjected to the package shown in FIG 1B, is determined by thermal cycle, which is, as shown, for example, in figure 2, the phase of 25 heating the package to the eutectic melting point of The layer 14 impregnating material-catalyst (cobalt), then the phase 26, in which the temperature is maintained at a higher value than Those, until a temperature exposure of TM, at which the specified bundle was incubated for time tmthen the stage 27, which is very rapid cooling of the specified package to a temperature below Those, and, finally, the stage 28 slower the CSOs cooling to ambient temperature.

[51] the Threshold temperature (holding temperature) need not be significantly different from the temperature, but the difference should be sufficient to obtain a sufficient amount of liquid from the layer 14 of material-catalyst (cobalt), ensure wetting and migration of atoms of the specified layer. For example, this temperature may not exceed 100°C, and in the preferred embodiment, less than 50°C.

[52] the Total time ttexceeding the minimum temperature impregnation Those, usually less than 15 minutes, and holding temperature TM, and the exposure time tmare chosen in such a way as to provide the desired distribution of the atoms of the layer 14 of material-catalyst (cobalt) on both sides of the border section. The parameters of this thermal cycle can be selected by a person skilled in the technical field.

[53] the Primary cooling temperature exposure of TM to the minimum temperature impregnation Those carried out relatively quickly in order to avoid uncontrolled migration of atoms impregnating material-catalyst (cobalt) near the interface. For this purpose it is desirable that the cooling rate exceeded 40°C/min, in the preferred embodiment is 50°C/min, and even more preferred embodiment, more than 60°C/min, However, to avoid the package overpressure at which rajini preferably, to the cooling rate did not exceed 100°C/min Below the eutectic temperature Te, given that the further migration of atoms impregnating material is already impossible, cooling is carried out with a lower speed to avoid in the package excessive residual stresses, which could cause defects of the cutting element.

[54] the Substrate 10 used in the cutting element (e.g., drilling or cutting tool), is an element in the form of a block having generally the shape of a parallelepiped or cylinder, obtained by powder metallurgy, and consisting of a material which contains, on the one hand, solid particles, for example particles of carbides of metals and in particular of tungsten carbides, and on the other hand, knitting phase, which is a metal or metal alloy which is in contact with carbides able at a certain temperature to form the eutectic, melting point which is below the melting temperature as specified carbides and the specified metal or metal alloy. As the specified metal or metal alloy may use cobalt, and iron, Nickel or a mixture of these metals. In addition, this pungent phase may contain alloying metals, the total content of which is may reach 15% by weight, but usually does not exceed 1% by weight. As mentioned alloying metals may be used copper to improve electrical conductivity), silicon, reducing the surface tension relative to a system consisting of a carbide and a binding phase, or carbidopa elements that can form mixed carbide or carbides of the form MxWithyother than tungsten carbide. In particular, these elements include manganese, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, titanium, zirconium and hafnium.

[55] in Addition to these basic elements, the composition of the binding phase may include alloying elements, which are usually contained in such materials and modify the form and/or slow the growth of solid particles. Such elements are well-known specialists in this field of technology. Finally, the chemical composition of these materials include inevitable impurities introduced during the preparation of these materials. Such impurities are known to specialists in this field of technology.

[56] For some applications by adding diamond particles to increase wear resistance of the cutting elements. Such diamond particles are added to the powder mixture used to obtain the described unit by sintering. In General, after sintering the block is dense and consists of a solid part is, dispersed in the binding phase.

[57] In the case of WC-Co, the content of cobalt in the eutectic composition, which is formed at a certain temperature is about 65% by weight. Of course, performance of block achieved thus depend on the ratio of carbide (carbide) and a metal or metal alloy. In the case of materials, drilling tools, the content of the binding phase, as a rule, considerably lower than the corresponding rate of eutectic and significantly lower than 35% by weight. In fact, the lower the content of the binding phase, the higher the hardness and, consequently, the wear resistance of the material. However, the lower the content of the binding phase, the lower the impact strength of the respective cermet grade. These properties of the cermet well-known specialists in this field of technology.

[58] in Addition, the properties of the cermet grade also depends on the size and shape of carbide crystals.

[59] To improve the properties of the unit substrate, a method for enrichment of the block substrate binding phase and possible changes in its composition by impregnation using as source material sintered dense cermet grade.

[60] the Phenomenon of impregnation is possible in two-phase systems (solid - pungent phase)that satisfy certain conditions. Respectively, this pungent phase is at a temperature of impregnation (T≥is (e) to moisten the solid particles, the solid particles must be partially soluble in the specified binding phase at a specified temperature of impregnation, and the system must be Stellovsky maturation with change or no change of form of solid particles and without necessarily having to increase the size of these particles due to the phenomena of dissolution and re-deposition.

[61] For the implementation of impregnation is necessary to ensure the contact of the cermet grade, the content of the binding phase which is less than the critical value (for a WC-Co - 35% by weight), with an impregnating material of suitable composition and bring the entire system to a temperature at which the mentioned impregnating material and pungent phase are liquid or at least partially liquid. When these conditions is binding transfer phase inside the kermet and, accordingly, the enrichment of the specified kermet binding phase. In General, in the preferred embodiment, the composition of the impregnating material must be identical to the eutectic composition of the respective cermet grades or similar to the last. In this case, the impregnation increases the amount of binding phase in the cermet grade without changing the chemical composition of the material. This process can continue until saturation kermet binding phase. For kermet type tungsten carbide - cobalt with an impregnating material of the same nature saturation is achieved PR is the content of cobalt in kermet about 35% by weight.

[62] the composition of the impregnating material may differ from the composition of a binding phase of the cermet grade. In this case, not only the enrichment of kermet binding phase, but also the change of its chemical composition and, possibly, the chemical composition of the carbide phase.

[63] the Phenomenon of impregnation is activated under the influence of thermal conditions, and, accordingly, its kinetics is associated not only with temperature but also with the original content of the binding phase in the cermet grade, as well as the size and shape of the solid particles.

[64] typically, the impregnation is used for enrichment blocks kermet binding phase by immersing one of their ends to the fluid, which is a eutectic composition of the respective cermet grade. The disadvantage of this method is that the migration of the impregnating material occurs not only through the zone (zone) contact, but also through the contact surface area or areas of contact, making it difficult to control the shape of the gradient.

[65] In view of the above, to obtain the desired result, which is opposite to the result, usually obtained by immersion proposed the following process and procedure for use of impregnation to create functionally graded unit suitable for use as the substrate 10.

[66] figure 4 depicts the subject processing block 31, katalysatoren of material, consisting of a binding phase interspersed with solid particles. The block 31 is in contact with the tablet 32, consisting of impregnating material, which, starting from a certain temperature, it has the ability to migrate inside the block 31 by impregnation. The block 31 has usually the form of a cylinder or a parallelepiped and has a bottom surface 33, one or more side surfaces 35 and the upper surface 36. Tablet 32 impregnating material is in contact with the bottom surface 33 of the block 31. The area of contact 34 32 pills impregnating material and the bottom surface 33 of the block 31, also called plot impregnation, substantially less than the area of the bottom surface 33 of the block 31. The shape of the resulting gradient is determined, in particular, the location and size of land impregnation relative to the bottom surface 33 of the cermet grade.

[67] the Side surface or the surface 35 and the upper surface 36 of the block 31 is protected by a layer 37 of the coating material. The specified coating material, such as boron nitride, is intended, on the one hand, to prevent the transmission of impregnating material through the protective layer, and on the other hand, change the kinetics of migration of the binding phase in the specified block and the characteristics of the shape of the gradient.

[68] the referenced Assembly, consisting of a block 31 with the coating layer 37 on the tablet 32 impregnating material is material, placed in the crucible 38, which is chemically inert in the temperature range of the heat treatment, for example made of aluminum oxide, which is placed in the oven 39, providing the atmosphere with the desired properties; it may be a vacuum furnace or a furnace that uses nitrogen or argon. Specified furnace should provide the possibility of achieving a sufficient temperature to impregnating material and pungent phase block was fully or partially liquid state; for example, for a block of WC-Co, the average is 1350°C (or even 1320°C). In addition, this oven should provide high speed heating and cooling, so you can adjust the exposure time specified Assembly at a temperature above the eutectic temperature of the treated system, above which occur impregnation; for cermet type WO-Co it is about 1300°C. the Specified furnace can be a resistance furnace, induction furnace, microwave oven, or the installation of spark plasma sintering (SIS).

[69] After that, the block is subjected to a thermal cycle, which includes first heating to a temperature not lower than the temperature at which at least the contact zone 4 between the tablet 32 impregnating material and the bottom surface 33 of the block 31 moves in the liquid state. Heating ensures there are thus, to ensure that the temperature inside the unit was above the melting point of the eutectic of the specified block.

[70] In a preferred embodiment, use of the natural temperature gradient of the furnace, through which the heating is carried out so that the temperature inside the tablet 32 does not exceed the melting temperature of impregnating material.

[71] Thus, the impregnating material penetrates through migration (see arrows) in the inner part of the block in the region of the contact zone between the tablet impregnating material and the bottom surface of the specified block. On the other hand, the migration of the impregnating material through the outer side wall 35 or through the upper wall 36 of the block does not occur. Accordingly, the enrichment unit impregnating material is substantially in the interior zone 41, which starts from the bottom wall 33 and goes inside the block.

[72] more specifically, the heat treatment is, as shown in FIGURE 5, the phase 45 heated to the melting point of the eutectic, then step 46, which keep the temperature to a higher value than Those, until a temperature exposure of TM, at which the specified block was incubated for time tmthen step 47, where there is a very rapid cooling of the specified block to a temperature below Those, and finally, stage 48 more medlennovolnova to the ambient temperature.

[73] At the stage of heating below the temperature of The impregnating material hardens and undergoes shrinkage. When the temperature exceeds Those on the contact surface is formed of eutectic liquid.

[74] the Threshold temperature (holding temperature) should not be significantly different from the temperature, but the difference should be sufficient to obtain a sufficient amount of liquid, ensure wetting and fluid migration, abiding in the state of chemical equilibrium with impregnated cermet grades. For example, this temperature may not exceed 100°C, and in the preferred embodiment, less than 50°C.

[75] Total time ttexceeding the minimum temperature impregnation Those, usually less than 15 minutes, and holding temperature TM, and the exposure time tmare chosen in such a way as to provide the desired distribution of the impregnating material within a block. The principles of choice of these parameters is known to specialists in this field of technology.

[76] the Cooling from the threshold temperature to the eutectic temperature of the impregnation is carried out quickly in order to avoid uncontrolled migration of the impregnating material.

[77] For this purpose, it is desirable that the cooling rate exceeded 40°C/min, in the preferred embodiment is 50°C/min, and even more preferred embodiment, more than 60°is/min. However, in order to avoid the block excessive stress, it is desirable that the cooling rate did not exceed 100°C/min

[78] Below the eutectic temperature Te, given that the further migration of atoms impregnating material is already impossible, cooling is carried out with a lower speed to avoid in the specified block excessive residual stresses.

[79] this approach get functionally graded units (which, for example, can be used as the substrate 10 in the package depicted in FIGU), similar to that shown in the section on FIGS and 6, in which the inner part 50 is characterized by a high content of binding phase, and the outer area 51 is characterized by a low content of binding phase. Due to the low content of binding phase outer area 51 has an extremely high hardness and, consequently, extremely high wear resistance, but low toughness. The inner area 50, on the contrary, it has high impact strength due to the high concentration of binding phase.

[80] Due to the above-described impregnation process, which corresponds to a gradual enrichment kermet binding phase, the content of the binding phase changes continuously and decreases with distance from zone 50 in the direction of the active (working) is ernestam block. This is shown schematically by dashed lines 52a, 52b, C, 52d constant binding phase figure 6 and figure 7 in the form of a graph of the distribution of binding phase from the lower surface to the upper surface of the dense cermet grade. Cm. also FIGS and 9C, in which the dotted lines 52 shows a more realistic change of the gradient content of the binding phase. Also, line 52, characterizing the content of the binding phase is shown schematically in FIGA and 1B.

[81] For a block of cermet grade tungsten carbide - cobalt binder content should be less than 35% by weight. When exceeding this value, the impregnation process is terminated. To enrich this unit its own binding phase and provide contact specified block with an impregnating material consisting of a mixture of tungsten carbide and cobalt, where the content of cobalt may vary from 35% to 65% by weight. For a system of WC-Co the specified mix in the preferred embodiment, is a eutectic composition with a binder content of 65% by weight. This mixture of tungsten carbide and cobalt homogenized for several hours, preferably using the turbula homogenizer. After that, this mixture pressed, for example, at a low temperature in the form of a simple or mixed with cement in a water substrate. If the impregnating material is pressed when low the first temperature, it has the form of tablets, which should be in contact with the subject processing block, protected by a coating. If the impregnating material consists of a mixture of powder with cement in a water substrate, it can be applied by brush on a specific area protected by a coating unit, where the specified area can have any shape. It is also possible the application of an impregnating material using plasma or laser projection. The advantage of applying with a brush or projection is that the impregnating material can be applied to any area of the block, the form of which may be more complex than a parallelepiped or a cylinder.

[82] it Should be noted that for each to be processed and protected by a coating of block size and shape of the plot of impregnation should be adapted to the shape of the gradient that you want to create in the specified block. Specialists in the art knows how to adapt these parameters.

[83] In the above-described embodiment of the invention provides protection of the outer surface to be processed of a block of the coating material 37. However, if the plot impregnation is limited and does not increase at the temperature of impregnation, the protection of the outer surface of the unit cover is not necessary. In fact, it is possible to limit the area of one impregnation is a party, so the migration will occur exclusively in the inner part of the block along its axis.

[84] in Addition, it was found that the presence of the coating layer on the outer surface of the block has a significant impact on the migration of the impregnating material in the specified block. In particular, it was found that the coating layer allows to obtain a much more significant gradient of the binding phase and, accordingly, the gradient of hardness than can be obtained in the absence of coverage.

[85] This effect is further illustrated by two examples, both of which relate to the processing of dense block of tungsten carbide - cobalt, where the content of cobalt before processing is 13% by weight, and the impregnating material is a tablet of tungsten carbide - cobalt eutectic composition, i.e. containing cobalt of about 65% by weight. In both cases, the Assembly is placed in a crucible of alumina in a resistance furnace and heated to a temperature of 1350°C (the temperature of the sample, which was incubated for 3 minutes.

[86] In the first example, the outer walls of the specified block, which should not have been in contact with the impregnating material, were protected by a coating of boron nitride. After processing, the hardness near the outer surface of the block was about 1370 points of hardness on the Vickers scale (HV), and the minimum rate is vergoti in the inner part of the block was only 890 HV, i.e. the difference in hardness was about 480 HV, and this difference in hardness can be achieved at a distance of about 5 mm

[87] In the second example, the outer walls of the specified block was not protected by the coating layer. The maximum recorded rate the hardness of 1200 HV on the outer surface of the block, and the minimum rate of hardness in the inner part of the block was 1010 HV, i.e. the difference was only 190 HV.

[88] the Difference between these two results can be explained by different reasons. In particular, it can be assumed that the coating material increases the energy of the interface between a binding phase and a carbide phase and, accordingly, affect the migration of the binding phase inside the block.

[89] the Advantage of the above process, allowing to make the blocks, which, in turn, made the cutters, it is possible to obtain blocks, the outer of which has a high hardness and an inner high fracture toughness.

[90] As described above, the block 31 may be used as the substrate 10 when creating a cutting element. Accordingly, after completion of the impregnation unit, as described above with reference to FIGURE 4-7, to the upper surface 36 of the specified block (see FIGA and 1B) attach diamond plate 12 by processing impregnation using temporarily the CSOs layer 14 impregnating material (cobalt) (FIGURE 3). In this case, the upper surface of the block will surface 36 opposite the area of contact 34. Alternatively, the diamond plate 12 is connected with the surface 33 of the block 31 by processing impregnation with or without using the intermediate layer 14 impregnating material (cobalt), as described in more detail below.

[91] According to another variant of the invention the impregnation process unit 31 and the accession process of the diamond plate 12 can be combined in one cycle of heat treatment. The following description refers to FIG, which is a scheme of obtaining diamond plate, attached to a dense block of cermet grade with a solid outer surface and internal viscous part, by impregnation. The block 31 is made of a material consisting of a binding phase interspersed with solid particles. The block 31 is in contact with the tablet 32, consisting of impregnating material, which, starting from a certain temperature, it has the ability to migrate inside the block 31 by impregnation. The block 31 has usually the form of a cylinder or a parallelepiped and has a bottom surface 33, one or more side surfaces 35 and the upper surface 36. Tablet 32 impregnating material is in contact with the bottom surface 33 of the block 31. The area of contact 34 32 pills impregnating the material of the block 31, also called plot impregnation, substantially less than the area of the bottom surface 33 of the block 31. The shape of the gradient is determined, in particular, the location and size of the plot impregnation relative to the bottom surface 33 of the cermet grade.

[92] On the top surface 36 of the block 31 is placed a heat-resistant polycrystalline diamond plate 12. The shape of the lower surface plate 12 and the upper surface of the block substrate 31 can be chosen in such a way that the surface contained the respective flat areas or mutually complementary surface on the boundary, as described in published patent application U.S. No. 2008/0185189 from 7 August 2008, the Surface of the plate 12, which must be connected to the block-substrate 31, for example the lower surface of the plate 12, cover with a thin layer 14 of impregnating material-catalyst, such as cobalt (or other material of the VIII group of the periodic system of chemical elements or any eutectic alloy of these elements). Or instead, a thin layer 14 of impregnating material-catalyst (cobalt) may be covered with the upper surface 36 of the block-substrate 31. Or layer 14 of material-catalyst (cobalt) may be covered as the lower surface of the plate 12 and the upper surface of the block substrate 31. In any case, it is important to ensure the availability of oncolo layer 14 material-catalyst (cobalt) between the two surfaces of the block-substrate 31 and the diamond plate 12, to be connected.

[93] the Side surface or the surface 35 of the block 31, and the open surface of the diamond plate 12 is protected by a layer 37 of the coating material. The specified coating material, such as boron nitride, is intended, on the one hand, to prevent the transmission of impregnating material through the protective layer, and on the other hand, change the kinetics of migration of the binding phase in the specified block 31 and the characteristics of the shape of the gradient.

[94] the referenced Assembly consisting of block 31, the plate 12, the coating layer 37, an impregnating layer 14 and tablets 32 impregnating material placed in the crucible 38, which is chemically inert in the temperature range of the heat treatment, for example made of aluminum oxide, which is placed in an oven 39, providing the atmosphere with the desired properties; it may be a vacuum furnace or a furnace that uses nitrogen or argon. After that, the specified block is subjected to a thermal cycle, such as shown in figure 2 and 5, where the arrows indicate the direction of migration by impregnation and/or infiltration. The described process is the cutting element with the configuration shown in FIGA.

[95] As mentioned above, the block-substrate 31, enriched by means of impregnation may be used as the substrate 10 in the applications shown in FIGA and 1B. For mounting the diamond plate 12 when enaut the impregnation process using layer 14. Alternatively, the block-substrate 31 may be reversed; in this case, the diamond plate 12 fixed to the lower surface 33 of the block 31 at the site of contact 34. This option is shown in FIGA and 9B.

[96] On FIGA depicts a cross section of the cutting element of the drill tool containing the block-substrate 31, on which by a process of impregnation fixed diamond plate 12. Polycrystalline diamond plate (also known in the art diamond layer) 12 is attached to the bottom surface 33 of the block 31. On FIGU shows the package materials used to produce the cutting element shown in FIGA. Since the impregnation has occurred on the bottom surface 33 of the block 31 through the area of contact 34 (see FIGURE 4-7), impregnating catalyst material (e.g., cobalt), contributing to the mounting plate 12, is already present in the specified area of the bottom surface 33. Thus, the use of impregnating layer 14, as shown in FIGV, there is no need (although if desired, this layer can be provided). The shape of the lower surface plate 12 and the bottom surface of the block substrate 31 can be chosen in such a way that the surface contained the respective flat areas on the boundary of section 19, or as mutually complementary surface on the border once the ate 19, as described in published patent application U.S. No. 2008/0185189 on August 7, 2008

[97] On the surface of the heat-resistant plate 12, which will not have to touch the block-substrate 31, a thin layer 37 of the protective coating, for example of graphite, boron nitride or aluminum oxide. In the preferred embodiment, on the exposed surface of the block substrate 31 also apply a thin layer 37 of the protective coating. Specialists in the art will understand that the layer 37 can be shown on FIGU violation of the scale, for the sole purpose to show his presence and relative location.

[98] As shown in FIGURE 10, the referenced Assembly consisting of block 31, the plate 12 and the coating layer 37, is placed in the crucible 38, which is chemically inert in the temperature range of the heat treatment, for example made of aluminum oxide, which is placed in an oven 39, providing the atmosphere with the desired properties; it may be a vacuum furnace or a furnace that uses nitrogen or argon. After that, the specified block is subjected to a thermal cycle, such as shown in figure 2 and 5, where the arrows indicate the direction of migration. The described process is the cutting element with the configuration shown in FIGA.

[99] the Processes described in this application allow you to create cutting elements for heads of burbaguena, for example trehalose bits, polycrystalline diamond crowns or heat-resistant polycrystalline crowns, impregnated bits for oil and gas or crowns roller bits for drilling rocks or explosive pits, mining, building, and tools for materials processing.

[100] the Cutting elements, manufactured with the use described in this application process, can be installed on any instrument for oil and gas, mining, and construction, especially in any machines for earthworks. These include, in particular, the cutters used in mining combines local or continuous action, drilling rigs for drilling itself workings or in the tunneling harvesters designed for soft rocks. Such tools may also include a disk elements used, in particular, combines with penetration on the total cross section, for example the tunneling harvesters or drilling rigs, or the crowns of plants rotary or percussive-rotary drilling.

[101] This process can also be used for the manufacture of the working elements of the machine tool, where it is desirable to create an extremely hard working surface on the body, having raised the Oh toughness.

[102] Although the preferred variants of the method and device according to the present invention illustrated by the accompanying drawings and described in the above detailed description, it should be considered that the present invention is not limited to the described options and allows you to make various changes without departing from the essence of the invention described in the specification and defined in the following claims.

1. The method of obtaining heat-resistant polycrystalline diamond composite materials for the cutting element, comprising the steps are:
on a substrate of ceramic material, metal or cermet grade impose a heat-resistant diamond plate on the boundary, which contains a first layer of impregnating material selected from the VIII group of the periodic system of chemical elements or eutectic composition of these elements and is placed between the bottom surface of the specified heat-resistant diamond plate and the upper surface of the specified substrate,
put a coating of boron nitride, graphite or aluminum oxide on the surface of the specified diamond plate, except the surface on the boundary, and
superimposed on each specified heat-resistant diamond plate and the substrate is subjected to a thermal cycle consisting of heating, the support is Jania temperature and cooling with the translation of at least part of the first impregnating material in the liquid state for migration as a heat-resistant diamond plate and the substrate in the region of the interface for the connection of these heat-resistant diamond plate and the substrate among themselves,
when this use is mentioned first impregnating material in an amount to provide at least 90% of its penetration into the material of the above-mentioned substrate and the plate.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the coating material prevents migration of the first impregnating material in the heat-resistant diamond plate through a surface on which is applied the specified coating material.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the coating material effect on the kinetics of the migration of the first impregnating material in the specified plate by infiltration, thus providing a gradual distribution of the phases.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it further includes the steps of forming a substrate on which:
choose the block kermet formed solid particles, dispergirovannykh in the binding phase, where on the surface the specified block has at least one portion of impregnation,
provide the contact specified area impregnation on the surface of the specified block with a second impregnating the Mat is the Rial, properties which contribute to the local enrichment block binding phase, and
put this block in contact with a second impregnating material, a suitable thermal cycle consisting of heating, temperature maintenance and cooling, which translates, at least part of the said second impregnating material and a binding phase unit in the liquid state for local and gradual enrichment of the specified block binding phase by absorption through the specified area impregnation.

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that thermal cycle for the first impregnating material and thermal cycle for the second impregnating material is performed simultaneously.

6. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that it further includes the steps are:
put a coating material on at least part of the surface of the block kermet, leaving on the surface, at least one portion of impregnation,
while specified coating material prevents migration of the second impregnating material through the walls of the block, causing the specified coating material.

7. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that the coating material effect on the kinetics of migration of the binding phase in the specified block by impregnation, thus providing a gradual distribution of the binding phase.

8. The method according to claim 6, great for the decomposing those that the coating layer contains a material selected from the group of materials including boron nitride, graphite and alumina.

9. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the solid particles contained in the material specified block, include solid particles of metal carbides, and the specified pungent phase represents Co, Ni, Fe or a mixture of these metals.

10. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the second impregnating material contains solid particles dispersed in the binding phase, and these solid particles and pungent phase may differ from the solid particles and the binding phase of the specified block.

11. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the material contained in the specified block is a cermet grade type WC-Co or WC-Co and/or Ni and/or Fe), and the first and second impregnating materials are of type WC-M where M is one or more metals selected from the group comprising Co, Ni and Fe.

12. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the substrate is a block of kermet type WC - bundle, where the material ligament choose among Co, Ni and Fe, and the first impregnating material produced from the same material ligaments.

13. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the substrate is a block of tungsten carbide, the first impregnating material derived from cobalt, and after the heat cycle specified heat-resistant and is maznyj plate is subjected to the leaching of cobalt, for removing embedded cobalt atoms.

14. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the substrate is a cermet grade, and the first impregnating material binds the specified heat-resistant diamond plate with the specified kermet due to migration of atoms of the first impregnating material in the above heat-resistant diamond plate and the substrate on the surface of the partition.

15. The method of obtaining heat-resistant polycrystalline diamond composite materials for the cutting element, comprising the steps are:
on a substrate of ceramic material, metal or cermet grade impose a heat-resistant diamond plate according to the first border section, which contains a first layer of impregnating material selected from the VIII group of the periodic system of chemical elements or eutectic composition of these elements and is placed between the bottom surface of the specified heat-resistant diamond plate and the upper surface of the specified substrate,
impose the specified substrate on the block impregnation formed from the second impregnating material selected from the VIII group of the periodic system of chemical elements or eutectic composition of these elements and placed on the second boundary with the lower surface of the substrate,
put a coating of boron nitride, graphite or OK the IDA aluminum on the surface of the specified diamond plate in addition to the surface on the boundary, and a specified surface of the substrate, in addition to the surfaces of the first and second interfaces, and
superimposed on each heat-resistant diamond plate, the substrate and the block impregnation is subjected to a thermal cycle consisting of heating, temperature maintenance and cooling, to provide a translation of at least part of the first impregnating material in the liquid state for migration, as in heat-resistant diamond plate and the substrate in the region of the interface for the connection of these heat-resistant diamond plate and the substrate to each other, and to provide translation of at least part of the second impregnating material in the liquid state for migration in the lower surface of the substrate with the provision of local and gradual enrichment of the indicated substrate,
when this use is mentioned first impregnating material in an amount to provide at least 90% of its penetration into the material of the above-mentioned substrate and the plate.

16. The method according to item 15,characterized in that the coating material prevents migration of the first and second impregnating material through a surface on which is applied the specified coating material.

17. The method according to item 16, wherein the specified second impregnating material has properties that promote local is pogashenie specified substrate binding phase through the bottom surface by impregnation.

18. The method according to item 16, characterized in that the coating material effect on the kinetics of migration of the binding phase in the above substrate and the diamond plate, thus providing a gradual distribution of the binding phase.

19. The method according to item 16, wherein the coating layer contains a material selected from the group of materials including boron nitride, graphite and alumina.

20. The method according to item 15, characterized in that the substrate is a cermet grade type WC-Co or WC-Co and/or Ni and/or Fe) and the second impregnating material is of type WC-M where M is one or more metals selected from the group comprising Co, Ni and Fe.

21. The method according to item 15, characterized in that the substrate is a block of kermet type WC - bundle, where the material ligament choose among Co, Ni and Fe, and the first and second impregnating materials produced from the same material ligaments.

22. The method according to item 15, characterized in that the substrate is a block of tungsten carbide, where the first impregnating material derived from cobalt, and after the heat cycle specified heat-resistant diamond plate is subjected to the leaching of cobalt for removing embedded cobalt atoms.

23. The method according to item 15, characterized in that the substrate is a cermet grade, and the first prophet CNY material binds the specified heat-resistant diamond plate with the specified kermet due to migration of atoms of the first impregnating material in the above heat-resistant diamond plate and the substrate on the surface of the partition.

24. The method of obtaining heat-resistant polycrystalline diamond composite materials for the cutting element, comprising the steps are:
form the substrate, while
provide the contact section of the impregnation on the surface of the block kermet unit impregnation of the impregnating material selected from the VIII group of the periodic system of chemical elements or eutectic composition of these elements, and
subjected to the specified block kermet and block impregnation of the first thermal cycle consisting of heating, temperature maintenance and cooling, to provide a translation of at least part of the impregnating material in the liquid state for migration through the specified area impregnation on the surface of the substrate for local and gradual enrichment of the indicated substrate,
impose a heat-resistant diamond plate enriched substrate on the interface, including the bottom surface of the specified heat-resistant diamond plate and the specified area impregnation on the surface enriched substrate,
put a coating of boron nitride, graphite or aluminum oxide on the surface of the specified diamond plate, except the surface on the boundary, and a specified surface of the substrate except the surface on the boundary, and
put superimposed on each other thermostat the th diamond plate and enriched substrate to a second thermal cycle, consisting of heating, temperature maintenance and cooling, to provide a translation of at least part of the impregnating material in the liquid state with ensuring the migration of the enriched substrate in a heat-resistant diamond plate through a second interface for connecting the above heat-resistant diamond plate and enriched substrate between them.

25. The method according to paragraph 24, characterized in that the coating material prevents migration of the impregnating material through a surface on which is applied the specified coating material.

26. The method according A.25, characterized in that the impregnating material has properties that contribute to the local enrichment of the indicated substrate binding phase by impregnation.

27. The method according to p, characterized in that the coating material effect on the kinetics of migration of the binding phase, thus providing a gradual distribution of the binding phase.

28. The method according A.25, characterized in that the coating layer is a material selected from the group of materials including boron nitride, graphite and alumina.

29. The method according to paragraph 24, characterized in that the substrate is a cermet grade type WC-Co or WC-Co and/or Ni and/or Fe), and the specified impregnating material is of type WC-M where M is one or more m is the metal, selected from the group comprising Co, Ni and Fe.

30. The method according A.25, characterized in that the substrate is a block of kermet type WC - bundle, with the material ligament choose among Co, Ni and Fe, and impregnating the material produced from the same material ligaments.

31. The method according to paragraph 24, characterized in that the substrate is a block of tungsten carbide with an impregnating material of cobalt, and after the heat cycle specified heat-resistant diamond plate is subjected to the leaching of cobalt for removing embedded cobalt atoms.

32. The method according to paragraph 24, characterized in that the substrate is a cermet grade, as specified impregnating material binds heat-resistant diamond plate with the specified kermet due to migration of atoms impregnating material to the specified heat-resistant diamond plate.

33. The method of obtaining heat-resistant polycrystalline diamond composite materials for the cutting element, comprising the steps are:
form a package containing the diamond plate, the lower surface of which rests on the upper surface of the substrate from a ceramic material, metal and cermet grade for the interface,
put a coating of boron nitride, graphite or aluminum oxide on the surface of the specified diamond plate, CR is IU the surface on the boundary, and
put the specified package thermal cycle including heating, temperature maintenance and cooling, to implement the migration of atoms of the material impregnation selected from the VIII group of the periodic system of chemical elements or eutectic composition of these elements in the specified diamond plate through the interface for the connection of these diamond plate and the substrate to each other.

34. The method according to p, characterized in that the diamond plate is a heat-resistant polycrystalline diamond plate, thus impregnating material is a catalyst material that was deleted from the specified diamond plate by leaching after thermal cycle.

35. The method according to p, characterized in that it includes local and gradual enrichment of the indicated substrate through the top surface of the binding phase by impregnation.

36. The method according to p, wherein the enrichment comprises the steps are:
provide contact impregnating the material with an upper surface of the substrate at the site of impregnation, and
subjected to specified substrate and impregnating material thermal cycle consisting of heating, temperature maintenance and cooling, which translates, at least part of the said impregnating material in the liquid state for migration the AI through the specified area impregnation of the substrate with the aim of local and gradual enrichment of the indicated substrate.

37. The method according to p, characterized in that the substrate also includes a bottom surface opposite the specified upper surface, and including local and gradual enrichment of the indicated substrate through the said bottom surface binding phase by impregnation.

38. The method according to clause 37, wherein the enrichment comprises the steps are:
provide contact impregnating the material with the lower surface of the substrate at the site of penetration and
subjected to specified substrate and impregnating material thermal cycle consisting of heating, temperature maintenance and cooling, which translates, at least part of the said impregnating material in the liquid state for migration through the specified area impregnation of the substrate with the aim of local and gradual enrichment of the indicated substrate.

39. The method according to p, characterized in that it further comprises a layer of the specified impregnating material along the interface between the bottom surface of the specified diamond plate and the upper surface of the specified substrate, with specified thermal cycle causes the migration of atoms impregnating material from the specified layer in these diamond plate and the substrate.

40. The method according to p, characterized in that the upper surface of the specified substrate contains increased to icesto atoms impregnating material in the area of the interface with the bottom surface of the specified diamond plate and specified thermal cycle causes the migration of atoms impregnating material from the enriched substrate in the diamond plate.

41. The method according to p, characterized in that the coating material prevents migration of the specified impregnating material in the specified diamond plate through a surface on which is applied the specified coating material.



 

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21 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: metal-matrix composite contains an aluminium based matrix and reinforcement particles, comprising 1-30 vol. % of diamond nanoparticles embedded into the matrix within 0.2-5 hours of mechanical alloying, and no more than 10 vol. % of aluminium oxide nanoparticles formed during the manufacturing process.

EFFECT: material has high strength characteristics and provides the opportunity to obtain parts with a low surface roughness.

4 cl, 4 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: composite material with nanoscale components to prevent biogrowth is composite granules of 0.5-500 mcm obtained by mechanical alloying for 0.2-2 hours under nonoxidation conditions. The granules contain a copper matrix and 25-60 vol. % of nanoscale components with a particle size of 2-50 nm. Nanoscale components are selected from a range of: nanodiamonds, nanopowders of silicon oxide, tungsten carbide, silicon carbide, titanium carbide, zirconium oxide, tungsten or steel. Nanoscale components are distributed throughout the volume of the granules and cover no more than 90% of the granules surface, on which copper oxides are present that are formed after mechanical alloying when the composite granules are in contact with oxygen.

EFFECT: increased metal oxidation effect in the presence of non-agglomerated nanoparticles on the surface ensures protection of the material from biogrowth.

5 cl, 4 ex

Abrasive compacts // 2453623

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: abrasive compact from superhard polycrystalline abrasive material is made at high pressure and temperature. It comprises coarser fraction of superhard material distributed among finer fraction of said material with sufficient separation so that there is no continuous passage from compact one side or surface to another via adjacent coarser grains. Compact works as high-wear-resistance fine material matrix with inclusions of coarser particles.

EFFECT: higher wear resistance and hardness.

19 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder metallurgy, particularly, to materials intended for production of diamond-metallic composite materials. It may be used as hard or abrasive material and for making centrifuge nozzles. Diamond particles are mixed with those of metallic filler to produce mix for moulding billet therefrom. Said billet is subjected to pre-sintering by heating to ≤500°C and impregnated with one or more wetting elements or one or more wetting alloys. Impregnation is performed in vacuum or in inert gas at <200 bar.

EFFECT: higher density, thermal expansion, crack resistance and solderability.

22 cl, 2 tbl, 3 ex

Abrasive tool // 2447985

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to grinding and may be used for machining, milling, drilling etc. Abrasive tool comprises super hard polycrystalline composite material (SPCM) and binder phase. SPCM consists of super hard abrasive material particles with multimodal size distribution and general mean particle size of smaller than 12 mcm and higher than 2 mcm. SPCM has multiple pores while binder phase is distributed in said pores to form separate cavities filled with binder. Quantity of said filled cavities makes over 0.45 cavity per square mcm.

EFFECT: higher impact resistance, fatigue strength and wear resistance.

7 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: there are used powders of super-hard materials of at least two granularities. Also, porous base of the element is made of powders of super-hard materials of higher granularity. Porous base is placed in a bath with suspension containing powders of small granularity and these powders are settled in pores of porous base with electric current transmitted through suspension, where upon all grains of super-hard material are bound with binding.

EFFECT: utilisation of powders of super-hard materials of small granularity including nano dimensions for fabrication of cutting elements with uniform distribution of grains in volume; reduced time of process.

4 cl

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: it is prepared mixture of abrasive dust of coarse grain and, at least, of one fine grain, mixture of powders is compacted and impregnated by metals or alloys. In the capacity of powders, at least, of one fine grain there are used powders, surface of which fulfil wettability conditions by impregnating metals or alloys.

EFFECT: method provides increasing of working layer height of elements, and also receiving in the element defined content of abrasive grains for optimal external environment.

12 cl, 1 dwg, 5 ex

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention claims diamond tool manufactured with monocrystallic diamond, synthesised under high pressure by temperature gradient method, so that the claimed diamond crystal contains not more than 3 parts per million of nitrogen. The tool features a blade with its edge oriented in plane (110), so that Knoop scale hardness at the plane (100) in direction <110> is higher than in direction <100>. Such synthetic monocrystallic diamond is synthesised by temperature gradient method under superhigh pressure and high temperature, and its crystals contain nickel atoms introduced by atomic substitution or boron and nickel atoms introduced by atomic substitution.

EFFECT: obtaining cheap synthetic monocrystallic diamonds with reduced flaw number.

24 cl, 4 ex, 2 tbl, 7 dwg

Cutting plate // 2201846
The invention relates to the processing of materials by cutting, fine grinding

Diamond cutter // 2168396
The invention relates to the treatment of materials by cutting, in particular for diamond tool manufacturing amplitude diffraction gratings and similar products

The invention relates to a diamond sintered material, method of its production and cutting and drilling tool, which uses a diamond sintered material

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention claims diamond tool manufactured with monocrystallic diamond, synthesised under high pressure by temperature gradient method, so that the claimed diamond crystal contains not more than 3 parts per million of nitrogen. The tool features a blade with its edge oriented in plane (110), so that Knoop scale hardness at the plane (100) in direction <110> is higher than in direction <100>. Such synthetic monocrystallic diamond is synthesised by temperature gradient method under superhigh pressure and high temperature, and its crystals contain nickel atoms introduced by atomic substitution or boron and nickel atoms introduced by atomic substitution.

EFFECT: obtaining cheap synthetic monocrystallic diamonds with reduced flaw number.

24 cl, 4 ex, 2 tbl, 7 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: it is prepared mixture of abrasive dust of coarse grain and, at least, of one fine grain, mixture of powders is compacted and impregnated by metals or alloys. In the capacity of powders, at least, of one fine grain there are used powders, surface of which fulfil wettability conditions by impregnating metals or alloys.

EFFECT: method provides increasing of working layer height of elements, and also receiving in the element defined content of abrasive grains for optimal external environment.

12 cl, 1 dwg, 5 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: there are used powders of super-hard materials of at least two granularities. Also, porous base of the element is made of powders of super-hard materials of higher granularity. Porous base is placed in a bath with suspension containing powders of small granularity and these powders are settled in pores of porous base with electric current transmitted through suspension, where upon all grains of super-hard material are bound with binding.

EFFECT: utilisation of powders of super-hard materials of small granularity including nano dimensions for fabrication of cutting elements with uniform distribution of grains in volume; reduced time of process.

4 cl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of heat-resistant polycrystalline diamond composites for production of cutting elements. On the boundary of division on the substrate of ceramic material, metal or cermet applied is heat-resistant diamond plate, which contains a layer of first impregnating material, selected from VIII group of periodic system of chemical elements or eutectic composition of said elements and placed between lower surface of said heat-resistant diamond plate and upper surface of said substrate. Material of coating from boron nitride, graphite or aluminium oxide is applied on the surface of said diamond plate, except the surface on the boundary of division. After that, applied on each other heat-resistant diamond plate and substrate are subjected to thermal cycle, consisting of heating, temperature support and cooling, ensuring transition of, at least, part of said impregnating material into liquid state for migration into heat-resistant diamond plate and into said substrate in the area of the boundary of division for their connection to each other. Said first impregnating material is used in amount, ensuring, at least, 90% of its transition into material of said substrate and plate.

EFFECT: production of working elements of metal-processing instrument, external part of which possesses high hardness, with internal one possessing high shock viscosity, is ensured.

41 cl, 10 dwg

Pcd diamond // 2522028

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to PCD diamond to be used in production of water-jet ejectors, engraving cutters for intaglio, scribers, diamond cutters and scribing rollers. PCD diamond is produced by conversion and sintering of carbon material of graphite-like laminar structure at superhigh pressure of up to 12-25 GPa and 1800-2600°C without addition of sintering additive of catalyst. Note here that sintered diamond grains that make this PCD diamond feature size over 50 nm and less than 2500 nm and purity of 99% or higher. Diamond features grain diameter D90 making (grain mean size plus grain mean size × 0.9) or less and hardness of 100 GPa or higher.

EFFECT: diamond features laminar or fine-layer structure, ruled out uneven wear, decreased abrasion.

15 cl, 5 tbl, 5 ex

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