Compound method for aircraft navigation

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: compound navigation method combines satellite and radar ranging navigation techniques based on ground-based beacons, wherein satellite signals are received both on-board the aircraft and at the row of ground-based beacons, including at ground-based beacons at the landing strip. The ground-based beacons constantly refine base coordinates, determine differential corrections to coordinates and differential corrections to pseudo-ranges, generate a packet of correcting information with said differential corrections, errors in determination thereof, calculated tropospheric refraction data and the refined base coordinates of the ground-based beacons. Based on a request from an aircraft, the ground-based beacon emits, through a distance measurement channel, a signal with correcting information which includes differential corrections only in form of differential corrections to coordinates. The aircraft calculates navigation parameters taking into account correcting information, performs compound data processing and continuous comparative estimation of errors. Upon reaching the aerodrome area and landing, if the error value according to the satellite technique is less, the mode of generating a sequence of request ranging signals of the row of ground-based beacons is switched to a mode for requesting only one ground-based beacon located at the landing strip, wherein on the aircraft, differential corrections in the correcting information are transmitted only in form of differential corrections to pseudo-ranges. Refined coordinates of the aircraft are calculated from the corrected pseudo-ranges.

EFFECT: high reliability and accuracy of determining aircraft coordinates.

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The invention relates to the field of navigation of aircraft (LA) with the use of integrated navigation method that combines satellite navigation and electronic distance measuring method based navigation ground-based radio beacons (NRM), and can be used while navigating an aircraft including a landing on runway (runway).

Known satellite navigation LA N navigation artificial earth satellites (NISS)forming a working constellation, which includes receiving signals NICS on Board aircraft and the calculation on the signals of the navigation parameters LA, for example [1, 2].

The most accurate satellite navigation is a differential satellite navigation method in which the reception signals NIST is also on the ground for control and correction station (CCF) with known locations, calculates differential corrections (DOC) on the difference between the known and continuously defined by the coordinates of CCF. Next APS broadcast aboard the LA and they adjusted the navigation parameters of the aircraft.

To determine the location in differential mode can be used DP to the navigation parameters LA in the form of DP to the coordinates [1, 3, 4], and DP to the pseudorange[1, 4, 5, 6]. Each of these methods is formirovaniya and use DP has its own advantages and disadvantages.

When transmitting with CCF PD to the coordinates of the amount of information transferred is significantly less than the transfer of the DP to the pseudorange. The disadvantage of this method is the need to work at CCF and LA on the same working constellation of navigation satellites, which is provided either by the transmission of additional data on the composition of the working constellation, which developed APS to coordinate, any increase in CCF minimum elevation angle of the navigation satellite. It should also be noted that the requirement of identity of navigation constellations on CCF and LA was required when working on the constellation with minimum number of satellites. In satellite navigation systems GLONASS and GPS modern configuration, and also at work on two systems at the same time, the constellation of navigation points has great redundancy of satellites, and the above requirement is not crucial when working satellites [4].

When transmitting with CCF PD to the pseudorange requires a significant volume information, but if there is an opportunity to improve the reliability of determination of the navigation parameters by additional control characteristics of the availability of satellite systems [7]. In addition, when sending PD to the pseudorange in the standard ICAO documents provided by lane is the house of CCF as part of corrective information data to conduct at LA tropospheric correction PD taking into account the difference in height of CCF and LA. In the known analogues, using the transfer method of the DP to the coordinates, tropospheric correction altitude of the location LA is not provided. Therefore, when the flight altitudes of over 3000 m can lead to a deterioration of the accuracy of positioning LA with a differential navigation method.

The effectiveness of the mentioned known differential navigation method with correction of navigation parameters LA depends on the distance LA from the CCF [3-5]. The maximum effect is achieved when aircraft is at a minimum distance from the CCF.

To increase the efficacy of said differential navigation on LA used DP from a couple of CCF, exploded in space [3-5]. This can be applied different ways to join APS from several of CCF. Most fully mentioned variants described in [4].

Known radio distance measuring method of navigation based on range determination LA to L ground-based radio beacons (NRM), which includes radiation ranging request signal from the Board of the LA, the reception of these signals theorm, formation and radiation response of the ranging signal measurement on Board LA time delay response of the ranging signals relative to the ranging request signal and identification with this measurement navigation parameters LA, for example, the p [8].

Each of these navigation methods has its advantages and disadvantages.

The advantage of satellite navigation method is global and high accuracy of measurement. The disadvantage is the low immunity and high, from the point of view of flight safety, the probability of failure. Therefore, when solving problems LA navigation satellite method, it is advisable to complement the radio distance measuring method of navigation.

Radio distance measuring method of navigation involves large signal-to-noise and high noise immunity, however, used radio signals do not provide high precision, and the application of the method requires collaboration with Autonomous sensors on the aircraft.

The total increase reliability of the navigation method and the reduction of its disadvantages is achieved by the simultaneous use of both mentioned methods.

This integrated navigation method and system based on it is used, for example, in [9, 10].

The prototype of the claimed invention is an integrated method according to the patent [9], which are shared three ways of navigation: inertial, satellite and radio ranging.

The present invention discusses an integrated navigation method that combines satellite and radio dalemere the ways interacting. An additional possible use of the inertial system (ins) does not create new, different from the prototype [9] properties. In addition, the use of Ann takes place on a small Park in LA due to the high cost and need for navigation parameters provide regular Autonomous sensors LA. In this regard, the patent [9] as the prototype can be described as follows.

Complex navigation of aircraft (LA), providing for the location of LA using the satellite navigation method according to N navigation artificial earth satellites (NISS)forming a working constellation, which includes receiving signals NICS on Board the AIRCRAFT, the determination in the mentioned signals navigation parameters LA satellite method as pseudorange and coordinate, and simultaneously with the above-mentioned method using radio ranging of the navigation method based on determining the distances LA and L, ground-based radio beacons (NRM), which includes radiation ranging channel request ranging signal from aboard an aircraft receiving the above signals theorm, basic coordinates are known, the formation and emission in the ranging channel response of the ranging signals, welcome aboard LA mentioned response signal is, measurement on Board LA time delay response of the ranging signals on the request of the ranging signals and determining navigation parameters LA on radio distance measuring method, and further providing in the on-Board computer complex processing navigation parameters obtained for each of the mentioned methods of navigation, and displays the calculation results on the display, while in the on-Board computer produced by the control signals of the frequency-time mode of formation sequence mentioned request ranging signal by using the database, LA.

Block diagram and list the sequence of steps of the method of the prototype is presented in Annex 1.

The disadvantages of the method of the prototype are insufficient accuracy and reliability, especially when performing landing aircraft on runway, which is associated with the standard (dedifferentiated) satellite navigation method.

Objective of the claimed invention is to improve the reliability and accuracy of integrated navigation method, the first step in landing the aircraft. The problem is solved as follows.

Offers a comprehensive way of navigating aircraft (LA), providing for the location LA satellite way navigatio N navigation artificial earth satellites (NISS), forming a working constellation, which includes receiving signals NICS on Board the AIRCRAFT, the determination in the mentioned signals navigation parameters LA satellite method as pseudorange and coordinate, and simultaneously with the above-mentioned method using radio ranging of the navigation method based on determining the distances LA and L, ground-based radio beacons (NRM), which includes radiation ranging channel request ranging signal from aboard an aircraft receiving the above signals theorm, the base coordinates are known, the formation and emission in the ranging channel response of the ranging signals, welcome aboard LA mentioned response signals, the measurement on Board LA time delay reply ranging signals on the request of the ranging signals and determining navigation parameters LA on radio distance measuring method, and further providing in the on-Board computer complex processing navigation parameters obtained for each of the mentioned methods of navigation, and displays the calculation results on the display, while in the on-Board computer produced by the control signals of the frequency-time mode of formation sequence mentioned request ranging signal by using the database of LA, in addition to the CSO, the proposed method further provides that the reception of signals NISS also produced on earth, at least one of these theorm, located closest to the selected runway, which will be landing in LA, this theorm is determined by satellite navigation reference coordinate theorm, which is the coordinates of the point of reception of the satellite signals, continuously calculates the adjusted reference and a reference coordinate theorm, determined by differential corrections (DOC) to the navigation parameters LA in the form of APS values and APS to the pseudorange satellite navigation method is the formation of a package of corrective information, including the APS values, APS to the pseudorange, errors in the determination of the DP, the data of tropospheric refraction and refined the basic coordinates theorm, the data of tropospheric refraction is pre-calculated based on the updated meteorological data, in parallel, on Board LA is formed and emitted by the ranging channel request information signal, which is received at theorm, next is the radiation theorm on the ranging channel response information signal packet adjustment information, and transmitted to the DP only DP to coordinate, on Board LA is pickup the response information signal and the selection of the packet adjustment information mentioned components, definition of navigation parameters LA on radio distance measuring method using the information from Autonomous sensors LA and specified coordinate reference theorm, calculation of the navigation parameters LA satellite way in the form of coordinates with the correction on the basis of the DP to the coordinates and data of tropospheric refraction, integrated processing of navigation parameters, taking into account the errors in the determination of PD and is continuous correction algorithm integrated navigation processing parameters, the continuous comparative evaluation of accuracy of definition of the navigation options on satellite and radio navigation, and when you reach LA zone of the aerodrome and the transition to the landing is executed, in the case of smaller values of the error in satellite navigation translation of the above-mentioned mode sequencing request ranging signal L theorm in the query mode, only one theorm, located at the selected runway, with request information signal contains the characteristic mentioned query mode, only one theorm, and the response information signal transmitted from the above-mentioned components of corrective information, and DP are transmitted only in the form of APS to the pseudorange, aboard LA is delanie from a package of corrective information mentioned components of the APS to the pseudorange and pseudorange correction, and then on the adjusted pseudorange calculated the adjusted coordinates of the aircraft.

In addition, the proposed development of the comprehensive way in which in the case of transfer aboard corrective information from the DP to the coordinates in the data tropospheric refraction is transmitted tropospheric scale factor height and tropospheric correction coordinate theorm, while adjusting the DP to the coordinates of the altitude of LA by the equation:

Δh=ΔK-Δtp(1-e-Δh/h0),(1)

where Δh- corrected aboard LA value DP to the coordinates;

Δtothe value DP to the coordinates passed with theorm;

ΔTr- tropospheric correction coordinate theorm;

Δh is the height difference of the location theorm and LA;

h0- tropospheric scale factor height.

A version of the complex way in which the basic coordinates theorm, located at the runway, determined and refined using satellite-way Navi is then by averaging the data for the accumulation of enough time.

A version of the complex way in which complex processing navigation parameters LA is performed using a Kalman filter, and continuous correction algorithm complex processing is performed by a corresponding change in the weights used in the Kalman filter, based on a continuous evaluation of errors for satellite and ranging navigation methods.

A version of the complex way in which comparative evaluation of errors in satellite and radio navigation is carried out by comparing the correlation matrix of the errors of determination of coordinates for each of the mentioned methods.

A version of the complex way in which in query mode, the aircraft is only one theorm, located at the selected runway, increase the repetition rate query information signals.

A version of the complex way in which in query mode, only one theorm in the challenge information signal generates additional code that is authorized access to the response information signal theorm.

A version of the complex way in which when flying multiple AIRCRAFT performing landing using one and that is about the same theorm, after landing the first LA consistently produce a transition in the query mode, only one theorm when planting each of the next LA.

A version of the complex way in which all theorm, which is used for navigating an aircraft is receiving signals NISS, the formation of a package of corrective information, use on Board LA corrective information to Refine navigation parameters LA and coordinates of each of the L theorm.

Work the proposed method is illustrated using Figure 1, which presents a block diagram of the sequence of actions for the implementation of complex navigation and Figure 2, reflecting the timing diagram of the sequence of response information signals.

Below are the symbols in figure 1:

1 - reception of signals NESS aboard LA;

2 - define the navigation settings of LA via satellite;

3 - radiation ranging request signal from the Board of the LA;

4 - reception request from the ranging signals theorm;

5 - formation on theorm and radiation ranging channel response of the ranging signals;

6 - welcome aboard LA reply ranging signals;

7 - measurement on Board LA time delay response of the ranging signals on the request of the ranging signals;

8 - define the navigation parameter is in LA on the radio distance measuring method;

9 - integrated navigation processing parameters;

10 - display of calculation results on the display;

11 - generation of control signals frequency transient regime sequencing request of the ranging signals;

12 - reception signals NICS on theorm;

13 - definition satellite method reference coordinate theorm;

14 - calculation of adjusted reference coordinates and reference coordinates theorm;

15 - definition of differential corrections to the navigation options;

16 - data calculation of tropospheric refraction;

17 - formation of a package of corrective information;

18 - the formation aboard the LA and radiation ranging channel request from the information signal;

19 - welcome to theorm on the ranging channel request from the information signal;

20 radiation with theorm on the ranging channel response information signal correction information;

21 - reception response information signal on Board LA;

22 - selection components of the package of corrective information;

23 - calculation of the navigation parameters LA satellite navigation method in the form of coordinate correction;

24 is a continuous assessment of the errors in the determination of the navigation parameters LA in every way navigation;

25 is a continuous correction algorithm integrated processing the navigation parameters;

a - differential corrections;

b - data tropospheric correction;

- errors in the determination of differential corrections;

d - refined base coordinates.

The method, according to Figure 1, includes a characteristic of the prototype method steps: receiving signals NESS aboard LA 1, the definition of the navigation parameters LA satellite method 2, the radiation challenge of the ranging signals from the Board of the LA 3, the reception of the ranging request signal on theorm 4, the formation of theorm and radiation ranging channel response of the ranging signals 5, welcome aboard LA reply ranging signals 6, the measurement on Board LA time delay response of the ranging signals relative to the ranging request signal 7, the definition of the navigation parameters LA on radio distance measuring method 8, integrated processing navigation parameters 9, display of calculation results on the display 10 and the generation of control signals frequency-time mode sequencing request ranging signal 11.

Proposed new actions that implement the claimed method. The novelty of the method, according to Figure 1, is that the signal NESS is also produced by the NRM 12 and when this determination is made on the satellite method reference coordinate theorm 13 calculates the updated op is rye and base coordinates theorm 14, determined by differential corrections (DOC) to the navigation parameters LA in the form of APS values and APS to the pseudorange satellite navigation method 15, the calculated data of tropospheric refraction 16, forming a package of corrective information, including the APS values, APS to the pseudorange, errors in the determination of the DP, the data of tropospheric refraction and refined the basic coordinates theorm 17, forming aboard the LA and radiation ranging channel request information signal 18, the reception on theorm on the ranging channel request information signal 19, the inclusion of the mentioned package in response to an information signal theorm and radiation theorm on the ranging channel the response information signal 20, the reception response information signal on Board the LA 21, the allocation of components of the package of corrective information 22, and then calculated the navigation parameters LA satellite navigation method in the form of coordinate correction 23, there is a comparative evaluation of accuracy of definition of the navigation parameters of the LA for each of the mentioned navigation 24 and continuous correction algorithm integrated navigation processing parameters 25.

Figure 1 thin lines are the steps that coincide with the prototype, the dashed line of action known to the C analogues, bold lines - new action; combined lines denote the combined use of these signs.

The work of the proposed method is as follows. Steps 1-8, 10 are completely analogous to the prototype. Steps 9, 11 perform the same basic purpose, but have additional features compared to the prototype. The main novelty is that in the proposed integrated navigation method has two modes: navigation mode LA route using GPS and electronic distance measuring (according to the signals L theorm) methods and landing aircraft using satellite-way and return information signals of one theorm. In addition, the navigation parameters, determined from satellite method, are calculated with DP to coordinate with correction for tropospheric refraction, thus changing the navigation mode on the mode of planting changes and view the corrected navigation parameters - when navigating the adjustment takes place on the DP to the coordinates, and when planting - DP to the pseudorange.

In a radio distance measuring method uses two types of signals:

- request/response ranging signals (containing only the code group of pulses);

- request/response information signals (in addition to the code is the group of pulses contain information part).

Consider the features of the operations performed on theorm. As in a typical theorm, in prototype mode radiation background signals, acting without request signals LA [8]. Thus, a generator of chaotic transients is the formation of the response signals 5. The repetition frequency of these signals is limited by the energy potential of the transmitter theorm. Formed from the above-mentioned generator return ranging signals are used on Board the aircraft to assess the level of the signal. Receiving a request ranging signal LA 4 theorm leads to the replacement of the background signal coded reply ranging signal.

In theorm also receive signals NISS 12 and defining a reference coordinate of the point of reception of the satellite signals (the phase center of the antenna of the receiver signals NISS) 13. Further actions depend on the status theorm (status theorm is passed in the message).

It is necessary to distinguish two status theorm - a and B. For theorm, having the status of A, the base coordinates (location of the phase center of the antenna of the transmitter) is known with an accuracy of geodetic (and available in the database of LA). In this case, the coordinates of the point of reception of the satellite signals X0(reference coordinates) is also known in theorm is the formation of the APS values and APS to the pseudorange 15.

0and certain at the time i when receiving signals NIST coordinates X(i):

Δk(i)=X(i)-X0.(2)

where Δto(i) - DP to the coordinates at time i.

DP to the coordinates included in the package of corrective information 17 to request information signal LA. In addition, in the information packet theorm included: elements of the correlation matrix of the errors of the APS to determine the coordinates of PDP(in the information packet included three diagonal element of the correlation matrix RDPand the three elements that account for correlation of errors Δto(i) [10]); data tropospheric refraction (tropospheric scale factor height and tropospheric correction coordinate NRM). The data calculation of tropospheric refraction 16 is carried out by known formulas depending on meteorological data [15].

For the formation of PD to the pseudorange also used the known reference coordinates X0required when calculating the distance to each satellite. In addition, can be used for additional correction information, providing the improving the overall reliability of the method (e.g., may include estimates of the variances of the errors of the DP to the pseudorange [11]).

DP to the pseudorange and the additional information included in the response information signal theorm after receiving the request information signal LA, containing the indication of the request only one theorm.

For theorm, having the status of B, geodetic reference no, and its base coordinates and the coordinates of the point of reception of the satellite signals) are known accurately. In this case, the calculation of the adjusted reference coordinate theorm 14 by averaging certain when receiving signals NISS X(i) [13].

Refined coordinates XUTequal to:

XYT(i+1)=XYT(i)+K(i+1){X(i+1)-XYT(W)},(3)

where the weighting factor at the beginning theorm AC: K(i)=1/i, i<Nf, and then constant: K(i)=1/Nf (Nf is a constant defining the averaging interval of coordinates).

Next produced the usual recalculation of the adjusted reference coordinates to the base coordinate theorm 14.

In theorm with the status of B is also the formation of the APS values and APS to the pseudorange 15 as described above. Unlike theorm status And, in theorm status B is regular (without prompting LA) periodic radiation response information signals 20, containing data on the updated base coordinates and status theorm. To this end the entire information package containing the specified coordinates and the status of the NRM, information is divided into parcels and transmitted at a given pace. For example, to send 3 refined coordinates need the following bits of information: 32 (latitude) +32 (longitude) +24 (height) = 88 bits of information. Information package (figure 2, a) is divided into several (e.g. four) of information packages containing the specified basic coordinates of the transmitted signal format of α, as well as the header and the elements of a cyclic redundancy check integrity, and these parcels are sent periodically over 0.25 seconds (then aboard LA refined base coordinates theorm will be taken in the time interval of working with this theorm equal to, for example, 0.5 seconds).

For the organization of the differential navigation mode on Board LA is the formation and emission of query information signals 18 and their reception at theorm 19. Accordingly, in addition to receiving a request ranging signal is Alov LA 4 can receive query information signals LA 19. If theorm taken such a signal LA, it performs its decoding. If the content request information request signal on the DP to the coordinates (navigation mode LA route using signals L theorm) formation of a package of corrective information 17 is data DP to the coordinates, as well as additional information about the elements of the correlation matrix of the errors EI, the tropospheric scale factor height and tropospheric amendment coordinate theorm (the signal format of β on figb). This entire information packet containing data DP to the coordinates and additional information is divided into information packages and is emitted in response to the information signals at a given pace 20. In addition, if necessary in the information packet includes updated basic coordinates theorm (NRM status B).

Evaluate the possibility of transferring information via this method. For example, to send 3 APS to coordinate requires 3×16=48 bits of information, data about the elements of the correlation matrix RDP(6 items) requires 6×8=48 bits, to transmit information about the tropospheric scale factor height and tropospheric amendment coordinate theorm required 2x16=32 bits. All, together with the status, required 130 bits. Information package Figure 2, b) is divided into several (e.g., eight) information packages containing the header and the elements of a cyclic redundancy check integrity, and they are transmitted periodically over 0.25 seconds (then aboard LA refined base coordinates theorm will be taken in the time interval of working with this theorm equal to, for example, 0.5 sec). Upon completion of the transmission of the information package in response to the information signals to theorm checks for the next request from the information signal LA (APS to request coordinates) and, if available, the transmission of the response information signals theorm is repeated.

If theorm receives request information signal LA from the content request to the DP to the pseudorange (landing LA), is formed, regardless of the status of NRM, the packet adjustment information data DP to the pseudorange. The volume of the package depends on the number of observable theorm satellites. Therefore, the calculated full volume information package containing the status theorm, DP to the pseudorange and additional indicators, then this package is divided into information packages (Figure 2, b) and is emitted in response to the information signals of the format of γ at a given pace 20. For example, according to [11], to transmit the information package from the DP to the pseudorange in RTCA format (MSG is of type 1) requires a 56-bit (General part messages) + N∗56-bit (N - number of satellites). If N=10, we obtain 616 bits. This package is divided into several information packages containing the header and the elements of a cyclic redundancy check integrity, and they are transmitted periodically over 0.5 seconds (when on Board an aircraft in landing mode and, accordingly, in query mode only this theorm, full information package from the DP to the pseudorange will be made at the rate of 0.5 sec). The transfer of such an amount of information significantly loads the channel response of the ranging signals theorm. Modern avionics LA provides a measurement range while reducing the likelihood of response to a value of 0.5 (at rate of 0.7). Therefore, the transfer of given information for 0.5 sec, you must put in the time interval of not more than 0.25 seconds. If theorm transmits response information signals from the APS to the pseudorange, the transfer response information signals containing PD to the coordinates and the specified coordinates is terminated.

Consider the features of actions to be performed on Board the aircraft. In the on-Board aircraft equipment are implemented two ways of navigation: radio distance measuring method using the signals from several (up to L) theorm, satellite navigation, operating in differential mode.

For the implementation of radio ranging techniques is and navigation aboard LA, you must have the coordinates L theorm and measure the distance to theorm by radiation ranging request signal 3, receiving these signals 6 and measuring the response delay of the ranging signals theorm 7. In the navigation mode LA in response to the emitted challenge the ranging signals from the Board of the LA 3 is received ranging response signal from L theorm 6, and additionally, not using our request information signals, the reception from theorm status B response information signals 21, containing data on the updated base coordinates and the status of such theorm. In radio ranging navigation method computes the navigation parameters LA 8 based on a variety of measurement ranges up to several theorm data from Autonomous sensors (air sensor signals, the exchange system and meter height) [14].

The on-Board receiver of the ranging signals in accordance with output control signals of the frequency-time mode 11 mode frequency-code scanning (for example, works consistently with five theorm for 0.5 seconds each and the total scan period of 2.5 sec). The task of selecting L theorm with the best geometry for solving navigation tasks based on the calculation of the geometric factor [14], produced by combined processing of navigation parameters. This uses the matrix of the linearized measurement ranges in the local coordinate system:

Hdj=[ΔxjdjΔyjdjΔzjdj],(4)

where Δj, Δyj, Δzj- difference of the coordinates of LA and the j-th theorm; dj- distance to the j-th theorm.

Using (4), we computed the correlation matrix of the errors of estimating the coordinates:

Pdm=(j=1LHdjTσj-2Hdj)-1(5)

and is determined by the geometrical factor of the ranging method of navigation for a horizontal coordinates (the sum of the first two diagonal elements of the normalized correlation matrix of the errors of estimating the coordinates):

Gdm=(pDM11+pDM22)/σ2,(6)

where σ2- the average of the variances ofσj2error measurement range L theorm.

Continuous assessment of accuracy of definition of coordinates of the ranging method 24 is executed by the formula (5).

If the number of available theorm exceeds L, then for the generation of control signals 11 selects the combination of L theorm with a minimum value of GDM.

In satellite navigation method on LA differential mode is implemented using DP to the coordinates of the APS to the pseudorange. In the navigation mode LA route using signals L theorm aboard LA is a selection of components from the information packet adjustment information 22 - DP to the coordinates, and a set of additional information about the elements of the correlation matrix of the errors of the APS to determine the coordinates, tropospheric scaling factors height and tropospheric corrections of coordinates.

APS to CCW is dilatam include tropospheric component, due to the refraction of radio waves in the troposphere of the Earth. Its value depends on the height of the phase center of the receiving antenna and, in General, different for theorm and LA. Therefore, the received and decoded on Board LA DP values to the coordinates must be adjusted for the difference in height of antenna theorm and LA. Used for this purpose is not previously consider the following sequence of actions. On theorm definition DP 15 is executed twice at the same time: with regard to tropospheric correction in the measured values of pseudorange [11, 15] and without such records. The difference between them gives tropospheric correction coordinate theorm ΔTr:

Δtp=ΔK-ΔK0,(7)

where Δto- DP to the coordinates without considering tropospheric correction

ΔK0- DP to the coordinates given tropospheric correction.

This value corresponds to the height of the antenna theorm, together with tropospheric scale factor of height h0passed aboard LA in ed the ve additional corrective information. These data and the formula (1) on LA computes the navigation parameters 23 with correction of PD to the coordinates depending on the altitude difference Δh antennas theorm and LA.

On the received APS to coordinate several theorm is calculated on a weighted average vectorΔK:

ΔK=j=1LwjΔKjj=1Lwj,(8)

where Δj- DP to the coordinates from the j-theorm,

wj- the weight of the j-theorm.

Values of wjinversely depend on the trace of PDP. Obtained a weighted average of the vector DPΔKis used to calculate the navigation parameters LA satellite techniques is 23.

As a result of these actions, we determine the coordinates of LA via satellite method in navigation mode LA route using information signals L theorm. In landing mode (single NRM) in the allocation adjustment information 22 used DP to the pseudorange, the measured pseudorange corrected, and computes 23 (solving the navigation task using the least squares method [1, 2]).

Complex processing of navigation parameters 9 can be performed in different ways:

- Association of navigation data, obtained by solving navigation tasks independently satellite and radio distance measuring methods (combining information on the output [16]);

- joint processing navigation information received satellite and radio distance measuring methods (combining information on input).

As an example, consider the first option. In the information package theorm passed on Board the AIRCRAFT, contained errors in the determination of the DP to the coordinates are represented as elements of the correlation matrix determination error corrections PDP(navigation mode LA route using signals L theorm). On Board LA in the process of determining the coordinates and solving the navigation task, as amended ΔK23 the computation of the correlation matrix of coordinates determination error on Board an aircraft-generated noise, the effects of multipath propagation of the radio signal and the error tropospheric corrections, PLa. Then, with the aim of continuous assessment of errors in the determination of the navigation parameters 24 is determined by the correlation matrix of the total errors of the coordinates (navigation parameters LA) satellite method:

Pwith ap=Pdp+Pland.(9)

Association of navigation data, obtained by solving navigation tasks independently satellite and radio distance measuring means, and the determination of the optimal estimate X is performed using a complex algorithm [16]:

X^=(I-K)Xwith ap+KXdm,(10)

where XSP- assessment of coordinates when calculating the satellite method 23; XDM- assessment of coordinates when calculating radio distance measuring method 8; K is the optimal gain is calculated with the continuous correction 25 using expressions (5) and (9):

K=Pwith ap(Pwith ap+Pdm)-1.(11)

Since I-K=PDM(RSP+PDM)-1complex algorithm for determining the optimal estimates ofX^can be represented in the following form:

X^=Pdm(Pwith ap+Pdm)-1Xwith ap+Pwith ap(Pwith ap +Pdm)-1Xdm.(12)

The accuracy of the navigation parameters LA satellite navigation characterize the elements of the matrix RSPthe error in the determination of navigation parameters LA on radio distance measuring method of navigation characterize the elements of the matrix RDM. Depending on the errors of determination of the navigation options in LA complex algorithm processing continuous correction of 25 weights (I-K and K), with whom recorded the coordinates on the satellite method XSPand evaluation of coordinates on the radio distance measuring method XDM. When this correlation matrix of errors of determination of coordinates of LA by using a complex algorithm P is equal to:

P=Pdm(Pwith ap+Pdm)-1Pwith ap.(13)

In the navigation mode LA satellite method generally provides the best performance (the elements of the matrix To substantially fewer elements of the matrix I-K). Radio distance measuring method is an alternative Supplement and is used in cases of force majeure (intensive maneuver LA, the presence of effects of radiointerference etc). In these circumstances, radio distance measuring method allows to detect the malfunction of satellite navigation and improve the reliability of integrated navigation systems. In addition, the link with LA theorm provides differential mode satellite navigation, with the use of APS to coordinate characterized acceptable accuracy characteristics and allows for more economical, due to the lower volume of transmitted information, to spend an informational resource theorm.

In landing mode LA are invited to apply only satellite navigation method in differential mode using DP to the pseudorange. When approaching LA to one of theorm to approach produces output signals request only 11 this theorm. The formation of the challenge of the information signal 18 is accompanied by a request for APS to the pseudorange, while theorm provide the characteristic landing LA in accordance with the standard RTCA [11].

Thus, unlike the prototype navigation options LA are determined more accurately by calculating them with correction 23 taking into account differential corrections data and tropospheric refraction, and complex processing 9 taking into consideration the errors of determination of differential corrections. In addition, a comparative evaluation of the errors of each of the navigation 24 and the correction algorithm of complex processing 25. However, the elaboration of control signals frequency-time mode sequencing request ranging signal 11 is controlled according to the results of a comparative evaluation of errors of each of the navigation methods.

The following are options for developing and specifying the proposed method.

To compensate for the tropospheric component of the error in the case of transfer aboard corrective information from the DP to the coordinates in the data tropospheric refraction is transmitted tropospheric scale factor height and tropospheric correction coordinate theorm, while adjusting the DP to the coordinates of the altitude of LA by using an expression (1). The procedure for the formation of tropospheric corrections of coordinates theorm ΔTris given by the expression (7) described previously. Mentioned in this tropospheric correction measured at theorm is sevdalinka is carried out by known formulas [15], given in Appendix 2. With this purpose, the calculated tropospheric parameters NRand h0depending on meteorological data (temperature, relative humidity and atmospheric pressure at the location of theorm). Taking into account the decreasing tropospheric error with height according to the exponential law (see formula P2-2) for height LA of up to 20 km (above the troposphere is not), and taking into account the locality of the working area differential navigation fair above formula (1).

If the base coordinates theorm known accurately (for example, for mobile theorm), the basic coordinates theorm, located at the runway, determined and refined using satellite navigation method by averaging the data for the accumulation of enough time interval. Basic coordinates theorm correspond to the location of the phase center of the antenna to the transmitter and must be known on Board the aircraft to the implementation of the radio distance measuring method of navigation. If they are not known accurately, then the refinement is done using the following sequence of actions. The coordinates of the point of reception of the satellite signals X0(reference coordinates) are averaged as described above (3) and further refined reference coordinates are translated to the base coordinate theorm (the location of the antenna per the sensor theorm relative to the receiver antenna of the satellite signals is known).

Complex processing of navigation parameters LA is performed using a Kalman filter, and continuous correction algorithm complex processing is performed by a corresponding change in the weights used in the Kalman filter, based on a continuous evaluation of errors for satellite and ranging navigation methods. For aboard the LA is calculated correlation matrix of the total errors of the coordinates (navigation parameters LA) satellite method RSPtaking into account the correlation matrix of the errors of determination DP RDPtaking into account the specific errors of the formation of PD on theorm, and correlation matrix RLataking into account the specific triplets on Board the aircraft. While the weights of the algorithm is a complex process and I-K, as described by the expressions (10)-(12), consider the errors inherent in satellite and ranging methods of navigation.

Comparative evaluation of errors in satellite and radio navigation is carried out by comparing the correlation matrix of the errors of determination of coordinates for each of the mentioned methods. As noted above, the accuracy of the navigation parameters LA satellite navigation characterize the elements of the matrix RSP, pogresno is th definition of navigation parameters LA on radio distance measuring method of navigation characterize the elements of the matrix R DM. Comparison of these correlation matrices is performed by calculating the trace of each matrix and compare them to the size (the trace of the correlation matrix characterizes the sum of the variances of the errors of estimating the coordinates).

To ensure the reliability of landing in query mode, the aircraft is only one theorm, located at the selected runway, increase the repetition rate query information signals. Increasing the repetition rate query information signals increases the probability of receiving on Board LA response information signals and, accordingly, increases the reliability of the mode of planting.

Provides authorized access when in query mode, only one theorm in the challenge information signal generates additional code that is authorized access to the response information signal theorm. Authorized users can access the response information signal theorm increases the probability of receiving on Board LA response information signals and, accordingly, increases the reliability of the mode of planting a dedicated LA.

To ensure the priority boarding when flying multiple AIRCRAFT performing landing using the same theorm, after landing the first LA produce serial is Ino transition in the query mode, only one theorm when planting each of the next LA. While LA emit request information signals received on theorm. If theorm taken such a signal LA, it executes the decoding information part and, depending on its content, are formed and emitted response information signals. These signals take all LA, located in the working area of this theorm. When approaching one of LA to this theorm to landing onboard equipment enters query mode only this theorm. In the information message LA on theorm is transmitted request DP for pseudorange, while theorm provides landing LA in accordance with the standard RTCA, stopping the transmission of other information. In this mode may be several LA (in the absence of mandated access to information theorm). After landing the first LA theorm provides landing next to LA in the same mode.

To ensure differential mode satellite navigation for all theorm, which is used for navigating an aircraft is receiving signals NISS, the formation of a package of corrective information, use on Board LA corrective information to Refine navigation parameters LA and coordinates of each of the L theorm. Use on Board LA corrective information obtained from the response information signals theorm described above is the procedure, allows you to implement a differential mode satellite navigation and to improve the accuracy and reliability of determination of navigation parameters of the aircraft. Thus the coordinate of each L theorm described above allows mobile theorm.

We emphasize that improving the reliability and accuracy of navigation parameters LA achieved in the proposed comprehensive way of navigating through the introduction of new actions and interactions for the satellite signals and radio ranging and information signals:

- integrated processing taking into account the error in the determination of PD, continuous correction algorithm of complex processing and comparative evaluation of accuracy of definition of the furnace, continuous correction algorithm of complex processing and evaluating errors in the determination of the navigation options on satellite and radio ranging to navigation;

- transition to landing on the runway with the use of a satellite method for determining navigation parameters and the use of radio distance measuring method for generating and transmitting an information package with corrective information;

- change the type of differential corrections from the DP to the coordinates of the furnace to the pseudorange.

Options predlojeno what about the way to extend its functionality.

Mathematical modeling and scaled-down test of the navigation system, built on the basis of ground-based and airborne radio systems distance measuring equipment and on-Board equipment for global navigation satellite systems, which has claimed the complex navigation of aircraft, show that the accuracy of the navigation system increases 3-5 times, the noise immunity of the system increases by 50-70 dB, flight safety, in comparison with the prototype, increased by approximately 20-30%.

Experienced system that implements the proposed method was built using the ranging channel domestic equipment RSBN 85V-130-mode HVAC, and equipment for the global navigation system GLONASS/GPS type BMS-Indicator. This hardware implementation of the new proposed action was implemented using computing devices similar to those used in the prototype.

In onboard complexes promising domestic AIRCRAFT on which you will install the equipment RSBN-85C-130 in conjunction with BMS-Indicator, implemented the basic elements of the inventive integrated navigation method, which confirmed its effectiveness.

Thus, the claimed invention is extremely promising for use on an aircraft with the purpose of the provision of global navigation definitions improve noise immunity and accuracy of measurement of coordinates and, ultimately, to improve safety.

Literature

1. Network satellite navigation system. / Shebshaevich B.C., Dmitriev, P.P., Ivancevich NV and others; Ed. by Wasserchemie. - 2nd ed., revised and enlarged extra - M.: Radio and communication, 1993. - 408 S.

2. GLONASS. The principles of construction and operation. Ed. Ahipara, Vinaria. - 4th ed., revised and enlarged extra - M.: radio engineering. - 800 C.

3. Patent 2130622 EN G01S 5/12 19.12.1997 "Method group navigation of moving objects" VIKA them. Mozhaisky.

4. Satellite differential system that includes several control and correction stations. // Sbolton, Usalarm, Spirulin etc. / news navigation. - 2005. No. 4. - P.31-34.

5. Patent RU 2155969 G01S 5/02 24.05.1999 "Method of differential navigation" VIKA them. Mozhaisky.

6. Patent RU 2112991 G01S 1/02 16.06.1997, "Integrated radio navigation system", CJSC " Company "Kotlin".

7. Patent RU 2331901 G01S 5/02 17.07.2007, "the Way of the landing aircraft using SNA and landing system based on it", JSC "VNIIRA-Navigator.

8. Sosnowski A.A. and other Aeronautical radio navigation, directory. - M.: Transport, 1990.

9. Patent US 2010/0106416, "Navigation of aircraft using GPS, inertial control system, and distance measuring equipment (DME)", 28.10.2008.

10. Patent for useful model 113243, "RA is biotechnically complex navigation and flight control LA naval", 6.06.2011.

11. Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards for the LAAS, RTCA/DO-245, Washington, Sept.28, 1998.

12. Soloviev Y.A. Satellite navigation and its applications. ): Eco-Trends, 2003.

13. Kazarinov, Y.M. and other Design devices filtering signals. - Leningrad: Izd. Leningrad state University. 1985.

14. Gavrishuk CENTURIES and other Modeling and study of integrated navigation systems containing DME, internal combustion engines and the sensor rate. The problems of radio electronics, vol. RLT, issue 2. - M. 2009.

15. McGraw G.A. et al. Development of the LAAS accuracy models. ION GPS 2000, 19-22 September 2000, Salt Lake City, UT. - p.1212-1223.

16. Rogers R. Applied mathematics in integrated navigation systems. AIAA, 2007.

1. Complex navigation of aircraft (LA), providing for the location of LA using the satellite navigation method according to N navigation artificial earth satellites (NISS)forming a working constellation, which includes receiving signals NICS on Board the AIRCRAFT, the determination in the mentioned signals navigation parameters LA satellite method as pseudorange and coordinate, and simultaneously with the above-mentioned method using radio ranging of the navigation method based on determining the distances LA and L, ground-based radio beacons (NRM), which includes radiation ranging channel request ranging signal from aboard an aircraft receiving the above signals theorm, basic coordinates are known, fo is the formation and radiation ranging channel response of the ranging signals, welcome aboard LA mentioned response signals, the measurement on Board LA time delay response of the ranging signals on the request of the ranging signals and determining navigation parameters LA on radio distance measuring method, and further providing in the on-Board computer complex processing navigation parameters obtained for each of the mentioned methods of navigation, and displays the calculation results on the display, while in the on-Board computer produced by the control signals of the frequency-time mode of formation sequence mentioned request ranging signal by using the database, LA, characterized in that the signal NISS also produced on earth, at least one of these theorm, located closest to the selected runway, which will be landing in LA, this theorm is determined by satellite navigation reference coordinate theorm, which is the coordinates of the point of reception of the satellite signals, continuously calculates the adjusted reference and a reference coordinate theorm, determined by differential corrections (DOC) to the navigation parameters LA in the form of APS values and APS to the pseudorange satellite navigation method is the formation of the package to rectitude information including the APS values, APS to the pseudorange, errors in the determination of the DP, the data of tropospheric refraction and refined the basic coordinates theorm, the data of tropospheric refraction is pre-calculated based on the updated meteorological data, in parallel, on Board LA is formed and emitted by the ranging channel request information signal, which is received at theorm, next is the radiation theorm on the ranging channel response information signal with the correction information, and transmitted to the DP only DP to coordinate, on Board LA is used for receiving the response information signal and the selection of the packet adjustment information mentioned components, the definition of the navigation options in LA radio distance measuring method using the information from Autonomous sensors LA and specified coordinate reference theorm, calculation of the navigation parameters LA satellite way in the form of coordinates with the correction on the basis of the DP to the coordinates and data of tropospheric refraction, integrated processing of navigation parameters, taking into account the errors in the determination of PD and is continuous correction algorithm integrated navigation processing parameters, the continuous comparative evaluation of accuracy of definition UAI is gazonnyh parameters on satellite and radio navigation, and when you reach LA zone of the aerodrome and the transition to the landing is executed, in the case of smaller values of the error in satellite navigation, translation of the above-mentioned mode sequencing request ranging signal L theorm in the query mode, only one theorm, located at the selected runway, with request information signal contains the characteristic mentioned query mode, only one theorm, and the response information signal transmitted from the above-mentioned components of corrective information, and DP are transmitted only in the form of APS to the pseudorange, aboard LA is the selection of the packet adjustment information mentioned components of the APS to the pseudorange and the pseudorange correction, and then on the adjusted pseudorange calculated the adjusted coordinates of the aircraft.

2. A comprehensive method according to claim 1, characterized in that in the case of transfer aboard corrective information from the DP to the coordinates in the data tropospheric refraction is transmitted tropospheric scale factor height and tropospheric correction coordinate theorm, while adjusting the DP to the coordinates of the altitude of LA by the equation:
,
where Δh- corrected aboard LA value DP to the coordinates;
Δ tothe value DP to the coordinates passed with theorm;
ΔTr- tropospheric correction coordinate theorm;
Δh is the height difference of the location theorm and LA;
h0- tropospheric scale factor height.

3. A comprehensive method according to claim 1, characterized in that the basic coordinates theorm, located at the runway, determined and refined using satellite navigation method by averaging the data for the accumulation of enough time.

4. A comprehensive method according to claim 1, characterized in that the complex processing of navigation parameters LA is performed using a Kalman filter, and continuous correction algorithm complex processing is performed by a corresponding change in the weights used in the Kalman filter, based on a continuous evaluation of errors for satellite and ranging navigation methods.

5. A comprehensive method according to claims 1 or 3, characterized in that a comparative evaluation of errors in satellite and radio navigation is carried out by comparing the correlation matrix of the errors of determination of coordinates for each of the mentioned methods.

6. A comprehensive method according to claim 1, characterized in that in query mode, the aircraft is only one theorm, located at the selected usle is but the runway, increase the repetition rate of the requested information signals.

7. A comprehensive method according to claim 1, characterized in that in query mode, only one theorm in the challenge information signal generates additional code that is authorized access to the response information signal theorm.

8. A comprehensive method according to claim 3, characterized in that when flying multiple AIRCRAFT performing landing using the same theorm, after landing the first LA consistently produce a transition in the query mode, only one theorm when planting each of the next LA.

9. A comprehensive method according to claim 1, characterized in that at all theorm, which is used for navigating an aircraft is receiving signals NISS, the formation of a package of corrective information, use on Board LA corrective information to Refine navigation parameters LA and coordinates of each of the L theorm.



 

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For each navigation device, its name, number, type of equipment, colour, parameters of the flash time chart, operation in time, the current time, given coordinates and linear shift of current coordinates from given coordinates are indicated. A graph of changes of voltage, accumulator charging and discharge current, LED current and light power of LEDs is indicated for a given time interval. LED efficiency is calculated from the ratio of light power to current. Residual accumulator capacitance is calculated from the ratio of the sum of charging and discharge current. Efficiency of external power sources is determined from the amount of charge coming from said power sources to the accumulator. The containment of the navigation devices is determined from presence of moisture and water therein. Degree of degradation of LEDs is determined from the drop in light power inside the cap of the navigation device. Transparency of the cap is determined from the ratio of light power of LEDs on the outer surface of the cap and the inner surface. Transparency of the atmosphere, presence and degree of fog are determined from the ratio of light power at a distance from the navigation device and on the outer surface of the cap. Values calculated for the given time interval are also displayed in form of graphs. The life of accumulators and LEDs is predicted. Instructions to replace equipment at the navigation devices are given. In case of a fault in the navigation system, all information is analysed in order to locate the faulty navigation device and then a specific unit in the faulty device. Information on the weather and water environment around the navigation devices is transmitted to upper-lying control systems. Coordinates and operating modes of said devices are transmitted in order to notify sailors on accidents at navigation devices. Information on fixed objects is also transmitted through hydroacoustic signals. Commands for measuring the current time and the current ambient illumination level when night falls and when day breaks are also transmitted from the control centre to a selected navigation device. Depending on transparency of the atmosphere, a command is transmitted to measure LED current of the main and backup light sources, as well as a command for audio and video capturing of the environment and transmission thereof to the control centre, turning on and off the siren upon intrusion of the navigation device, commands for forced turning on or off the main or backup light sources, commands for measuring time or periodicity of transmitting information from navigation devices and a command for unscheduled transmission of information to the control centre. A list of telephone numbers is also created within each navigation device, through which communication between the navigation device and telephones with given numbers takes place. Different telephone numbers are assigned different access levels for receiving information and issuing control commands. If necessary, control centres alter the list of telephone numbers and their access level.

EFFECT: broader functional capabilities and higher reliability of navigation.

FIELD: testing equipment.

SUBSTANCE: process to monitor a survey control and navigation system (SCNS) is divided into three functional blocks of control operations: a block of operations to monitor serviceability, a block of control operations during initial alignment, a block of control operations for determination of accuracy characteristics; is performed by results of route laying between reference points, calculation of errors on the basis of produced parameters and their comparison with specified limit values. To perform testing, a process ground vehicle (PGV) is used, on which with the help of process facilities there are elements of controlled systems mounted, before control operations they perform operations of process running-in and calibration of the SCNS.

EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities.

2 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: measuring device of disturbance parameters consists of an antenna, a receiver-transmitter, a Doppler frequency metre, a speed measuring unit, a calculating device of wave height and phase speed of wave, a calculating device, a scheme for determining a fluctuation component of speed, a device for determining the direction of wave arrival, a calculating device of wave incidence angle, a measuring module and a correction unit, as well as of a unit of antennae receiving satellite signals, a receiver of satellite signals, a functional logic unit, a monitor; at that, the unit of antennae receiving satellite signals is connected at its outputs to inputs of the satellite signal receiver that is connected at its output to the input of the functional logic unit that is connected at its two more inputs to two outputs of the correction unit and at output to the monitor input. The functional logic unit includes an interface unit with a ship movement control system and a ship complex of hydrometeorological information, a software module, a calculating unit, a navigation filter for simulation of ship movement.

EFFECT: improving measurement accuracy of disturbance parameters from the board of movable sea facilities owing to decreasing influence factors of oscillation motion on measurement results.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: indirect measurement of flying vehicle attitude.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system includes angular velocity and linear acceleration sensors, satellite navigation system and digital computer which is used for synchronous reception of data from information systems for matching the trajectory formed by signal of angular velocity and linear acceleration sensors with trajectory measured by satellite navigation system. Besides that, computer ensure functioning of recurrent algorithm of estimation of bank, pitch and yawing angles at sliding time interval.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy.

1 dwg

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