System and method for ground material characterisation in grinding system
SUBSTANCE: system and method for ground material characterisation in a grinding system use an irradiation section through which at least a part of the ground material stream is fed and with irradiation means for irradiating the particles in the part of the stream with electromagnetic radiation; and a detection section for passage, having a detection means for detecting electromagnetic radiation emitted from the particles of the part of the ground material stream fed through the irradiation section The detection means comprises an imaging system and a colour image sensor for imaging the particles thereon using the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the particles. The colour image sensor comprises image elements for spectrally selective detection of the electromagnetic radiation imaged on the sensor image elements. The detection section comprises a luminous means or is made and arranged to detect particles of the ground material using a combination of transmitted and incident light.
EFFECT: high rate and accuracy of detecting properties of a stream of a grinding product.
26 cl, 3 dwg
The invention relates to a system and method of okharakterizovanie milled material in the grinding installation, in particular okharakterizovanie particles in the product stream grinding grain in the flour.
As a rule, the flow of ground material passes first through a cleaning step, in which the foreign body contamination and poor quality milled material, such as broken or infected grain, separated from the cleaned milled material due to mechanical, aerodynamic and/or the optical separation or sorting. It is necessary to find a compromise between purity and yield of the purified milled material. SITA and settings sieving, air flow and/or the optical separation criteria are set so that when the cleaning was removed as much as possible "good" milled material and, nevertheless, achieved a sufficient quality of the refined milled material. It is therefore desirable to oharakterizovat coming milled material, cleaned milled material and/or removed when cleaning the milled material. If the flow of the milled material is too much of a good ground material or if the quality of the milled material above specifications, then the intensity of the separation is reduced, and accordingly reverse and actions are too low and the quality of the milled material after cleaning. The characteristics of the incoming milled material can be judged on its quality and to predict, to choose good stages of separation.
When the grinding of the grain material, such as wheat, grinding machine such as roller machine, he is crushed between rollers roller pair. To get the flour with defined Tonini and composition of the ground material should, as a rule, several times to guide you through this passage, and during this process due to the shock loosening break the agglomerates and by air separation and sieving is carried out classification. This allows to obtain flour of different fineness or the degree of grinding.
Grinding action of the passage depends mainly on the gap between the two rollers roller pair, the rotation frequency and the frequency ratio of rotation of the rollers. However, there are other operational parameters or features roller mill, such as geometry and wear of the roller surface, which affect the grinding action of the passage. It is therefore desirable to obtain a characterization of the milled material, leaving after a certain passage. If this occurs, the deviation of the milled material from its specified characteristics, on the basis of this deviation, it is possible to adjust the Azora, the frequency ratio of rotation or, if necessary, other operational parameters of the roller mill as quickly as possible to compensate. Additionally, you can find also a need for the service component, roller mill, for example, if a given characteristic due to too much worn-out roll can not be more advisable achieved.
In WO 2006/116882 A1 describes a system and method okharakterizovanie stream of particles, and register the shape, size and character of the motion of individual particles. In particular, is going fine information about the flow of the milled material, the result of which is determined by the distribution of particle size in the stream. This distribution can then be used for control or regulation of the roller mill.
In the US 4421772 the described device and the system through which the ground material can be illuminated by the light source and the light can register using the registration unit.
The basis of the invention lies in the task of creating a system and method that would provide more extensive and informative okharakterizovanie flow of ground material in the grinding installation, and, in particular, should be informative okharakterizovanie particles in the flow of whole grain cereals, and p is omegatech and the final products of the milling of grain crops in the plant for grinding. Thanks to the invention provides the ability to significantly improve the speed and accuracy of registration of the properties of the stream of the milled product.
This problem is solved by a system and method in accordance with the independent claims.
The proposed system okharakterizovanie milled material in the grinding installation includes the site of exposure to skip at least part of the stream of ground material by means of irradiation of particles, at least part of the stream of electromagnetic radiation and land registration to skip at least part of the flow of the milled material with the tool reception of electromagnetic radiation, which is emitted by the particle part of the stream of ground material passed through the site of exposure. According to the invention, the registration tool contains a display system and a color image sensor for the display particles by means of reflected or emitted by them of electromagnetic radiation, and the sensor is a color image contains image elements for spectral-selective registration displayed on electromagnetic radiation.
This allows you to use the "color information" for okharakterizovanie particles flow of ground material through them from the images emitted by their electromagnetic radiation on the sensor is a color image, then the spectral-selectively registers the radiation on their image elements. Under the "color information" within the framework of the invention it should be understood not only the color in the proper sense of the word, but also spectral information outside the visible spectrum, in particular in the UV or IR region.
Feature through the distribution of particle size may be adjusted due to the additional dimension features using color information. It is particularly preferable for evaluation of grinding grain as originating from various areas of the grain fragments have different colors or different radiating nature when exposed to certain electromagnetic radiation (infrared, visible light, UV). So, for example, derived from the endosperm of the grain fragments or products of the milling lighter and rather white than yellow, part of the germ of the grain, rather, yellow to green, and the events of the shell zone fragments grain dark and rather brown.
When milling wheat, for example, it is often desirable to prevent grinding the whole grain indiscriminately into small particles, which consist of only the endosperm, only part of the shell or are mixed with particles of endosperm and shell. On the contrary, there is a desire electoral grinding wheat or other cereal cool the tour, so particles of pure endosperm mostly, or on average rather small and have about "spherical" or "lumpy" shape, and a particle shell - mostly, or on average rather large and have approximately the "plate" shape. Such selective grinding facilitates the fractionation milled material at a later stage fractionation, making the whole process of grinding can be more efficient, i.e. grinding and subsequent simpler screening/fractionation not only in size but also in the form of fragments. This not only provides for various end products, such as bran, groats, meal, or germ, but varying the composition of the final products, for example, in relation to fibers, minerals, protein and/or fat.
Due to the proposed use of the information about the particle size and color can better estimate the selectivity of a grinding or separation than using only information about the particle size.
For the aforementioned example, grinding of wheat, this means that at high selectivity grinding process practically there are only particles of endosperm and shell particles with only a small amount of adhering endosperm, whereas low selectivity - bol the large number of mixed particles of endosperm and shell and only a small number only of particles of endosperm and a small number of particles of the shell with a small amount of adhering endosperm.
Thanks to the invention for grinding wheat high selectivity is observed when the spectrum of the particle size of the fine particles range in color from light or white to yellow (fraction of the endosperm), and large - from dark or grey to brown (particle shell).
By using color information by using image processing to make a conclusion about the quantitative composition of the particles. This color information can be associated with information about the particle size, which may be obtained size distribution only particle shell (dark or grey to brown), size distribution of mixed particles with defined proportions of the components, as well as size distribution only particles of the endosperm. This General information is the communication of color information and information about the particle size and can be used to control and/or regulation of the process. If, for example, increasing the proportion of mixed particles or decreases the particle size of the shell, the reason may be the width of the clearance when grinding, changing the moisture content of the grain or worn surface of the roller. By processing the accumulated previously measured data and their processing in relation to the interaction between the color information and the size of the particles can be strongly localize the cause of the fault. You can also link to color the th information other properties of the particles, for example, the size, configuration, form factor and speed of particles to obtain detailed information about the product and operational condition of the machine or installation. The color image sensor can also be used in combination with other measurement methods, such as measurement method, near-infrared spectroscopy, MIR or IR measurement, UV measurement, inductive and/or capacitive measurement methods.
Mainly in the removal from the site of exposure provides a plot of desagglomeration agglomerates milled material in its flow. This prevents the registration and identification of agglomerates of several particles milled material the wrong way as larger particles of ground material. Mainly particles at the site of desagglomeration accelerated in the air stream and are separated due to the resulting inkjet-mechanical cutting efforts. The ideal way to land registration serving intermediate and final products of grinding grain at speeds exceeding 10 m/s, and whole grains with speeds from 1 to 10 m/S.
Land registration can be placed in the direction of flow of ground material at the site of exposure. This is especially preferred if the difference of the emitted particle spectrum occurs only with a certain delay after irradiation particles ass is authorized spectrum or with a given frequency (or wavelength). For example, dark shell particles after irradiation of visible light tends to stronger radiation in the infrared region than light particles of the endosperm.
The areas of registration and radiation can be in the direction of flow of the milled material in one place. This provides a compact design of the proposed device.
Mostly the land register contains two opposite walls between which is formed a gap, through which is passed at least part of the flow of ground material, both of the opposite walls are mostly parallel to each other in the form of flat surfaces. Mainly the registration tool is directed into the gap.
It is advisable opposite wall portion of the Desk is made permeable to the radiation detected by the sensor is a color image. Thus, the color image sensor may be positioned with either side of the gap behind one of the walls. Additionally, when placing the unit irradiation from both sides of the gap portion of the Desk, the combination of incident and transmitted illumination light can combine the advantages of both methods of lighting. This mainly with telecentric exposure milled material in the transmitted light path of the shadow even of multicaster clearly displayed on the color image sensor, whereas with the light falling obliquely at an angle mainly of at least 45° to the vertical, found the relevant information about the color of the particles. Due to this, compared to coverage of only the incident light can be detected more sharp contours, however, in contrast to light only transmitted light, however, is the color information.
Mainly from the two opposite walls of the site registering the first wall is made permeable to the electromagnetic radiation detected by the sensor is a color image, and the second wall is impermeable to electromagnetic radiation detected by the sensor is a color image, and more absorbing than the particles. In this implementation, the sensor is a color image and a source of electromagnetic radiation detected by the color image sensor, in particular a light source, are located on the same side of the gap on the permeable wall being converted from him. This allows to irradiate transported through the gap milled material sample, and the scattered light or reflected particles of the sample falls within the field of view sensor color image. Mostly this implementation uses a telecentric lens telecentric illumination of the incident light to register on the scale of particles all over the a range of the depth of field.
It is advisable to registration tool is located on one side of the gap on the permeable wall being converted from him, and the means of irradiation are located on the same side of the gap on the permeable wall being converted from him, resulting in irradiated transported through the gap of the particles of the stream of ground material.
Primarily addressed to the gap surface of the second wall has a stronger absorption of the emitted radiant means electromagnetic radiation than the surface of the particles of the stream of ground material. Due to this, between the reflecting particles of the milled material moving before facing the gap surface, and reflected from the walls of the radiation is sufficient contrast that makes it easy to register the displayed particles of ground material and greatly facilitate the subsequent image processing. This reduces the number of complex and time-consuming processes of filtering in image processing.
Each of the two opposite walls may be provided with a cleaning device, with which the two opposite walls may be exempt from adhering to the particles of the milled material. The cleaning device may be the source of vibrations, in particular an ultrasound source, rigidly connected with one of the two against Apolonia walls with the possibility of their reduction in vibration. This sensor color image is not displayed too much stationary, i.e. adhering to one or the other wall of the particles of the milled material. Distribution adhering to the walls of the particle size, as a rule, other than the distribution of particles picked up by the flow of the milled material. If when registering and processing information about the image of the stream of ground material, it is desirable to abandon the distinction between stationary and moving particles, then you should regularly carry out the cleaning of the walls, to "shake off" with them adhering particles. As the cleaning unit is considered the source of vibrations, in particular an ultrasound source, with which you can transfer the vibration of the gaseous medium between the two opposite walls.
Mainly the areas of radiation and reception are located downstream behind the chopping block and/or block fractionation of the grinding installation, and unit grinding is, in particular, roller coating machine. Mostly in this case, the area of the first axial end of the roller mill are the first sections of the radiation and reception, and in the area of the second axial end of the roller mill - second areas of the radiation and reception. This allows you to obtain information on the degree of milling as a function of the OS is the first position along the roller pair. In the case of the asymmetric characteristics of the milled material along the roller pair or, in particular, between the left and right end areas of the passage between the rolls it is possible to draw conclusions about the incorrect orientation of the roller pair and to intervene to adjustments.
Mainly the system includes image processing system originating from the sensor color image. This image processing system contains mainly means that, if displayed by the color image sensor (in particular, in the mode of reflection or transmitted light) and registered particles milled material can distinguish between moving and adhering to the walls of the particles. This can, for example, due to double registration particles in one or two successive images to determine its speed. Alternatively, you can also through the analysis of at least the last two images to detect stationary particles. Then adhering to the wall of the stationary particles can remain unaccounted for image processing, so that estimates are only moving particles. Due to this, it is possible to avoid distortion of the distribution of particles by size.
Mainly before and/or during the pass, at least part of the stream of ground material through the section d is istratii is desagglomeration agglomerates milled material in its flow. Mainly during and/or after transportation, at least part of the stream of ground material through the site registration will be processed displayed on the image sensor. The irradiation particles, registration radiated by a particle radiation and the processing is displayed on the image sensor can occur continuously, and, in particular, irradiation of the particles may occur stroboscopically through a series of light flashes.
To ensure continuous processing is displayed on the image sensor, the system ideally includes, in particular, integrated computing unit, such as DSP (digital signal processor) and/or FPGA (field programmable gate array - user-programmable gate array) to handle the higher frequencies of the image is predominantly more than 15 images per second. Computing unit decreases registered sensor data and classifies it in relation to the measured properties of particles, such as color proportion, size, contour, shape and/or speed, in the histograms that represent a statistically relevant information. Then, this information is accumulated mainly during the measurement time from one second to five minutes, and then transferred to the device for control or regulation of PR the process or the data memory.
Displayed on the image sensor, at least part of the stream of ground material can be used to control the grinding installation, namely, in particular, to regulate its chopping block and/or block fractionation.
In addition to the size, shape and possibly other properties of particles, such as speed, the invention allows to distinguish the color of the particles consisting of the main components of cereal grains. Due to this, it is possible for different colors of the main components of bread grain (endosperm, the shell, the germ) to determine the corresponding specific color distribution of particle size. Thanks to get a pictorial view of the grinding and fractionation at the appropriate stage of the grinding process, so this process can be optimized in the "online" and to establish the optimum operating condition for various raw materials and environmental conditions.
Through the use of two or more data loggers at each site of exposure can significantly reduce the time to obtain a reasonably accurate statistics of particle size. When this logger are mostly different size fragments of images. One tool irradiation can be used for one or more funds in case the AI.
The invention is illustrated below with reference to schematic drawings without limiting its object depicted on them options for implementation. In the drawings represent:
figure 1 - grain bread and foreign bodies;
figure 2 - products grinding;
figure 3 - the proposed system.
Figure 1 shows bread 1 whole, crushed 2 and 3 affected grain and foreign body 4. Particle shell grain, rather dark (from gray to brown), and the endosperm rather bright (white to yellow), which can be seen on the edge of the crushed grain 2. Infected grain rather dark.
Figure 2 schematically depicts a typical products grinding, obtained by grinding cereal grains: particle 4 shell particles 4 shell still stuck with 5 endosperm and embryo 7. The preferred milled product are purely spherical or lumpy particles 6 of the endosperm.
Figure 3 shows a variant of the proposed system okharakterizovanie particles in the product stream grinding grain in the plant for its grinding. In this example, the areas of the radiation and reception are at the same height of the gap through which is passed a stream of ground material. Various products of milling 4, 5, 6 pass through the gap and irradiated with irradiation unit 8 electromagnetic radiation (here transmitted light). Irradiated, thus the om, products of the milling 4, 5, 6, in turn, emit electromagnetic radiation, which through a lens or lens system 11 is directed to the sensor 10 of the color image and recorded them. Especially preferred is a combination of transmitted light (produced by irradiation unit 8) and the incident light that is oriented at an acute angle to the flow of ground; this is illustrated by the block 9 lighting.
1. System okharakterizovanie particles in the product stream grinding grain in the flour, and okharakterizovanie includes okharakterizovanie particle grain size, containing:
the site of exposure to skip at least part of the stream of ground material, and the site of exposure contains at least one means of irradiation of particles, at least part of the flow of products grinding with electromagnetic radiation;
land registration for the passage of at least part of the stream of ground material, and the land register contains at least logger electromagnetic radiation emitted by the particle part of the stream of ground material passed through the site of exposure,
the logger contains a display system and a color image sensor, which is designed so that the particles through and who had received electromagnetic radiation may be displayed on the color image sensor, moreover, the sensor is a color image contains image elements for spectral-selective registration displayed on electromagnetic radiation, characterized in that the section of the Desk contains at least one luminous means, or a combination of the luminous means, performed/executed and situated/located with the option to register the particles of ground material using a combination of transmitted and incident light.
2. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that the removal from the site of exposure provides a plot of desagglomeration agglomerates milled material in the stream.
3. The system according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the parts of the Desk and irradiation are located in the direction of flow of the milled material in the same place.
4. The system according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the section of the Desk contains two opposite walls between which is formed a gap, through which is passed at least part of the flow of ground material.
5. The system according to claim 4, characterized in that the registration tool is directed into the gap.
6. The system according to claim 5, characterized in that the opposite wall of the section of the Desk is made permeable to the electromagnetic radiation detected by the sensor is a color image.
7. The system according to claim 6, otlichayas the same time, which of the two opposite walls of the site registering the first wall is made permeable to the electromagnetic radiation detected by the sensor is a color image, and the second wall is impermeable to electromagnetic radiation detected by the sensor is a color image, and more absorbing than the particles.
8. The system according to claim 7, characterized in that the logger is located on one side of the gap on the permeable wall being converted from him, and the means of irradiation are located on the same side of the gap on the permeable wall being converted from him, resulting in irradiated transported through the gap of the particles of the stream of ground material.
9. The system according to claim 7 or 8, characterized in that facing the gap surface of the second wall has a stronger absorption of the radiation by means of electromagnetic radiation than the surface of the particles of the stream of ground material.
10. The system according to claim 9, characterized in that the two opposite walls are provided with respectively one cleaning device, with which the two opposite walls or only permeable wall may be exempt from adhering to the particles of the milled material.
11. The system of claim 10, wherein the cleaning device is a source of vibrations, in particular an ultrasound source, estco connected respectively with two opposite walls, to bring both wall vibration.
12. The system of claim 10 or 11, characterized in that the cleaning device is a source of vibrations, in particular an ultrasound source, made with the possibility of bringing to the vibration of gaseous medium between the two opposite walls.
13. System according to any one of claims 1, 2, 5-8, 10 and 11, characterized in that the area of irradiation and land registration are located downstream behind the chopping block and/or block fractionation, and/or the cleaning unit of the grinding installation.
14. The system of item 13, wherein the chopping block is roller coating machine.
15. System 14, characterized in that in the area of the first axial end of the roller mill are the first site of exposure and the first section of the Desk, and in the area of the second axial end of the roller mill is the second site of exposure and a second section of the Desk.
16. System according to any one of claims 1, 2, 5-8, 10, 11, 14 and 15, characterized in that it further comprises an image processing system originating from the sensor color image.
17. The system of clause 16, characterized in that it includes, in particular, the embedded computer unit made with the possibility of continuous processing of image information and transmitting the received information about individual particles or statistical data, the particular certain period of time,
on the device control, management, regulation, process or machine and/or in the data memory.
18 System 17, characterized in that the section of the Desk contains at least one luminous means, or a combination of the luminous means, performed/executed and situated/located with the option to register the particles of ground material by using, in particular, telecentric incident light.
19. System according to any one of claims 1, 2, 5-8, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17 and 18, characterized in that the incident light is directed at an acute angle to the flow of the milled material.
20. How okharakterizovanie particles in the product stream grinding grain in the flour, and okharakterizovanie includes okharakterizovanie particle grain size, comprising the following steps;
pass at least part of the stream of ground material through the area of irradiation and irradiation of particles, at least part of the stream of ground material by electromagnetic radiation;
pass at least part of the stream of ground material through land registration and recording of electromagnetic radiation emitted or reflected by the particles of the flow of ground material passed through the site of exposure;
and particles emitted by their electromagnetic radiation otobrajati the sensor is a color image, with the help of which the spectral-selectively record the electromagnetic radiation on the image elements,
characterized in that the particles of the milled material is recorded by using a combination of transmitted and incident light.
21. The method according to claim 20, characterized in that before and/or during the pass, at least part of the stream of ground material through the site registration exercise desagglomeration agglomerates milled material in the stream.
22. The method according to claim 20 or 21, characterized in that during and/or after omitting at least part of the stream of ground material through the site registration process images displayed on the color image sensor.
23. The method according to item 22, wherein the irradiation particles, registration radiated by a particle radiation and the processing of the images displayed on the color image sensor, carried out continuously.
24. The method according to item 23, wherein the irradiation of the particles perform stroboscopically through a series of light flashes.
25. The method according to one of p, 21, 23 and 24, characterized in that the image displayed on the color image sensor, at least part of the stream of ground material, used for control or regulation of the grinding installation.
26. The method according A.25 different is the present, the image displayed on the color image sensor, at least part of the stream of ground material, are used to regulate the chopping block and/or block fractionation of the grinding installation.
FIELD: flour milling and baking industry.
SUBSTANCE: method for measuring wheat grain hardness includes grain milling and measuring the maximum milling collapsing force. The maximum collapsing force is measured by taking microphotographs of the resulting flour using optical microscope. On these photographs at least 300 segments are drawn from the centre of mass into all directions of the figure composed by the contour of the flour particle. Then the arithmetical average X (mcm) of the resulting segments and the length variation quotient K (%) of these segments are calculated. Then the maximum collapsing force, Pmax, plastograph unit, using the following formula:
Pmax=9,51·Xavg+6,02·Kavg+112,04, where Xavg is the average X value after measuring at least 5000 pieces of grain (mcm) and Kavg is the average value of K after measuring at least 5000 pieces of grain.
EFFECT: more accurate wheat grain hardness measurement; test time reduction; labour intensity reduction.
1 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: one mills grains to produce 70% yield flour, then one determines water absorbing capacity and valorimetric value of the flour. For determination of water absorbing capacity and valorimetric value of the flour one takes micrographs of milled grains by optical microscopy method; in the micrographs, from the centre of gravity of the figure limited by the flour particle contour, one draws no less than 300 sections towards the particle contour in all the directions, one determines the arithmetic mean value of the produced sections lengths X, mcm and the coefficient of the produced sections lengths variation K, then one determines water absorbing capacity WAC, %, from the formula: WAC=0.53·Kmean.-0.67·Xmean+93.02, valorimetric value of flour V, device units, from the formula: WAC=0.47·Kmean-0.61·Xmean+85.28, where Xmean - arithmetic mean value X in case of measurement of no less than 5000 grain particles, mcm, Kmean - statistically average value K in case of measurement no less than 5000 grain particles.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of determination.
3 ex, 3 tbl
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for sugar cookie quality control. 2-5 g of sugar cookie sample is weighed with the result of weighing recorded up to the third decimal sign, placed into a centrifugal tube and poured with petroleum ether in an amount of 30-35 cm3, thoroughly stirred with a glass rod and centrifugated during 10-15 minutes at a rate of 2500-3000 rpm. The supernatant is decanted. One repeats the operation 3 times each time decanting the supernatant. One dries the produced sediment in water bath, proceeds with drying in the drying chamber at a temperature of (100-105)°C, comminutes the produced dried sediment with the glass rod. Then the defatted sediment is added 30-50 cm3 of ammonium sulphate solution to with a weight fraction of 10%; the mixture is thoroughly stirred, extracted during 20-40 minutes and centrifugated during 10-15 minutes at a rate of 2500-3000 rpm. One places the clear solution the clean centrifugal tube for protein sedimentation, adds 0.9-1.1 cm3 of glacial acetic acid and 3.5-4.5 cm3 of tannic acid with a weight fraction of 1.0% to it and stirs the mixture. The protein sediment is separated by centrifugation and dissolved in 10 cm3 of ammonium sulphate with 10% weight fraction. One measures the solution absorption at wave length 260 nm and 280 nm by means of a spectrophotometre. The protein weight fraction in the solution is determined applying Warburg and Christian method accounting for the content of nucleinic acids according to the formula: where M - protein weight fraction in solution, %, 1.55 and 0.76 - empirical coefficient, mg/cm3, A280 - protein solution absorption at wave length 280 nm, A260 - protein solution absorption at wave length 260 nm, 1000 - mg to g recalculation coefficient, ρ - density of protein solution, g/cm3. The protein weight fraction in sugar cookie Y(%) is calculated according to the formula: where m - batch weight, g; V - protein solution volume, cm3; 1.48 - coefficient accounting for losses of soluble protein in the process of baking and insoluble proteins.
EFFECT: accuracy enhancement and analysis acceleration.
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes kneading dough of wheat flour with moisture content 28-30 % and the dough pressing. One determines the torque value on the screw electric drive and during pressing and establishes the dependence of torque variation on pressing duration. The torque value variation dependence character is established by way of the screw rotation frequency variation of by way of dough temperature measurement. The optimal screw rotation frequency and the optimal dough temperature are determined by the dependence established when the torque value remains invariable in the course of pressing. Alternatively, one determines the screw electric drive input power variation and establishes the dependence of the power input on the screw rotation frequency or on the dough temperature. The optimal screw rotation frequency and the optimal dough temperature are determined by the dependence established.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of control of the process of pressing wheat flour pasta dough with varied technological properties and pasta products quality improvement.
5 dwg, 4 ex
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in the dough recipe specification, determination of the recipe components quality parameters i.e. moisture content, concentration and temperature and the dough kneading controlling parameters i.e. moisture content, temperature of water supplied for kneading, kneading duration. During the dough kneading controlling parameters setting dough moisture content determination is performed by way of measurement of the kneading tool drive input power at different values of dough moisture content and establishment of dependence of the kneading tool drive input power on the dough moisture content value with subsequent determination of the optimal dough moisture content. Determination of the temperature of water supplied for kneading is performed by way of measurement of the kneading tool drive input power at different values of water temperature and establishment of dependence of the kneading tool drive input power on the water temperature value with subsequent determination of the optimal temperature of water used for dough kneading. The optimal dough kneading duration is determined with account for the optimal temperature of water used for dough kneading and the optimal dough moisture content during variation of the kneading tool drive input power value by way of recording the beginning of the period of time during which the torque value on the kneading tool shaft remains at the same level.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of the wheat dough kneading process control during production of pasta products.
3 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: test sample is put into an aqueous solution/suspension with mineral salts and/or acids and/or alkalis in a defined amount in a sampling vessel (1) using blades (2) of a mixer with an electric drive. Resistance offered by the blades (2) of the mixer by the sample during movement is measured, for which torsional forces acting on the electric motor of the drive are measured with strain gauges from the beginning of the movement process, where the said drive is fitted with possibility of rotation, and measurement ends when maximum torque is achieved, wherein the measurement process is monitored, controlled and analysed by a program.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain more accurate analysis results independent of the sample and heat effects with minimum amount of the sample.
5 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: for proper conducting technical process of dough kneading of a certain dough consistency an indicator of water absorbing capacity of flour (WAC) is used. The method of determining the water absorbing capacity of flour from soft wheat grains provides testing of grain nature, determination of protein in grain and calculation of water absorbing capacity of flour, as follows: WAC = 0.1137 N+ 1.9576 P - 56.40, where: WAC is water absorbing capacity of flour, %; N is a grain nature, g/L; P is grain protein, %.
EFFECT: method of the invention is simple and enables to define water absorbing capacity of flour with a high level of accuracy.
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises the following components arranged along vertical axis - upper compactor with electrode on lower base, limiter of motion on upper base and possibility to move along axis, hollow reservoir, lower compactor with electrode on upper base, with mechanism of motion along vertical axis and possibility to register the moment of specified compression value, retaining spring and electric metering circuit. Upper compactor is arranged with the possibility to release upper window of reservoir, and lower compactor - with the possibility of rigid fixation. Analyser is also equipped with circuit for fixation of distance between electrodes and photometric block with sources of radiation arranged over upper compactor with the possibility to move towards vertical axis and photodetector of scattered radiation. Photometric block, walls of hollow reservoir and surface of previously compacted sample supported by fixed lower compactor, produce photometric chamber with permanent dimensions.
EFFECT: simultaneous express measurement of quality and quantity properties of gluten.
FIELD: analytical methods in food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention, in particular, relates to baking, confectionary, and macaroni industries. Method of invention is based on measuring reflection in test sample during proceeding of intensive enzymatic reaction over a period of 30-35 min followed by calculating coefficient of reflection of test sample after 6-6.5 h of observation according to exponential law and determining darkening ability of wheat flour from change in coefficient of reflection before and after observation. In addition, if estimation of flour and macaroni color is necessary, their coefficient of reflection may be measured using blue and green light diode, after which color grade will be calculated.
EFFECT: reduced time of determining coefficient of reflection from test sample surface and increased accuracy in predicting coefficient of reflection after specified period of time.
1 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes sample of samples, measurement of general amount of samples, measurement of volume of pore-free mass as relation of total weight of samples to density of pore-free mass. Lightness of cakes is calculated on base of received values. Comparison of the factors is subject to subsequent comparison. Method can be used for development of new sorts of product and during production process.
EFFECT: improved efficiency.
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: method for determining background turbidity consists in extraction of a particle of specified sizes by means of a filter; for that purpose, gravitational separation of particles of a suspension is performed in a laminar flow at the specified stabilised speed of its movement. A device for determining background turbidity includes a filter with the specified mesh size, as well as in-series connected turbulence arrester, a gravitational suspension separation chamber, a measurement system of background suspension parameters, a pump and a stabilisation system of water pumping speed.
EFFECT: improving accuracy and reliability of measurements.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves raw milk sampling from the milk line from the milking station to the accumulation station, a spectral analysis of such raw milk samples, Forecasting of at least one coagulation parameter in an online mode based on such spectral analysis and milk delivery (during flowing through the milk line) to different destinations depending on such at least one coagulation parameter.
EFFECT: method allows to improve milk sorting, facilitates online mode milk sorting, improves milk separation frequency, increases economic value of the herd average milk.
23 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method involves analysis of an image of mixture surface and determination of coefficient of its non-homogeneity. The investigated mixture is uniformly distributed on a smooth surface and divided into necessary number of portions; digital images of their surfaces with build-up of brightness histograms are obtained. Then, each portion is divided into equal number of parts (probes) with build-up of their brightness histograms. Mixture non-homogeneity coefficient is calculated by comparing digital images of parts (probes) of a piston with an image of the whole portion of the investigated mixture as per brightness histograms.
EFFECT: reducing labour intensity, increasing speed and accuracy of determination of quality of mixture of components that differ as to colour.
FIELD: test engineering.
SUBSTANCE: for rapid analysis of grain amount and separation of grain to batches based on one or more amounts of grain parameters the optically dense grain layer is fed continuously through on-line measurement zone, the amount of grain is analysed according to irradiating light on the grain layer, and the light is reflected from the amount of grain, passing through on-line measurement zone, and the light reflected from the amount of grain for providing the spectrum of the amount of grain is recorded, the spectrum is converted into the parameter value of grain or each parameter value of grain, and the grain is separated to batches by sorting the grain amount based on the parameter value of grain or each parameter value of grain. The grain is separated on-line, i.e. during operation of the device, on the basis of the parameter value of grain or each parameter value of grain.
EFFECT: providing analysis and separation of grain to obtain uniform batches of grain on the basis of its specific parameter.
31 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves remote scanning of the surface of a mixture in a mixing apparatus accompanied by LED illumination of the surface of the mixture with white light with a stabilised power supply, processing the obtained image using computer RGB colour models with colour resolution of each point of the sample of the surface of the mixture into three components and calculating entropy of visual information, the value of which is used to determine the degree of homogeneity of the mixed heterogeneous mixture.
EFFECT: invention provides rapid inspection of the degree of homogeneity of the heterogeneous mixture, high accuracy of said information and simple inspection method.
9 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in preliminary production of "reference" mixture and its digital image. Quality of the actual mixture is determined by separation of its digital image into identical number of parts (cells) and their comparison according to brightness histograms with the image of the "reference" mixture. The coefficient of mixture heterogeneity is calculated according to the formula
EFFECT: reduced labour intensiveness, higher speed and accuracy of detection of quality of loose materials mixing.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device for determining the layer height of the substance flowing via an aeroflow conveyor includes an emission source connected at its outlet to emission input element, emission output element connected to the input of polarisation plane turning angle metre, and winding. The device includes a converter, an amplifier, an actuator and a power supply unit. Output of polarisation plane turning angle metre is connected to the converter input, the output of which is connected to the amplifier input. The amplifier output is connected to the first arm of the actuator; the second arm of the actuator is connected to the first arm of the power supply unit, the second arm of which is connected to the beginning of winding; end of winding is connected to the third arm of the actuator.
EFFECT: reduction of power consumption.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus comprises: an illumination device which can generate a light beam in one wavelength range, a probe (PRB) which is such that the light beam from the illumination device interacts with the analysed fluid medium (20), and a spectrum analysis device which can receive the light beam after interaction thereof with the analysed fluid medium and output luminous intensity measurements for different wavelength ranges. The probe (PRB) has a retroreflector-type reflector (13) which reflects in the direction of the light source, which is placed such that it receives the light beam passing from the illumination device through the analysed fluid medium, and reflect it essentially in the opposite direction, while easily expanding it, to a receiving light-guide (12) which is connected to the reflector and the spectrum analysis device so as to receive the light beam passing through the analysed fluid medium and transmit it to the spectrum analysis device.
EFFECT: enabling compensation for alignment defects between optical elements of the device.
27 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy. Simulation is performed by feeding water into teeming vessel 1 stopped by stopper 2 via tube 8 at open valve 9 and switched-on heater 21. Required fluid level and preset temperature reached, controlled by gage 20 and thermocouple 22, respectively, water is fed from teeming vessel 1 via device 4 with holes 5 in mould model. Required water level reached, water flow rate electrical controller 14 opens. Thereafter, water flows vi a cellular cells 11 in baffle 10 into manifold 12 with branch pipe 13. Heated water in mould model heats layer 19 of 0.03 mm-thick liquid crystals on glass walls 6, 7 to produce colour image registered by video camera 17 and transmit it to display of computer 18.
EFFECT: colour imaging of interaction between water flows and pattern walls.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy. Simulation is performed by feeding water into mould model with glass walls at ambient temperature and mould walls temperature of 10-15°C. Inner surface of mould model walls is blackened to apply LC-layer of cholesteryl erukate. Water fed into model is heated to 40-43°C and held therein to 20-25°C to produce colour image by light diffraction at periodic structure of cholesteryl erukate. Then, image is registered by video camera and transmitted to computer display. Water flow rate in model is set equal to ωm=0.4-0.6 m/s. Length 1 of model wide wall is defined using criterion of similarity of Reynolds number Re=ωm·1/ν=(0.16-0.36)106, where ν is water kinematic viscosity.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: flow vessel for optical device intended for calculation and/or differentiation of leucocytes comprises vessel case. Besides, it comprises injector arranged almost aligned with vessel case along sample injection axis. Note here that case and injector are aligned along said axis that is perpendicular to optical axis. Also, proposed device comprises appliance to generate flowing shell for sample flow. Note here that sample flow is injected at pressure relative to flowing shell. Note also that said flowing shell acts passively since it does not constrict sample flow width in widening it. Device includes also zone of analysis arranged down stream of injector. Mind that two orifices are arranged along optical axis, one making light beam inlet and the other making outlet of light bean containing data on sample. Note that vessel analysis zone section has, at least, one crosswise size making 1-5 mm.
EFFECT: simple design, higher efficiency and accuracy, chances of process automation.
16 cl, 1 tbl, 21 dwg