Determination of dust particle concentration nd mean size

FIELD: instrumentation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises conversion of pulse voltage into light flux for analysed medium area to be probed therewith. Measuring channel containing analysed medium and extra channel filled with gas mix cleaned of gas mix are used. Said light flux is splitted in said channels to wide and narrow fluxes to be converted into electric signals while signal proportional to reference channel narrow light flux is subtracted from measuring channel narrow light flux. Obtained signal is synchronously detected and processed by microcontroller. Besides, signal proportional to reference channel wide light flux is subtracted from signal proportional to measuring channel wide flux. Obtained signal is synchronously detected and processed by microcontroller to define total concentration of dust and dust particle size.

EFFECT: higher precision of measurement.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to measuring equipment.

Industrial applicability of the invention consists in the determination of the total concentration and the average size of dust particles and, in turn, the overall share of respirable fraction of dust that is causing occupational lung disease working.

Known optical dust meter (U.S. Pat. Russia №2095792, CL IPC G01N 21/85) for continuous measurement of dust emissions. The principle of operation of the device is as follows: in the optical dust meter first radiator located in front of the working camera, forms the measuring channel and optically connected to a photodetector through a protective window of the working chamber, the second emitter located outside of the working chamber, forms a control channel and optically connected with the photodetector, the third emitter is located inside the working chamber and generates additional control channel and optically connected to a photodetector through a protective window. Under the sequential readout from all of the emitters is determined by the level of dust in the measuring channel and compared with the data obtained from the control channel.

A disadvantage of this device is the inability to determine the average particle size.

There is a method of determining a disperse medium (Shifrin, K.S., B.Z. Moroz, A.N. Sakharov. "The defining characteristic is cteristic dispersed environment according to its transparency" - DAN SSSR, 1971, CH, No. 3 581-598), on the basis of which is composed of a registration device for measuring method fluctuations (Shifrin, K.S. "an Introduction to ocean optics, St. Petersburg: Gidrometeoizdat", 1983 - s-227) is selected as a prototype.

1 shows a block diagram of a device operating according to this method.

The principle of the described method consists in the following. The parallel beam from the light source 1 is modulated by the modulator 2, passes through the observation window 3, 4 cell 4 with the test environment and lands on the beam splitting mirror 6, which passes the Central part of the beam, and sends the rest of the light on the photodetector 9; of the transmitted light aperture 7 is formed a narrow beam that enters the photodetector 8. The photodetector signals are received at block 10, which is an electrical alignment and subtraction signals, then the differential signal is supplied to the amplifier 11 and then to the synchronous detector 12, the reference signal which is supplied from the photodiode 13. The latter is exposed to light modulated by the modulator 2. The spectrum of fluctuations is recorded in the recording unit 14.

The disadvantage of this method is the low accuracy of the measurement of the average size and concentration of the dust particles.

The task of the invention is to improve the accuracy of measurements and the second average size and concentration of the dust particles.

The problem is solved in that the photoelectric method of determining the size and concentration of the dust particles which includes transformation of the pulse voltage luminous flux, the sensing region of the investigated medium by a light beam, splitting the luminous flux at the narrow and wide, converting data streams into electrical signals, the electrical subtraction of these signals, synchronous detection and registration of the spectrum of fluctuations in the recording unit, to improve the accuracy of the measurements are entered in addition to the above-described measuring channel additional reference channel, which is filled with purified from the dust of the gas mixture, its composition is similar to the flue gas of a particular company, the sensed second light beam, then both channels are the separation of the light flux at the narrow and wide, converting the light beams into electrical signals, the subtraction signal proportional to a narrow light beam of the reference channel from a signal proportional to the narrow beam of the measuring channel, synchronous detection of the received signal and further processing in the microcontroller, as well as the subtraction signal proportional wide light beam of the reference channel signal proportional wide beam of the measuring channel, synchronous detection of the received signal and further processing in the microcontroller, which determines the received signals of wide and narrow beams, the total dust concentration and size of dust particles.

The technical result, which can be obtained by carrying out the invention is to improve the accuracy of concentration measurements, as well as to determine the average size of dust particles.

Figure 2 shows a block diagram of a device operating according to this method.

The device includes a source of pulsed voltage 1, connected in series with the light source 2, connected in series and optically connected to the input of the device separation of the light flux 3, the first output of which is sequentially connected and optically connected with the protective window 4, a protective window 5 of the measuring channel 6; the second output of the separation devices of the light flux sequentially connected and optically connected with the protective window 13 of the support channel 15, which is filled with purified from the dust of the gas mixture, its composition is similar to the flue gas of a particular company and a protective window 14 of the reference channel; protective window 5 is optically connected with svetorasseivateley mirror 7, skipping the Central part of the light beam on the aperture 8, forming a narrow luminous flux received on the photodetector 9, which in turn is connected to the amplifier 10, sequentially connected to the adder 24, the which is in turn serially connected to the synchronous detector 25, which is also associated with a source of pulse voltage 1 and the microcontroller 26, and a wide light beam with svetoraspredelenie mirror 7 falls on the photodetector 11, which is serially connected to the amplifier 12, are sequentially connected to the adder 22, which is in turn serially connected to a synchronous detector 23 which is also connected with a source of pulse voltage 1 and the microcontroller 26; similarly, the second protective window 14 of the support channel 15 is optically connected with the second svetorasseivateley mirror 16, which passes the Central part of the light beam on the aperture 17, forming a narrow luminous flux received on the photodetector 18, which in turn connected to the amplifier 19, sequentially connected to the adder 24, which is in turn serially connected to the synchronous detector 25 which is also connected with a source of pulse voltage 1 and the microcontroller 26, and a wide light beam with svetoraspredelenie mirror 16 falls on the photodetector 20, which is serially connected to the amplifier 21, sequentially connected to the adder 22, which is in turn serially connected to a synchronous detector 23 which is also connected with a source of pulse voltage 1 and the microcontroller 26.

The operation of this device on the proposed pic is Boo based on the so-called method of the fluctuations. Measurement of transparency allows to determine the optical thickness of the system τ. Observations show that if the particles in the beam a lot, then the transparency of the system facing significant fluctuations. These fluctuations caused by random movements of the particles, and the particles for different overlap. In the fluctuations contains valuable information about the dispersion properties of the studied system. The variance of transparency, in addition to τ depends directly on the number of particles in the target object, so that simultaneous measurement of transparency and dispersion environment gives us a method of determining both the average size and concentration of particles.

When splitting a light flux with a larger area of the light beam, we define the transparency of the system, and it is already the optical thickness of the system, and with the help of compressed, the dispersion medium; after subtraction and all transformations we can determine the number of particles in the beam and their sizes by the following formulas:

Formula (2) expresses the law of the Bouguer-Lamberg, where I is the intensity of light passed through the dispersion medium, I0- the intensity of the incident beam, τ is the optical thickness of the system. The main factor is the ratio of:

a measured dispersion D and the optical thickness τ N - the average number of particles in the irradiated object and thereforethe concentration of particles and so- the average diameter of the attenuation of light by a particle, here φ(τ) - function that relates the variance of D with τ and N, the values of which are given in (Shifrin, K.S. "an Introduction to ocean optics, St. Petersburg: Gidrometeoizdat", 1983 - 221).

The function φ(τ) has the following estimates:

To determine the average scatter of the obtained values, we find the coefficient of variation γ intensity of the transmitted beam:

where s=so/S - relative dimensionless area.

At low optical thickness of the system τ is the coefficient of variation is equal to:

In turn, when a large τ:

Because when τ→0 there is no mutual shading and γ also →0, and if τ→∞, the variance decreases slower than the square of the intensity and γ→∞.

Using the estimate (5) we find that for any τ:

From the formula (6) shows that for a given τ we should strive to have s=s0/S as much as possible, i.e. to try to work with the most narrow beams.

We now present the final formula, which allows to determine the average diameter of the attenuation of light by the particle s0and the end is the filtration of particles through the average intensity of the last beam I, the variance of the signal D and the cross-sectional area of the beam S:

where l is the moment of the random variable Y.

The device used in this method is as follows: the generator is functionally pulse sweep 1, which is the source of pulsed voltage, supplies a pulse voltage to the source light beam 2, is optically connected to the input of the device separation of the light flux 3, the main purpose of which is to direct the separated light fluxes in the measuring channel 6 and the reference channel 15.

Pulsed light radiation passes through the window 4, 5 of the measuring channel 6 and is attenuated by dust on the law of the Bouguer-Lambert-beer and goes to svetoraspredelenie mirror 7, whose main task is to split the light beam into two, and one of the most narrow in relation to the other, this separation is necessary for the simultaneous measurement of dispersion and transparency, environment, and greater beam is determined by transparent and compressed in turn, the variance, the greater the beam falls on the photodetector 11, which converts the light into an electrical signal, then this signal is applied to amplifier 12 and then to the adder 22, which is an electrical subtraction of the signals of the measuring and the reference spacecraft is Alov, which in turn is serially connected to a synchronous detector 23 which is also connected with a source of pulse voltage 1 and the microcontroller 26, in turn, the Central part of a light beam with svetoraspredelenie mirror 7 is supplied to the diaphragm 8, forming a narrow luminous flux received on the photodetector 9, which converts the luminous flux into an electrical signal, then this signal is applied to amplifier 10, then the signal is sent to the adder 24, which is in turn serially connected to the synchronous detector 25 which is also connected with a source of pulse voltage 1 and the microcontroller 26.

Consider the work of supporting channel 15. Pulsed light radiation passing through the Windows 13, 14 reference channel 15 is changed slightly and goes to svetoraspredelenie mirror 16, whose main task is to split the light beam into two, and one of the most narrow in relation to the other, this separation is necessary for the simultaneous measurement of dispersion and transparency, environment, and greater beam is determined by transparent and compressed in turn, the variance, the greater the beam falls on the photodetector 20, which converts the light into an electrical signal, then this signal is applied to the amplifier 21 and then to the adder 22, in which the electrical calc is food signals of the measuring and reference channels, which in turn is serially connected to a synchronous detector 23 which is also connected with a source of pulse voltage 1 and the microcontroller 26 in turn the Central part of the light beam with svetoraspredelenie mirror 16 is supplied to the diaphragm 17, forming a narrow luminous flux received on the photodetector 18, which converts the luminous flux into an electrical signal, then this signal is applied to the amplifier 19, and then the signal is sent to the adder 24, which is in turn serially connected to the synchronous detector 25 which is also connected with a source of pulse voltage 1 and the microcontroller 26.

Thus, the discussed method, in contrast to the known, allows to obtain a higher accuracy of measuring the concentration and size of particles by introducing an additional reference channel, which allows to reduce the relative errors in the measurements, which in turn increases the accuracy of the measurement of the average size and concentration of the dust particles.

Photoelectric method of determining the size and concentration of the dust particles which includes transformation of the pulse voltage luminous flux, the sensing region of the investigated medium by a light beam, splitting the luminous flux at the narrow and wide, converting data streams into electrical signals, featuring the the action scene, they use measuring channel containing the studied environment, the sensed light beam, and an additional channel, which is filled with purified from the dust of the gas mixture, then both channels are separated light flux at the narrow and wide, converting the light beams into electrical signals, the subtraction signal proportional to a narrow light beam of the reference channel from a signal proportional to the narrow beam of the measuring channel, synchronous detection of the received signal and further processing in the microcontroller, as well as the subtraction signal proportional wide light beam of the reference channel from a signal proportional wide beam of the measuring channel, synchronous detection of the received signal and further processing in the microcontroller that determines the received signals of wide and narrow beams of the total dust concentration and size of dust particles.



 

Same patents:

Optical dust meter // 2510497

FIELD: instrumentation.

SUBSTANCE: optical dust meter comprises pulse voltage source, light source, light flux splitter, first and second protective openings of measuring channel. It comprises first and second protective openings of reference channel filled with gas mix cleaned of dust. Besides, it incorporates inspection opening burden control device, blower, temperature controller, inspection opening heater and microcontroller. Reference and measuring channel of dust meter comprises diaphragm, first photo receiver, first amplifier, first adder, first sync detector, second amplifier, second adder and second sync detector.

EFFECT: higher precision of accuracy in concentration and mean particle size measurement.

1 dwg

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1 dwg

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