Planetary polirimetric optics positioning system in astronomical spectrograph
SUBSTANCE: planetary mechanism comprises a photometer consisting of a disc (1), which is equipped with an axle (2), having openings that are equidistant from each other and from the centre of the disc, in which light filters are located. The axle (2) interacts with the disc through a free-wheel clutch (3). In the openings of the disc there are rotatable adapters (4), the outer surface of which is in form of gear wheels which interact with a central gear wheel (5), immovably mounted on the axle (2). The disc interacts with the base through another free-wheel clutch (7). Directions of the working strokes of the free-wheel clutches (3, 7) are opposite.
EFFECT: along with the possibility of moving the light filters, the invention enables to turn each of the light filters about its own axis.
The invention relates to the field of equipment used for astrophysical research, and can be used for the observation of the starry sky with a telescope.
Known mechanism photometer adopted for the prototype (see Apending. Automatic star electrophotometer Astrophysical laboratory of the Academy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR. Str-140)containing a disk with holes in it that have the filters supplied with the axis of which is connected to the actuator, in the form of an electric motor equipped with a reducer. The mechanism allows you to rotate the disk at a given angle, while on the path of the light flux of the telescope is one of the filters.
However, when the mechanism of the photometer can be installed polarizing filters having different bandwidth, the problem arises not only in the change of filters, but in turning any of them at a certain angle, which cannot be implemented in a known photometer.
The aim of the invention is, along with the ability to move itself filters the implementation of rotation of each of the filters around its axis.
This goal is achieved by the fact that in the planetary mechanism positioning polarimetric optics in astronomical spectrograph containing automatr, consisting of a disk provided with an axle, with holes in it, ravnovesie from each other and from the center of the disc where the light filters axis communicates with the drive through the overrunning clutch, the disc openings are located with the possibility of rotation of the mandrel, the outer surface of which is made in the form of gears that interact with the Central toothed wheel fixedly mounted on the axle, and the drive communicates with the base through another overrunning clutch, and direction of strokes overrunning the opposite.
The essence of the invention is illustrated graphics, where figure 1 shows a planetary gear positioning polarimetric optics in the context.
Planetary gear consists of a disk 1, rotating on the axis 2. In the disk 1 with holes spaced approximately equidistant from each other and from the center of the disc 1 and axis 2 interacts with the disk 1 by means of the overrunning clutch 3, the disc openings are located with the possibility of rotation of the mandrel 4, the outer surface of which is made in the form of gears that interact with the Central toothed wheel 5 is fixedly mounted on the axle 2. In addition, the disk 1 interacts with the housing of the stepping motor 6 by means of the overrunning clutch 7, and the direction of the strokes abhann the x couplings 3 and 7 opposite. In the holes of the mandrel 4 are polarizing filters 8. The parts and components of the planetary mechanism fastened to each other by means of screws with countersunk head.
The planetary mechanism works as follows. During the rotation axis 2 in the direction of the stroke overrunning clutch 3 and idling overrunning clutch 7 is the rotation of the disk 1, so you can install the necessary optical filter on the optical axis of photopolarimeter (figure 1 not shown), that is, any of the filter 8 can be moved into the working position. During the rotation axis 2 in the opposite direction, namely in the direction of the stroke overrunning clutch 7 and idling overrunning clutch 3, the position of the disc 1 is automatically fixed and rotates the Central gear 5, which rotates the mandrel 4 is fixed in them by the filters 8, around its axis each, allowing you to Orient the direction of their polarization planes.
The use of the inventive planetary mechanism allows not only to move the filters themselves, making their replacement, but also to rotate each about its own axis using only one reversible electric motor.
Planetary positioning mechanism polarimetric optics in astronomical spectrograph containing photometer consisting of a thesis is and, equipped with axis, with holes in it, ravnovesie from each other and from the center of the disc, which are filters, characterized in that the axis communicates with the drive through the overrunning clutch, the disc openings are located with the possibility of rotation of the mandrel, the outer surface of which is made in the form of gears that interact with the Central toothed wheel fixedly mounted on the axle, and the drive communicates with the base through another overrunning clutch, and direction of strokes overrunning the opposite.
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optics and specifically to devices for creating backlight without distortion of the background radiation spectrum, mainly for checking photosensitivity of the surface of a photodetector. Disclosed is a method and apparatus for simulating backlight without background radiation spectrum distortion, involving obtaining light flux from a backlight source, illuminating a set of pinholes with said light flux, said pinholes lying in a plane away from the backlight source such that light flux passing through each pinhole falls on the inner side surface of the cylindrical tube of the circular section of white light, whose axis passes through the backlight source, after reflection from which it is collected in the output face of the cylindrical tube, where the photosensitive surface of the photodetector is placed, lighting parameters of which are measured in the non-distorted spectrum of the lamp of the backlight source.
EFFECT: high accuracy of determining integral light sensitivity and non-uniformity of light sensitivity of a specific photodetector on a specific radiation source.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to protection from hard UV radiation during sunbathing. The invention employs translucent polymer materials - polymer films, nonwoven polymer materials and polymer sheets, which contain a light stabiliser-filter concentrate in an amount which ensures maximum transmission of UV-A-radiation with wavelength range 320-380 nm and maximum absorption of UV-C- and UV-B-radiation with wavelength range 270-320 nm. Such translucent polymer materials can be used to make different suntan devices: umbrellas, beach or home, with domes made from said translucent material, sun loungers with hoods made from said translucent material, pools, summer houses, pavilions, cafes with roofs made from said translucent material, shared or personal sun booths etc.
EFFECT: invention enables to prevent the harmful effect of UV filters in translucent tanning creams on the skin.
8 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed to detect exposure of spacecraft to an external radiation source without the need to determine the exact direction of the radiation source. The sensor has an input surface in form of a hemisphere with conical holes for optical fibres. The optical fibres are gathered into three bundles depending on the number of detected wavelength ranges of the radiation. Photodetectors placed on boards lie in one plane. The sensor also has an insert with sealing, filters and holders for the bundles of fibres which have at the end a threading under a nut for attaching the holder to the insert.
EFFECT: smaller size.
SUBSTANCE: device has electrically connected UV radiation receiver and recorder, as well as a base which is rigidly joined to an upright post with a horizontal hinge with position sensors. A frame is rigidly joined to the base with possibility of its rotation with the housing of the receiver, inside of which there is a photodiode around the vertical axis on which the receiver symmetrically lies. The housing is rigidly joined to the frame with possibility of its rotation about the horizontal axis by vertical hinges with position sensors on two opposite sides. The recorder has a unit for gathering and summation of data on positions of the input window of the housing and is connected to the indicator unit.
EFFECT: invention increases measurement accuracy and widens functional capabilities of by adding functions for measuring and recording spherical irradiance of UV radiation.
FIELD: measuring technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to measuring technology, namely to metres of the optical radiation power and can be used particularly for metering the optical power of fibre-optical medical laser facilities. Said device comprises a parallelepiped-shaped scatterer that is made of a fluoroplastic material, at least one photodetector located on the surface of the scatterer so that when using various optical fibre probe tips the incoming optical radiation levels are closest at the equal optical power, a sensing unit that accommodates a signal recorder connected to the photodetector. In the scatterer, there is a blind cavity to position the tip of said optical fibre probe.
EFFECT: invention allows extending functionality of the device due to possibility to measure the optical radiation power in output of the optical fibre probe with various tips without additional reconfiguration of the device, and design simplification of the device.
13 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns area of immunologic researches by optical methods, in particular, to adaptations for testing of immunoenzymatic analysers (EIA) of tablet type. The set representing sequence from not less than three established in fixtures and optical elements fixed as rings, executed in the form of plainly-parallel plates with the polished working surfaces is entered into a tablet consisting of a framework, a set of fixtures and, at least, one rail with nests for the fixtures. The first element consists from optically transparent, last - from optically absorbing materials, the others are made of these materials with increase of absorbing material thickness. In the course of check of linearity for graduation of the tested analyser value of a thickness of an absorbing part of the entered optical elements which can be received with necessary accuracy by measurement on working gauges are used, not resorting to measurements on exemplary (reference) devices.
EFFECT: rising of accuracy of the control of working capacity of analysers, including effective metrologically correct check of linearity of their measuring tract.
SUBSTANCE: medical photometer can be used for measuring optical parameters of skin (light reflection and light absorption). Photometer is made on base of photometric sphere which collects all reflected radiation to semi-sphere from object to be measured. Radiation from lamp is focused by means of condenser into plane of entrance objective, which forms light spot with diameter of 16 mm and images frame of condenser in plane of exit opening of photometric sphere. Sample to be measured having diameter of 18 mm and bigger is mounted onto opening from outside photometric sphere. Radiation, after being integrated by photometric sphere, enters radiation receiver mounted at second output opening of sphere, which opening is orthogonal to first one. To eliminate influence of primary radiation, reflected from sample onto line connecting centers of receiver and first output opening of sphere, onto results of measurement, shutter is mounted. Internal surface of photometric sphere and shutter are covered with diffusion-dissipation enamel having high reflection coefficient.
EFFECT: improved truth of measurements.
FIELD: technical physics, in particular, photometry, applicable in creation of the know-how practice of instrument estimation of the parameters of quality aerial optoelectronic aids and systems of remote sounding based on the methods of automatic processing and analysis of images of ground focus targets obtained by the optoelectronic aids in natural conditions, as well as in developments of the constructions of ground focus targets of the visible and infra-red bands of the electromagnetic spectrum.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in installation on the ground of a trait passive focus target along and across the flight direction, accomplishment of aerial photography of the terrain with the focus target positioned on it with the aid of the optoelectronic aids at preset values of the flight altitude and course of the flight vehicle, automatic analysis of images of the ground focus and estimation of the resolution of the system performed after the preliminary processing, separation and selection of fragments with the image of the trait focus target. A universal passive focus target is used as the focus target, it provides for production of brightness and infra-red contrasts with an underlying background in the visible and infra-red spectrum bands consisting of a set of 3 to 5 trait wedges with different values of contrasts, which discretely vary in the preset band.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determination of the resolution of the optoelectronic aids of remote sounding, produced a universal passive focus target providing for formation of a the brightness value of contrast at any time or of the temperature value of contrast with an underlying background.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sample analyzers and it is designed for loading-unloading of samples at analyzing substances on low background beta-or photo-radiometers. Proposed transporting device contains rotating holder, light shielding housing with cover and mechanism to deliver samples to detector. Rotating holder is installed inside housing for rotation, and protective cover with hole for loading and unloading is placed between housing and holder. For period of storage and transportation of samples, holder is stationary connected by bosses of some flexible members with mating holes in housing, and protective cover is stationary connected with mating holes of holder by bosses of other flexible members. To release protective cover and holder at loading and unloading, pushers are provided in holder.
EFFECT: provision of reliable operation with photometric set, prevention of unauthorized access to samples, reduced possibility of mistakes of attending personnel.
2 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: optical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: integrating sphere can be used for estimation of light-dissipating materials. Sphere is made in form of two hemispheres which can be connected together. Sphere has substrate made of glass cloth and coating of metal applied by spraying. Metal layer is capable of non-selective reflecting in infrared spectral range.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.
FIELD: automobile production.
SUBSTANCE: automatic gearbox has one planetary gear set (4) and a torque moment transfer route passing parallel to that planetary gear set (4). Planetary gear set (4) at one transmission stage of gearbox (1) is not used for torque moment transfer and is rotated without any relative number of revolutions of its components relative to each other. With that, at the above transmission stage, the structure of the connection of the same planetary gear set (4) has the possibility of being changed by means of coupling clutches (10,11) so that gear transmission ratio of planetary gear set (4) changes from gear transmission ratio of reduced transmission to gear transmission ratio of increased transmission, or vice versa.
EFFECT: simpler design of the device.
10 cl, 33 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: gearbox includes a cylindrical helical planetary reduction gear, a carrier with satellites and their axes, a friction coupling, centrifugal weights on the coupling housing and an automatic control system of the state of a sun gear (locking, unlocking). Crown gear of planetary reduction gear is installed in a movable manner on a drive shaft, sun gear is installed freely. Carrier with satellites and their axes are fixed on a driven shaft. Drive disks of friction coupling are connected through splines to crown gear, and driven ones are connected through the coupling housing to the carrier. Automatic control system of the sun gear state includes a brake consisting of a pulley fixed on a hub of the sun gear, the brake band of which is connected through rods and two-arm levers with a spring to crown gear and two-arm control lever through a rod directly from the carrier. Gearbox has three modules so that driven shaft of the previous module is a drive shaft of the following one, which is installed after the last module of a reverse mechanism.
EFFECT: reduction of fatigability of a driver and accident risk; improving reliability of a friction coupling.
SUBSTANCE: gearbox comprises planetary step-down helical gearbox and automatic system of shifting from 1st to 2nd gear. Said planetary reduction gear consists of drive shaft 1 supporting crown gear 2 with drive disc secured thereat, sun gear 3 running on driven shaft 4 with carrier 5 rigidly secured thereat with axles 6 and pinions 7 engaged with crown and sun gears. Automatic gear shifting system consists of friction coupling with its drive discs 8 coupled via splines with crown gear and driven discs coupled via case 10 and disc with pinion axles and carrier and with driven shaft of centrifugal weights 11 with springs 12, and automatic sun gear control system. Cases of coupling 10, disc 26 and axles of pinions 6 and carrier are rigidly interconnected. Extreme left drive disc of coupling 27 is bolted to crown gear. Slave arms of centrifugal weights with sleeves at their ends are pressed via working springs to crown gear for compression of coupling discs.
EFFECT: higher reliability.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry and may be used in agricultural machinery and trackless machines. Proposed vehicle comprises body 2 to house two-stage planetary final drive 2 coupled via gearshift mechanism 3 with engine 4. Said planetary final drive 2 comprises two planetary trains 5. Planetary train 5 consists of carrier 6 with pinions 7 engaged with side brake 8, sun gear 9 and ring gear 11. Clutches of sun and ring gears locking and sun gear brakes are composed of inertial synchromesh units, each being engaged with sun gear of appropriate planetary train to be locked with ring gear or final drive housing.
EFFECT: higher reliability, reduced power loss in turns.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: variator comprises input shaft whereto external torque is applied, set of driven gears, variable crank, variable input link, unidirectional couplings, set of crankshafts and set of working links. Driven gears are arranged around input shaft at one radius, each being shifted relative to the other one through definite angle. Variable crank is arranged in variable input element to vary radius of rotation. Variable input link is coupled with input shaft. Unidirectional couplings are fitted on inner surface on every gear to run in one direction. Crankshafts are arranged inside said unidirectional couplings to turn in housing. One end of every working link is connected with variable crank while opposite end is engaged with each of crankshafts to run therewith.
EFFECT: decreased overall dimensions, longer life.
7 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: rotary movement transfer mechanism includes a housing, in which an eccentric drive shaft, a driven shaft and intermediate link located on the drive shaft are installed with possibility of being rotated. The mechanism housing is provided with a central gear with satellites and free-wheel mechanisms with inlet and outlet links. Central gear is rigidly attached to the intermediate link. The inlet link of each free-wheel mechanism is connected to the corresponding satellite, and the outlet link of each free-wheel mechanism is connected to a hinge installed on the mechanism housing. Rotary movement is transferred to the outlet shaft through kinematic connection to the intermediate link.
EFFECT: improving reliability and durability of rotary movement transfer mechanism and increasing the mechanism efficiency.
8 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: gearbox comprises planetary step-down helical gearbox and automatic system of shifting from 1st to 2nd gear. Said planetary reduction gear consists of drive shaft 1 supporting crown gear 2 with drive disc secured thereat, sun gear 3 running on driven shaft 4 with carrier 5 rigidly secured thereat with axles 6 and pinions 7 engaged with crown and sun gears. Automatic gear shifting system consists of friction coupling with its drive discs 8 coupled via splines with crown gear and driven discs coupled via case 10 and disc with pinion axles and carrier and with driven shaft of centrifugal weights 11 with springs 12, and automatic sun gear control system. Said automatic sun gear control system comprises braking element consisting of shoe drum brake mechanism. Coupling case and axles of pinions are rigidly interconnected. Crown gear on engine side has outer flange 26 for left drive disc to thrusts there against. Slave arms of centrifugal weights with sleeves at their ends are pressed via working springs to crown gear for compression of coupling discs.
EFFECT: higher reliability.
SUBSTANCE: gearbox comprises planetary step-down helical gearbox and automatic system of shifting from 1st to 2nd gear. Said planetary reduction gear consists of drive shaft 1 supporting crown gear 2 with drive disc secured thereat, sun gear 3 running on driven shaft 4 with carrier 5 rigidly secured thereat with axles 6 and pinions 7 engaged with crown and sun gears. Automatic gear shifting system consists of friction coupling with its drive discs 8 coupled via splines with crown gear and driven discs coupled via case 10 and disc with pinion axles and carrier and with driven shaft of centrifugal weights 11 with springs 12, and automatic sun gear control system. Said automatic sun gear control system comprises braking element consisting of body 14 rigidly fitted at sun gear hub and splines of drive discs 15, driven discs 16, throw-in ring 18 coupled via two-arm levers 19, 20 and link 22 with crown gear. Cases of coupling 10, disc 26 and axles of pinions 6 and carrier are rigidly interconnected. Extreme left drive disc of coupling 27 is bolted to crown gear. Slave arms of centrifugal weights with sleeves at their ends are pressed via working springs to crown gear for compression of coupling discs.
EFFECT: higher reliability.
SUBSTANCE: proposed gearbox comprises input and output shafts, three differentials and seven control elements. Every said differential comprises pinion cage, differential pinions, sun and ring gears. Two differentials make main planetary gearbox with sun gears engaged with ring gear of third differential. Pinion cage and sun gear of the latter are engaged via friction couplings with input shaft to make planetary reversing divider with accelerating gearing.
EFFECT: higher performances and efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: gearbox comprises cylindrical skew planetary reduction gear, multidisc friction coupling, centrifugal weights on coupling casing, and sun gear state ACS. Crown gear of cylindrical skew planetary reduction gear is fitted on drive shaft splines, sun gear moves unlimited while pinion frame with planet gears and their axles are rigidly fixed on driven shaft. Drive discs of aforesaid multidisc friction coupling is splined with crown gear while drive discs of said coupling are engaged via coupling right side with pinion frame. Centrifugal discs may move apart to contract, via working springs, aforesaid discs. Aforesaid sun gear state ACS comprises minor brake made up of pulley rigidly fitted on sun gear hub and having its braking belt coupled via tie-rids, bell cranks and spring, with crown gear and driver's control lever.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability.