Device for complex determination of physical and mechanical properties of soils under field conditions

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device for complex determination of physical and mechanical properties of soils under field conditions includes an anchor, a thrust beam, a load screw, a turning wheel, an impeller and a cutting ring. In order to enlarge functional capabilities and improve measurement accuracy, it is equipped with a servo drive with a screw, which is installed on the thrust beam, a torque sensor fixed on a tie rod with a circular die, a force sensor fixed in lower part of the servo drive, a vertical movement sensor installed at a reference point. The servo drive, the force sensor, the torque sensor, the vertical movement sensor are connected to the control unit and through an interface to a computer, thus forming a measurement system with direct and feedback communication between the sensors and the servo drive.

EFFECT: improving accuracy of loading and measurement by automatic control of performed tests.

5 cl, 1 ex, 5 dwg

 

The technical field

Determination of mechanical properties of soils in field conditions when carrying out engineering-geological survey and the survey of soils at the base of the existing foundations.

The level of technology

Similar to the proposed technical solution is "Installation for testing of rock and soil half-rock ring entirely using anchor" (P-43-89. Recommendations for the characterization of rheological properties of rock and soil half-rock method annular loading. L., VNIIG them. BE Vedeneeva, 1990, 4, 6, p.16-17 [H1]), including anchor, resistant frame, mortgage h-beam, hydraulic jacks, concrete formers, the o-ring rear sight, gauges.

The disadvantage of this analogue is that this device is cumbersome, as it is proposed to use for field testing of rock and soil half-rock with the ring entirely diameter of 1 m To create a tangential load is used bond I-beam and two hydraulic Jack, and the beam is placed in a pre-drilled cavity through a circular pillar, the jacks should be resting on concrete blocks. Such a scheme of loading of the tangential load is impossible in clay and sandy soils because of their low strength and you the Oka compressibility.

The following analogue of the claimed technical solution is the Way soil testing" (USSR author's certificate SU 657315 A1, the application 2362128/25-28 from 17.05.1976, IPC5G01N 3/08, G01N 3/22, the applicant Moscow order of the red banner of Labor Institute of civil engineering them. V.V. Kuibyshev, author V.L. Kubacki published 15.04.1979 [C2]), namely, that on the ground set ring stamp, create compressive and torsional force, measure them and judged by the data obtained properties of the soil, characterized in that to increase the accuracy when testing the rocky soil used stamp with smooth transitions to the ground, which is rigidly fastened to the latter.

The method is as follows.

On-site soil set ring stamped with smooth transitions to the ground and rigidly fasten it with the soil, for example, directly on ground concrete manufactures used stamp. The stamp is provided by loading, for example, Jack stops and space.

Then using a system of nagrujala, for example, jacks, create a compressive force on the ground, and torque create, acting on the lugs so that the line of action of the efforts of the parallel tangent to the surface of the stamp. Measure the force on the ground, and judged by the data obtained properties of the soil. The method by which allows us to judge the strength of the surface layers, but about the strength of the deep layers of the soil, which improves the accuracy of determination of the soil properties in General.

The disadvantage of this analogue is that it lacks the ability of the test management system nagrujala that it is not possible to conduct tests with continuous loading at a given speed of deformation. The second disadvantage is the lack of a system for automated recording of measurement data compression and torque effort during testing, which reduces the accuracy and performance tests.

The closest analogue (prototype) of the proposed technical solution is UNIVERSAL INSTALLATION VSEGINGEO (Handbook of engineering Geology, 3rd edition, revised and enlarged, edited by M.V. Churinova, M., Nedra, 1981, RES, str [L3]), containing frame-anchor, thrust beam, the load screw, dynamometer, a swing arm with a dynamometer, a rotating ring, the impeller or cutter ring, the outrigger.

The unit is designed to determine the strength parameters of sand and clay and rocky soils on the surface and in the pits methods pie slice rocks on kropielnicki surface, and also to cut out the large array of samples of cylindrical shape into a ring-holder.

The disadvantage of the prototype is the inability of b is greater vertical displacements of the rotating ring, the impeller or blade ring due to limitations of the design console resistant beams. The second disadvantage is that the vertical load is created by a hydraulic Jack, which necessitates continuous monitoring of the pressure in the cylinder due to his fall due to rainfall rotary ring, which is time-consuming to perform in manual control mode loading. A significant drawback is that the measurement of the vertical displacement, load and torque is performed manually, which reduces the performance and accuracy of the test. The next disadvantage of the prototype is that in the process of testing are determined by only two strength characteristics of soil angle of internal friction and the power unit clutch, while there is a need to determine the characteristics of the strain.

The essence of the technical solutions

A device for testing of soils in the field, including anchor, thrust beam, the load screw, the rotary ring, the impeller and the cutter ring for soil testing in the field.

The purpose of the invention is to enhance the functionality, improving the accuracy of loading and measurement by automatic control test.

Put the spruce is achieved by for vertical load applied to the servomotor, and the creation and regulation of the speed of application of the vertical load is computer controlled via the control unit of force sensors and motion.

For the perception of the reactions of the vertical load applied two anchor and folding beam.

To improve the accuracy of the creation of the tangential load the torque measurement is performed by using the console and sensor strength.

To measure the propagation velocity of the shear wave in the anchor introduced the accelerometer.

To extend the functionality of the device introduced round and coil stamps, probe, which allows to define additional mechanical characteristics of soils, such as modulus of elasticity and strain, shear modulus. Determination of the parameters of the deformability of the soil will be performed in accordance with GOST.

List of figures, drawings and other materials

1 shows a General view of the design device for an integrated evaluation of physical and mechanical properties of soils in the field.

Figure 2 shows the block diagram of measurement.

Figure 3 shows the design of the folding of the thrust beams.

Figure 4 shows the design axial loading.

Figure 5 shows a design of circular stamp with sensor spinning is his moment.

An example implementation of the proposed technical solutions

In figure 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, the device comprises two screw anchor 1, a collapsible thrust beam 2, on which are fixed the servo 3 screw 4, on the lower part of the fixed force sensor 5. Sensor torque measuring 6 by means of the rod 7 is connected with a circular stamp 8. The device contains a set of interchangeable accessories: circular stamp 8, round stamp 9, screw the stamp 10, the penetrometer 11, a transmitter 12, the impeller 13, the sampler 15.

In the lower part of the inside of the anchor 1 has a three-dimensional accelerometer 16, the power amplification and conversion of the signals into a digital form 17, which via wireless or wired connection connected to the control unit 18 via the interface 19 to the computer 20.

On the upper part of the rod round stamp 9 fixed, movable console 21, which supports the rod sensor vertical displacement 22 fixed to the holder 23 and the frame 24. The motion sensor 22 is connected to a wireless or wired connection to the control unit 18.

The torque sensor 6 with handles 25 mounted on one of the rods 7 and connected to a wireless or wired connection to the control unit 18 via the interface 19 to the computer 20.

In the upper part of the screw anchor 1 has a grip 26 for connection with the thrust beam 2.

The thrust beam 2 consists of two folding pipe 27 at stake is Oh which there are support bars 28, serve as the focus for installation in the grip 26. The holder 29 is designed for installation servo 3 with screws 4, as well as for fixing it collapsible tubes 27 of the thrust beams 2. In the working position of the beam 2 folding pipe 27 are connected by a locking pin 30. The frame 24 includes a holder 32 for the installation of motion sensor 33.

The torque sensor 6 has a force sensor 34 and the console 35, which is fixed on one of the handles 25.

The device operates as follows.

Step 1. Prepare your device for testing

1. On the ground surface, the bottom of the trench or pit, using servo 3 screw 4, in the ground wrapped two screw anchor 1 at a distance equal to the distance between the slats 28 of the thrust beam 2.

2. The thrust beam 2 is fixed by screws 31 in the hooks 26 on the anchors 1.

3. The actuator 3 is fixed on the holder 29 in the Central part of the thrust beam 2 and is connected to the control unit 18.

4. On the surface of the ground set the frame 24 and attach the holders 23, 32 displacement sensors 22, 33. Rod motion sensor 33 is installed in any location on the surface of the thrust beams 2. The displacement sensors connected to the control unit 18.

The readings of the displacement sensors 33 allow us to estimate the deflection of the thrust beams 2, which is included in the measurement of vertical movement or the nogo device.

5. Force sensors 5, 34, displacement sensors 22, 33 connected to the control unit 18.

6. The control unit 18 via the interface 19 is connected to the computer 20.

Step 2. The implementation of automatic test method and sequence testing

1. Choose the type of device for testing soil: round stamp 9, screw the stamp 10, the penetrometer 11, a transmitter 12, the impeller 13, a circular stamp 8 or sampler 15.

2.1. Test round stamp with the area of 600 cm2

2.1.1. Round stamp set on the soil surface coaxially with the screw 4 and using the holder 23, fix the motion sensor 22 so that the rod rested on the movable console 21.

2.1.2. Using the methodology GOST 20276-99 section 5 [L4], test stamp. Measurement of precipitation stamp and load control automatically, using the readings of the displacement sensors 22, the force sensor 5 and the actuator 3. Measurement data are entered into the database of the computer.

2.1.3. Using the results of measurements on paragraph 5.5.2 GOST 20276-99, find the modulus of deformation of the soil.

2.2. Testing coil stamp area of 600 cm2

2.2.1. Screw the stamp set on the soil surface coaxially with the screw 4 and using the holder 23, fix the motion sensor 22 so that the rod rested on the movable console 21.

2.2.2. Using the methodology GOST 20276-99 section is 5, test stamp. Screwing stamp in the soil and the application of the vertical load is carried out using servo 3. Measurement of precipitation stamp and load control automatically, using the readings of the displacement sensors 22, the force sensor 5 and the actuator 3. Measurement data are entered into the database of the computer.

2.2.3. Using the results of measurements on paragraph 5.5.2 GOST 20276-99, find the modulus of deformation of the soil.

2.3. Test ring stamp

2.3.1. Ring stamp 8 is connected with a rod 7, and it with the torque sensor 6, after which it is placed coaxially with the screw 4 under the thrust beam 2.

2.3.2. Using the methodology of ring cut GOST 20276-99 section 12.4, test method annular cut. Control and management of normal pressure automatically using a sensor 5 and the actuator 3. The measurement of the tangential load automatically using the torque sensor 6 and the load application manually using the handle 25. Measurement data are entered into the database of the computer.

2.3.3. Using the results of the measurements on the item 12.4.4 GOST 20276-99 find the strength characteristics of soils: the angle of internal friction and power unit clutch.

2.4. The test probe

2.4.1. Using the method of static sensing GOST 19912-2001 section 5 [C5], hold spymania using the proposed device. Speed continuous loading create servo 3 and control computer 20. Measuring the speed of immersion of the probe perform the motion sensor 22, and the signals from the sensors of the probe is passed through the control unit 18 in the base 20.

2.4.2. Using the measurement results in section 5.5 of the GOST 19912-2001, find the resistance of the soil to the introduction of the probe.

2.5. Tests to determine the elastic shear modulus

2.5.1. To determine the elastic shear modulus on the surface of the ground creating a shock, for example, a hammer weighing 8-12 kg on a metal plate 14, the resulting transverse wave recorded by the accelerometer 16.

2.5.2. Using the measured value of the propagation velocity of the shear wave (Vs)find the value of the elastic shear modulus:

,

where ρ is the density of the soil.

3. Tests impeller

Step 1. Prepare your device for testing.

1. The impeller 13 is connected with a rod 7, and it with the torque sensor 6. The force sensor 34 is connected to the control unit 18.

The impeller 13 is attached to the torque sensor.

Step 2. The sequence of testing

2.1. Using the technique of rotary cut GOST 20276-99 section 12.2, conduct testing of the impeller. The measurement of the tangential load automatically with use the of the torque sensor 6, and the load application manually using the handle 25.

2.2. Using the results of measurements on paragraph 12.2.4 GOST 20276-99, find the value of the specific clutch clay soils.

4. For sampling of soil using, for example, thin-walled sampler 15, which is set rod 7 is pushed continuously into the soil using a servo 3.

Industrial applicability

This device for complex determination of physical and mechanical properties of soils in the field of industrial realizable, has more features, enhanced accuracy of soil parameters.

Literature

1. Recommendations for the characterization of rheological properties of rock and soil half-rock method annular loading. L., VNIIG them. BE Vedeneeva, 1990, 4, 6, p.16-17.

2. USSR author's certificate No. 657315 A1, the application 2362128/25-28 from 17.05.1976, IPC5G01N 3/08, G01N 3/22, the applicant Moscow order of the red banner of Labor Institute of civil engineering them. V.V. Kuibyshev. The method of testing of soils, author V.L. Kubacki published 15.04.1979.

3. Handbook of engineering Geology, 3rd edition, revised and enlarged, edited by M.V. Churinova, M., Nedra, 1981, RES, str.

4. GOST 20276-99. The soils. Methods field determination of strength characteristics and deformable is on. M., 1999. - 91 S.

5. GOST 19912-2001. The soils. Methods field tests of static and dynamic probing. M., 2001. - 27 S.

1. Device for the comprehensive determination of physical and mechanical properties of soils in the field, containing the anchor, the thrust beam, the load screw, the rotary ring, the impeller and the cutter ring, characterized in that, to increase functionality and improve the measurement accuracy, it is provided with: a servo with a screw mounted on the thrust beam, a torque sensor mounted on the rod with a circular stamp, a force sensor, mounted in the lower part of the actuator, sensor, vertical displacement, mounted on the frame, the actuator, a force sensor, torque sensor, the sensor vertical displacement is connected to the unit control and interface to the computer, forming a measuring system with direct and inverse relationship between the sensors and servo.

2. Device for the comprehensive determination of physical and mechanical properties of soils in the field according to claim 1, characterized in that the torque sensor is a force sensor and the console.

3. Device for the comprehensive determination of physical and mechanical properties of soils in the field according to claim 1, characterized in that the anchor has embedded in it the three-coordinate the Axel is Romer and the power amplification and conversion of the signals into a digital form.

4. Device for the comprehensive determination of physical and mechanical properties of soils in the field according to claim 1, characterized in that the thrust beam is made foldable.

5. Device for the comprehensive determination of physical and mechanical properties of soils in the field according to claim 1, characterized in that the tests are performed automatically under computer control.



 

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2 dwg

FIELD: construction engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method concludes in determining parameters of physical and mechanical characteristics: internal friction angle φ, specific adhesion c and volumetric weight of depth-uniform ground base and anisotropic turf deposit γ. Value of average external pressure ρave applied to base through flat hard template of average size is calculated, which average pressure corresponds to moment of phase shift of base from one state to the other to determine specific processes of sharp growth of deposits, reduction in strength and possible loss of stability in total and to determine carrying capacity of flat-deformed base when pattern of operation of ground base is seen as linearly deformed space and turf deposit - as Fuss-Winkler model of local elastic deformations. In this case new phase conditions of ground are found and phase states under turf deposit load are determined depending on sizes and shapes of hard flat templates.

EFFECT: improved precision of calculation.

11 dwg

FIELD: investigation of foundation soil in situ, particularly to construct and reconstruct existent buildings and building structures.

SUBSTANCE: method involves monoaxial ground sample compression in compression apparatus along with prevention of radial expansion thereof, wherein the ground sample is tested in stress release regime; plotting compression curve after each stage termination by final stress values and corresponding sample deformations. As predetermined sample deformation value is achieved additional ground sample settlement is restricted by partial stress release to approximate value thereof to conditional stress stabilization or sample deformation value.

EFFECT: reduced ground investigation time.

4 dwg

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