Method of compressing digital images using fixed number of bits per block

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: method of compressing images programmed in a controller of a device, comprising: partitioning an image into one or more blocks; applying gamma conversion to each pixel of the image to generate data with the same number of bits; computing prediction values for each pixel in each block of the one or more blocks using a plurality of prediction modes; applying quantisation to each pixel of each block of the one or more blocks using a plurality of quantisation numbers; computing differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) to generate residuals of the quantised values for each of the plurality of quantisation numbers, wherein the number of bits generated for each block of the one or more blocks is equal to the bit budget; computing pulse code modulation (PCM), which includes shifting each pixel value by a fixed number of bits; selecting for each block of said one or more blocks, DPCM with a quantisation number where the best quantisation accuracy is achieved; selecting an encoding method from the DPCM with said quantisation number and PCM; and generating a bit stream containing data encoded using the selected encoding method.

EFFECT: compression without visual losses.

14 cl, 17 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to the field of image processing. More specifically, the present invention relates to the compression of images using a fixed number of bits in the block.

The level of technology

Known systems of image compression have several disadvantages. They do not allow the use of visual masking, and other properties of the human visual system (HVS), which spatially vary depending on image content. One reason is that the quantization parameters used by these algorithms are usually relatively constant throughout the image. In the images cannot be compressed effectively. Moreover, to achieve the target bit rate or visual quality when using this method the image you want to compress many times.

Disclosure of inventions

The described method of compression for digital images using a fixed number of bits in the block.

For compression of digital images is used interaktywna. The image is divided into blocks with the same size. The encoder produces a fixed and specified number of bits for each block. The encoding process includes a gamma conversion, which is applied to the input of the image to generate data. Additional steps include prediction, quantization, differential pulse code modulation (DICM), entropy coding and refinement.

According to one aspect, a method of image compression programmed in a controller, located in the device that contains the steps that break the image into one or more blocks and encode one or more blocks, with the number of bits in each of the one or more blocks is fixed. The method further comprises the step of applying the gamma-conversion to generate 10-bit data. The method further comprises the step of calculating the values of the prediction for each pixel in the current block of one or more blocks using one or more prediction modes. The prediction modes include at least one of the prediction modes: General, DC, right-up, right-up-up, up, left-up-up, left-up, left-left-up and right. The method further comprises the step of applying quantization. The method further comprises the step of calculating differential pulse-code modulation for the generation of residues of the quantized values. The method further includes a step of performing entropy encoding to generate variable length code for each residue of the quantized values. Done is the entropy encoding is divided into two parts: the calculation of the value/length code and output bit stream, but with one step, Refine and one output bit stream. The method further comprises a step of refinement. Execution specification includes a separate stage of refinement for each quantization. Execution specification includes one stage of refinement. The method further comprises the step of calculating the pulse-code modulation, comprising shifting each pixel value into a fixed number of bits. The method additionally includes the stage of generating the bitstream. The stage of generating the bitstream includes the choice of encoding method of differential pulse code modulation or pulse code modulation. The controller is selected from the group consisting of a programmable computer-readable media and schemes, depending on the type of application. The device is selected from the group consisting of a personal computer, a portable personal computer type laptop (laptop), a workstation, a server, a universal computing machine, pocket computer, personal digital assistant, a cellular/mobile telephone, a smart appliance, a gaming console, a digital camera, a digital camcorder, a mobile phone with built in camera, iPhone (iPhone), iPod (iPodŽ), video player, DVD recorder/playback the Oia, TV and home entertainment system.

According to another aspect, a system for image compression programmed in a controller, located in the device that contains the module partitioning to split the image into one or more blocks and an encryption module for encoding one or more blocks, and the number of bits in each of the one or more blocks is fixed. The system comprises a computing module to compute the prediction for each pixel in the current block of one or more blocks using one or more prediction modes. The prediction modes include at least one of the prediction modes: General, DC, right-up, right-up-up, up, left-up-up, left-up, left-left-up and right.

According to another aspect, a system for image compression programmed in a controller, located in the device, contain gamma-module for applying a gamma conversion to generate 10-bit data, the prediction module to calculate a prediction for each pixel in the current block of one or more blocks using one or more prediction modes, quantization module for applying the quantization module DICM for calculating differential pulse code modulation to generate the OST is tcov quantized values, module refinement to perform refinement module PCM to calculate the pulse-code modulation, comprising shifting each pixel value into a fixed number of bits, and the module of the bitstream to generate the bitstream, while the output bit stream comprises selecting a coding method of differential pulse code modulation or pulse code modulation. The prediction modes include at least one of the prediction modes:

overall, DC, right-up, right-up-up, up, left-up-up, left-up, left-left-up and right. The controller selected from the group consisting of a programmable computer-readable media and schemes, depending on the type of application. The device is selected from the group consisting of a personal computer, a portable personal computer type laptop (laptop), a workstation, a server, a universal computing machine, pocket computer, personal digital assistant, a cellular/mobile telephone, a smart appliance, a gaming console, a digital camera, a digital camcorder, a mobile phone with built in camera, iPhone (iPhone), iPod (iPodŽ), video player, DVD recorder/playback, TV and home entertainment.

According to e is e one aspect, the shooting device includes the receiving component video to get video memory to store the application, and the application is designed to split the image into one or more blocks and encoding one or more blocks, with the number of bits in each of one or more blocks is fixed, and a processing component associated with the memory and processing component configured to process the application. The advanced application designed to calculate a prediction for each pixel in the current block of one or more blocks using one or more prediction modes. The prediction modes include at least one of the prediction modes: General, DC, right-up, right-up-up, up, left-up-up, left-up, left-left-up and right.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 depicts the seven possible prediction modes associated with different possible directions in the image, according to some variants of implementation.

Figure 2 depicts an example of calculating VLC, according to some variants of implementation.

Figure 3 depicts an example of entropy encoding table, according to some variants of implementation

Figure 4 depicts an example of using the remaining bits to clarify, according to some var is the ants implementation.

Figure 5 depicts an example of coding on the basis of DICM and values of recovery, according to some variants of implementation.

6 depicts an encoder and a decoder, according to some variants of implementation.

Fig.7 depicts cells and their values recovery for cases e=0, 1, 2, 3, 4 5, according to some variants of implementation.

Fig depicts the structure of the bitstream for DICM, according to some variants of implementation.

Fig.9 depicts the order of transmission of bits for the way the PCM for the case of block width equal to 16 and the values of the bits per second is equal to 4, according to some variants of implementation.

Figure 10 depicts the recovery block method PCM, according to some variants of implementation.

11 depicts the structure of the bitstream to PCM mode, according to some variants of implementation.

Fig depicts the structure of the encoder with many stages of refinement, according to some variants of implementation.

Fig depicts the structure of the encoder with a single stage of refinement, according to some variants of implementation.

Fig depicts an encoder which entropy encoding is divided into two. part of: calculating values/length code and the generation of the bitstream, according to some variants of implementation.

Fig depicts an encoder, in which the calculation of the EIT is to be placed and the length of the code is separated from the generation of the bitstream, but with one step, Refine and one output bit stream, according to some variants of implementation.

Fig depicts the algorithm of the compression method using a fixed number of bits in the block, according to some variants of implementation.

Fig depicts a block diagram of an exemplary computing device configured to implement the method of image compression using a fixed number of bits in the block, according to some variants of the calculation.

The implementation of the invention

Below is described the method of intracoronary digital images. For intracoronary the image into vertical strips. Each line of each vertical band is divided into small linear segments, which are called blocks. Each band is decoded without the need for information on any other bands. In some embodiments, the implementation of all blocks have the same size. The encoder generates a fixed and specified number of bits for each block. If the codec is implemented in hardware, it has a very low complexity based on the number of logic gates required to implement. The codec allows you to provide compression without visual loss for a certain bit rate and for certain applications.

In some of the options which implement the first stage of the encoding process is a gamma conversion. For example, the codec uses a 10-bit gamma conversion. Gamma transformation is applied to the pixels of the input image to generate 10-bit data. The result of the gamma conversion is called "initial values of the pixels". The value 10 is an example and there may be other values.

In some embodiments, the implementation aspects of encoding and/or decoding are described in more detail in the application for U.S. patent No. 12/789091, filed may 27, 2010, entitled "Method for compressing images with random access("S IMAGE COMPRESSION METHOD WITH RANDOM ACCESS CAPABILITY), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

The method is based on differential pulse code modulation (DICM) and prediction

In some embodiments, the implementation of the encoder applies the prediction, followed by quantization, followed by pixelenemy DICM, followed by entropy encoding and then refinement. The encoder first computes the values of the 'predictions' for all pixels in the current block. Any way to predict, for example, using the reconstructed values for the close of the same color pixel to the left of the current pixel. In some embodiments, implementation of the encoder used several (for example, 9) methods (or modes) predictions. Ka is every mode prediction is assigned a name and number. In the example, nine prediction modes are: General, DC, right-up, right-up-up, up, left-up-up, left-up, left-left-up and right.

For each block, the encoder selects one of the above prediction modes and the prediction mode used to predict the quantized values of the pixels in the current block. The encoder selects a prediction mode using the original values of the pixels in the current block and the restored pixel values for any of the previously restored blocks. The encoder computes the prediction for each of the prediction modes. The calculated predictions for each prediction mode are designated. If the pixel values of all pixels in the current block is marked, for each of the identified prediction mode, the encoder computes: SAD(predNum)=sum(abs Pred (PredNum) " (depth-predSelDepth) - " (depth-predSelDepth)) for all pixels in the current block. Here includes the pixel values in the current block, and predSelDepth is an input parameter to the decoder. This leads to the SAD value for each prediction mode. The encoder selects the prediction mode with the lowest SAD. If more than one mode prediction leads to the smallest SAD value (for example, if there is a connection), you can use any connection that Deplete the rule, including the I Tu, which selects the mode of the prediction closer to the beginning predNumList where predNumList - list of prediction modes allowed in the decoder. The selected prediction mode indicated by 'predNumBest'and the corresponding prediction marked 'Pred(predNumBest),' then used in the remaining part of the process for encoding the block. The encoder then uses Pred(predNumBest) for the next stage of coding. In the method based on DICM predNumBest sends a signal to the decoder using one or more bits in the bit stream.

Quantization in the way on the basis of DICM

The next stage of encoding is the quantization coefficient quantization qf=2qnwhere qn is called the number of quantization. The encoder applies quantization to the number qn of quantization for each and any value qn listed in qnList. Then for each value of qn, the encoder applies all the stages that follow quantization. For quantization, the encoder evenly quantum all the pixels In all of the values in Pred(predNumBest). The quantization values of x with the number qn of quantization is a calculation when x"qn. If x is the bit depth 'depth', then the quantized value of x is the bit depth qDepth=depth - qn.

Calculation of DICM

Then for all pixels in the current block, the encoder calculates the difference between the quantized initial value and the quantized value prediction:

Resq=(the qn) - (Pred(predNumBest)" qn.

This is called stage DICM. The difference Resq called the remnants of the quantized values for the Century Resq can take a negative value, 0 or a positive value.

Entropy encoding and the encoding precision

Resq presented as input to the entropy coder. Entropy encoder generates a variable length code (VLC) for each residue of the quantized values. VLC is a sequence of bits, where the number of generated bits and the bits themselves depend on the values of the remainder of the quantized values. For any two residues of the quantized values of a and b if abs(a)>abs(b), the length of the VLC, developed for and greater than or equal to the length of the VLC generated for b. The encoder can use VLC code generated using entropy encoder for recovery without loss values Resq. The decoder also allows you to restore lossless (Pred(predNumBest)>>qn). Believing Resq and (Pred(predNumBest)>>qn), the decoder can then recover without loss B"qn. This means that the most significant bits qDepth pixels, you can encode and decode lossless. In the encoder, at the stage of DICM encode the original pixel value with the "accuracy" of bits qDepth.

Refinement in the way on the basis of DICM

For each value of qn in qnList operation mentioned above is performed for all pixels in the block, and then measured on the total number of bits developed for the entire block. Then there may be three possible cases:

1. The number of bits generated for the entire block, more than the budget of bits allocated to the current block, or the number of bits generated at least one pixel in the block is greater than codeLengthLimit: it is not allowed DICM with the current value of qn.

2. The number of bits generated for the entire block, is equal to the budget of bits for the current block: then allowed DICM with the current value of qn.

3. The number of bits generated for the entire block, is less than the budget of bits allocated to the current block: then allowed DICM with the current value of qn. However, in the process, which is called "refinement", will then produce more bits. Phase refinement allows you to spend the rest of allowed bits. If all the remaining bits are not used, the remaining permitted bits are filled with zeros, which are called "zero padded".

Phase refinement increases the precision of the encoding of pixels in the original block. Every bit of data that is produced at the stage of refinement, will improve the accuracy of encoding pixel by one bit.

The method of pulse-code modulation (PCM)

In addition to the method based on DICM encoder can also use another type of method that is called by way of the PCM. In the way that each PCM value is e pixel is shifted to the right by a fixed number of bits. This is a fixed number of bits is constant for each pixel, but may differ from one to another pixel in the block. The shifted pixel values are then placed in the bitstream without any further processing.

Precision, mode selection and the generation of the bitstream

After the encoder applies a method based on DICM using different values of qn, and the way the PCM, the encoder measures the accuracy of coding for all tested scenarios. For the method based on DICM of the block image 'accuracy' or 'coverage' is defined as the total number of initial bits of the pixels in the block that is encoded using DICM/ VLC or with the refinement. For the way the PCM data for the block image 'accuracy' or 'coverage' is defined as the total number of initial bits of the pixels in the blocks which are encoded. If allowed DICM with any of the values qn and achieved the best accuracy of coding by using a method based on DICM, the encoder sends a '1'signal method on the basis of DICM, one or more bits that signal the best value qn, one or more bits that signal predNumBest bits generated at the step of entropy coding of all pixels in the block, the bits of clarification (if it occurs) and the addition of zeros (if it occurs). If not allowed DICM with either the ne of the values qn, or if permitted by DICM with one or more values qn, but the best encoding precision is achieved by way of the PCM, the encoder sends '0'to signal the way the PCM, followed by the bits produced by the method PCM.

Recovery: the case of DICM

In the method based on DICM, after encoding unit for each pixel in the block, qDepth=depth - qn bits are encoded using DICM/VLC. Bits between 0 and qn are encoded using refinement, and for each pixel the number of bits that are encoded using clarify, is denoted by f. In this case we use the notation e=qn-f where e is 'effective qn' for the pixels. For a given pixel, the depth - th bits is encoded using DICM/VLC or clarification, and e bits are not encoded at all. In order to restore (in the encoder and the decoder), the most significant depth - th bits are set to the values encoded using the encoder, either the most significant bit is set to '1', and other noncoding bits are set to '0'.

Recovery: the case of PCM

In the way the PCM data after encoding unit, for each pixel in the block, qDepth=depth - qnPCM bits are encoded using PCM, and qnPCM bits are not encoded at all. In order to restore (in the encoder and the decoder), the most significant depth - qnPCM bits are set to the values encoded using the encoder is. The most significant of either bit is set to '1', and other noncoding bits are set to '0'.

Prediction

For each block you can define the number of prediction modes. Some of the prediction modes may be associated with possible edge directions in the image. For example, figure 1 shows 7 possible prediction modes associated with different possible directions in the image. Some other prediction modes possible to determine that is not related to possible edge directions in the image. For example, two predictions are the 'prediction' and 'DC-prediction'. When using two additional exemplary cases there are nine prediction modes.

The prediction for the first line

For prediction, for most of the prediction modes of the encoder and the decoder requires the reconstructed values of the previous line. However, for the first line, there is no previous line, which is used for prediction. In this case, the recovered values from the previous line, which is not available, assumed to be equal to 2(depth-1). For a depth equal to 10, this gives a result equal to 512.

The constraint schema predictions

To obtain predictions for a pixel in the current block to depict Azania obtained using one of two possibilities predictions. The first uses one or more reconstructed values of previously encoded blocks that can be combined any way you require. The second uses just one of the initial values of the pixels in the current block, which is located before the current pixel.

Alarm qn and the prediction mode bit in the thread

If qn for the current block is the same as qn block at the top, is sent to '1'. For the first line in the image is assumed that qn upper block will be equal to the first qn in qnList. If the upper block is encoded using PCM (and, therefore, does not have qn associated with it), then qn above the upper part is used instead of qn top. If qn is used for the current block is different from qn block on top, is sent to '0', followed by the binary representation 1-1, where I is the index qn in qnList when qn upper block is removed from the list. For example, if qnList=[0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7] and qn upper unit is 3, then the following table shows the bits of the alarm, using the eight possible values of qn for current blocks:

qn the current block012346
The signal to accurately determine qn of the current block0000000100101001101000110

Alarm mode prediction is performed in the same way.

Entropy encoding

For any remainder of the quantized values are entropy encoder calculates VLC.

1. Calculate the total number of bits used to represent the magnitude of the remainder of the quantized value (ignoring zeros to the left of the most significant '1'), which gives value To for the remainder of the quantized values.

2. To write zeros in the bit stream.

3. Write the bits with the value K.

4. Then write the sign bit, 0 for negative values and 1 for zero or positive values.

Fig. 2 depicts an exemplary calculation VLC according to some variants of implementation.

Fig. 3 depicts an exemplary table entropy encoding according to some variants of implementation. As shown in the table, the leftmost column is the remainder of the input quantized values. The middle columns are the binary representation of the input value and the bit sign, where the sign bit RA is EN 0 for negative and 1 for positive values. The output includes To zeros before the bits with a value and a sign bit at the end.

A clarification encoder

After encoding DICM and entropy encoding to produce a sequence of bits in the encoder for signaling bits PCM/DIKM, alarm values qn block, alarm mode prediction and bits made using an entropy encoder. The number of these bits may be less than the budget of bits of the block. To use the remaining bits, the encoder sends the bits of the original pixels, starting from the most significant bits that are not DICM-coded as alternating between the left part and right part of the block. Fig. 4 depicts an example of using the remaining bits for clarification. Is blockWidth is 16, and qn is equal to 3. Shows the order of transmission of bits clarification. In this example, as many bits as the budget allows (up to 48 bits), you can pass as a bit of clarification. Bits Refine transmitted during the stage of refinement.

Coding on the basis of DICM, value recovery

Figure 5 depicts an example of coding on the basis of DICM and value recovery. Shows the number of point values assigned neodrepanis bits during recovery in the encoder and the decoder.

As measured by accuracy for decision-making regarding mode

As shown in figure 5, there is depth x blockWidth bits in the original binary representation of the pixel block. DICM encodes bits (depth - qn) x blockWidth over bits without loss. Bits (depth - qn) × blockWidth called bits, covered in DICM. Phase refinement also covers additional bits represented by R bits covered by the specification. Thus, bit depth x blockWidth original signal is covered by the total number of bits (depth - qn) × blockWidth+R, and the remaining blocks Neobee the number of covered bits is used as a measure of the accuracy of coding for each method on the basis of DICM with the set qn.

The distribution of differences of pixel values between the original and restored images

The image is obtained by calculating the difference between the restored image and the original image is denoted by D. Fig. 6 depicts an encoder and a decoder according to some variants of implementation.

For each pixel in the image, effective qn for that pixel, denoted by e, is equal to the number of bits in the original value of the pixel that are not encoded during the encoding process. If the pixel is in a block that PCM encoded, e is equal to the number of bits of the pixels that are not encoded by the encoder. If the pixel is in a block, which DICM encoded, e is equal to the number of bits in the original value of the pixel, which is not encoded using DICM or clarification. Coder (excluding Gamma), there is actually, evenly quantum each pixel in the original image after gamma (Og) with step size s=2ewhere e (and therefore s) may vary from one to another pixel.

When the pixel you want to quantize uniformly with step size s, for quantization defined two concepts. The quantization cell is a group of values of s, which are all quanthouse with the same value. Value recovery for this cell equal to the value that will represent all of the elements of the cells during recovery. The same distribution is assumed for the values of the pixels in the Og. Cells quantization are of equal size for each quantization cell, and the value of recovery is in the middle of the cell. Since the pixel values are equal to the exponent 2, the number of values in each cell of quantization (which is s) is equal to the exponent of 2 (e.g., s=2e). Therefore, any s=1, which represents the case e=0, meaning that the quantization lossless. In this case there is only one value in each cell, and the value is the initial value and the restored value. Either s is an even number, in which case none of the original samples is not exactly in the middle of the cell. The middle cell is on the right between two sample values. H is usually used to select recovery choose any value of the sample directly above or just below the middle point.

Fig. 7 depicts cells and their values recovery for cases e=0, 1, 2, 3, 4 5. In Fig. 7 white circles and black circles represent initial values, the rectangles represent cells, black circles represent the restored value in each cell, and the segments with a dashed line represent the midpoint of each cell.

The result of bias

Assuming a homogeneous distribution of the initial values of the pixels are all over the range 0-1023, if you select restore right above the middle point, the offset to +0.5 results in the restored image. Similarly, the offset will be equal to minus 0.5 if the value of the recovery is set to the right below the midpoint. There are various ways in order to avoid bias. One method is an alternative between the values of the samples 'right above' and 'right below'.

The role of Gamma

In the Gamma and inverse Gamma function there are certain division by two and four, which are used for certain pixels. Division is performed by using an operations shift to the left. The operation of a single left-shift gives the offset is-0.5 for pixels to which he PR is manim. Operation double left shift leads to an offset equal to 1.5, for those pixels to which it is applicable. Another role of Gamma is that it changes the histogram of the original input image. After Gamma, Og, certain values are no longer occur. Therefore, the distribution of pixel values in Og is no longer homogeneous.

The structure of DICM

Fig. 8 depicts the structure 800 of the bitstream for DICM according to some variants of implementation. Structure 800 bit stream has a length of blockBitBudget. The first bit (which is also called the most significant bit) is set to "1 " in order to specify the mode of DICM. Then the bits are used to display the values of qn. The following are the bits that signal the mode of the prediction. For each pixel in the unit pixel of DECM-coded: pixel and its prediction quanthouse using qn, and their difference is subjected to entropy coding. Each pixel produces a '1' for codeLengthLimit bits depending on the balance of quantized values and the values of qn. If the total number of bits at this point is less than the budget of bits of the block, to further improve the accuracy of coding additional bits are added clarification. Eventually bits to complement the zeros are appended to the end, if the block is encoded without loss.

PCM

p> Fig. 9 depicts the order of transmission of bits for the way the PCM, for the case of block width equal to 16, and the number of bits per second, equal to 4 bits/s Fig. 10 depicts the recovery block.

Fig. 11 depicts the structure 1100 bitstream to PCM mode according to some variants of implementation. Structure 1100 bit stream has a length of blockBitBudget. The first bit (which is also called the most significant bit) is set to '0' to indicate the mode the PCM. Then for the remaining pixels included PCM codes for all pixels in the block.

Encoder

The structure of an exemplary encoder shown in Fig. 12 with many stages of refinement. The example of Fig. 12 includes the step of refinement for each of the modes. Fig. 13 depicts the structure of the encoder with a single stage of refinement. Thus, instead of a stage of refinement for each mode there is one stage of refinement. Fig depicts an encoder with entropy coding, is divided into two parts: the calculation of the value/length code and the generation of the bitstream. Fig. 15 depicts an encoder with calculation values and the length of the code separately from the generation of the bitstream, but with one step, Refine and one output bit stream. Examples only indicate the illustration of some possible examples. There are other possible implementations include fewer or more components.

Fig. 16 depicts and is gorithm the compression method using a fixed number of bits in the block according to some variants of implementation. At step 1600, the image is divided into blocks. In some embodiments, the implementation of the first image is divided into vertical strips, and then each vertical stripe is broken into small linear segments, which are called blocks. At step 1602 the gamma transformation is applied to generate data, such as 10-bit data. At step 1604 calculates the prediction. As described above, there are many possible methods of prediction. At step 1606 to the pixels used quantization. At step 1608 perform the calculation of DICM. At step 1608 calculate the difference between the quantized pixel and the quantized prediction and perform entropy encoding to generate variable length code for each residue of the quantized values. At step 1610 perform refinement. At step 1612 calculate PCM. At step 1614 generate the bitstream. Bit stream depends on the results of the methods of DICM and PCM higher accuracy. The order of the steps may be changed, and in some embodiments, the implementation of some steps can be skipped.

Fig. 17 depicts a block diagram of an exemplary computing device 1700, designed for performing image compression by using method a fixed number of bits in the block, according to some variants of implementation. Calculates the aspects of the device 1700 can be used to obtain, storage, computation, communication and/or display information such as images and video. For example, computing device 1700 may receive and store the image. The method of image compression can be used when receiving or viewing the image on the device 1700. In General, the structure of hardware suitable for implementing the computing device 1700 includes a network interface 1702, memory 1704, the processor 1706, the device(s) 1708 input/output bus 1710, and a storage device 1712. The choice of processor is not critical as long until you have selected a suitable processor with sufficient speed. Memory 1704 may be any known computer memory known in the art. Storage device 1712 may include a hard drive CDROM, CDRW, DVD, DVDRW, flash memory card or any other device storage device. Computing device 1700 may include one or more network interfaces 1702. The example network interface includes a network adapter that is connected to Ethernet or any type of local area network (LAN). Device(s) 1708 I/o may include one or more of the following: keyboard, mouse, monitor, display, printer, modem, touch screen, keypad interface, and other devices. Application(I) 1730 for the Atiyah images which is used to perform the compression method of images may be stored in storage device 1712 and memory 1704 and processed as applications are typically processed. More or fewer components shown in Fig. 17, can be included in the computing device 1700, in some embodiments, the implementation included hardware 1720 for image compression. Although computing device 1700 of Fig. 17 includes application 1730 and hardware 1720 for image compression, the compression method of images can be implemented in a computing device in the form of hardware, software hardware, software or any combination thereof. For example, in some embodiments, the implementation of the application 1730 for image compression programmed in a memory and executed using a processor. In another example, in some embodiments, the implementation of hardware 1720 for image compression is programmed at the level of hardware logic including logic gates specifically designed to implement the method of image compression.

In some embodiments, the implementation of the application(I) 1730 for image compression includes several applications and/or modules. As described above, the modules include a module break module Kadirova the Oia, gamma module, prediction, quantization module, DICM-module, Refine, PCM module and the module of the bitstream, each of which is designed to perform the respective methods described herein. In some embodiments, the implementation of a separate module DICM-encoding exists for each quantifier. In some embodiments, the implementation of the modules also include one or more submodules. In some embodiments, the implementation can be included fewer or more additional modules.

Examples of suitable computing devices include a personal computer, a portable personal computer type laptop (laptop), a workstation, a server, a universal computing machine, pocket calculator, personal digital assistant, a cellular/mobile telephone, a smart appliance, a gaming console, digital camera, digital video camera with built in recorder (camcorder), a mobile phone with built in camera, iPhone (iPhone), iPod (iPodŽ), video, DVD recorder/playback, TV, home entertainment system, or other suitable computing device.

To use the compression method of images, the user acquires a video/image such as the digital video camera with built-in VCR, and when or after receiving the video, the method of image compression automatically compresses each image of the video so that the video was compressed accordingly to produce high-quality video. The method of image compression is performed automatically without involving the user. Similarly, when the decoder decodes the video decoder automatically decodes the video so that the video display accordingly.

During operation, the compression method of images, described here, compresses images using hardware low value (for example, does not need many logic gates) in some embodiments, implementation, low complexity, low latency, very high visual quality (e.g., visually lossless) and does not depend on other blocks for decoding (for example, to decode any block with a fixed block size). The compression method of images can be used in any implementation, including but not limited to, a wireless high definition (wireless HD).

The compression method of images, described here, can be used with video and/or image.

Some embodiments of the method for compressing digital images using a fixed number of bits in the block:

1. The compression method of images, the program which has been created in the controller device, containing phases in which:

break the image into one or more blocks; and

encode one or more blocks, and the number of bits in each of the one or more blocks is fixed.

2. The method according to claim 1, additionally containing a stage on which to apply the gamma transformation to generate 10-bit data.

3. The method according to claim 1, additionally containing a stage at which calculates the prediction for each pixel in the current block of one or more blocks using one or more prediction modes.

4. The method according to claim 3, in which the prediction modes include at least one of the following prediction modes:

General;

DC;

right-up;

right-up-up;

up;

left-up-up;

left-up;

left-left-up; and

left.

5. The method according to claim 1, additionally containing a stage, where the applied quantization.

6. The method according to claim 1, additionally containing a stage at which calculates differential pulse code modulation) for receiving the remainder of the quantized values.

7. The method according to claim 6, further containing a stage on which to perform entropy encoding to generate variable length code for each residue of the quantized values.

8. The method according to claim 7, in which the step of performing entropy encoding of RA is defined in two parts: the calculation of the value/length code and the output bit stream.

9. The method according to claim 7, in which the step of performing entropy encoding is divided into two parts: the calculation of the value/length code and the generation of the bitstream, but with one step, Refine and one output bit stream.

10. The method according to claim 1, further containing the step of refinement.

11. The method according to claim 10, in which the step of the refinement includes a separate stage of refinement for each quantization.

12. The method according to claim 10, in which the step of the refinement includes a single stage of refinement.

13. The method according to claim 1, additionally containing phase, which calculates the pulse-code modulation, comprising shifting each pixel value into a fixed number of bits.

14. The method according to claim 1, additionally containing phase, which produce bit stream.

15. The method according to 14, in which at the stage of generating the bitstream choose the encoding method of differential pulse code modulation or pulse code modulation.

16. The method according to claim 1, wherein the controller is chosen from the group consisting of a programmable computer-readable media and schemes, depending on the type of application.

17. The method according to claim 1, wherein the device is selected from the group consisting of a personal computer, a portable personal computer type laptop, automated working places is, server, a universal computing machine, pocket computer, personal digital assistant, a cellular/mobile telephone, a smart appliance, a gaming console, a digital camera, a digital camcorder, a mobile phone with built in camera, iPhone (iPhone), iPod (iPodŽ), video player, DVD recorder/playback, TV and home entertainment system.

18. System for image compression programmed in a controller device that contains:

the module is split to split the image into one or more blocks; and

the encryption module for encoding one or more blocks, and the number of bits in each of the one or more blocks is fixed.

19. System p, optionally containing a computing module to compute the prediction for each pixel in the current block of one or more blocks using one or more prediction modes.

20. The system according to claim 19, in which the prediction modes include at least one of the following prediction modes:

General;

DC;

right-up;

right-up-up;

up;

left-up-up;

left-up;

left-left-up; and

left.

21. System for image compression programmed in a controller of the device is STV, contains:

gamma module for applying a gamma conversion to generate 10-bit data;

the prediction module to calculate a prediction for each pixel in the current block of one or more blocks using one or more prediction modes;

the quantization module for applying quantization;

module DICM for calculating differential pulse-code modulation for the generation of residues of the quantized values;

module refinement to perform refinement;

module PCM to calculate the pulse-code modulation, comprising shifting each pixel value into a fixed number of bits; and

module bitstream to generate a bit stream, and output the bit stream includes the choice of encoding method of differential pulse code modulation or pulse code modulation.

22. The system according to item 21, in which the prediction modes include at least one of the following prediction modes:

General;

DC;

right-up;

right-up-up;

up;

left-up-up;

left-up;

left-left-up; and

left.

23. The system according to item 21, in which the controller is selected from the group consisting of a programmable computer-readable media and schemes, depending on the type of application.

24. The system is .21, in which the device is selected from the group consisting of a personal computer, a portable personal computer type laptop (laptop), a workstation, a server, a universal computing machine, pocket computer, personal digital assistant, a cellular/mobile telephone, a smart appliance, a game console, digital camera, digital video camera with built-in VCR, mobile phone with built in camera, iPhone (iPhone), iPod (iPodŽ), video player, DVD recorder/playback, TV and home entertainment system.

25. The shooting device, containing:

the receiving component video to produce a video;

memory for storing the application is configured to:

partitioning the image into one or more blocks; and

encoding one or more blocks, and the number of bits in each of the one or more blocks is fixed; and

processing component associated with the memory and processing component configured to process the application.

26. The shooting device according A.25 where the application is additionally configured to calculate a prediction for each pixel in the current block of one or more blocks using one or b is more prediction modes.

27. The shooting device according to p, in which the prediction modes include at least one of the following prediction modes:

General;

DC;

right-up;

right-up-up;

up;

left-up-up;

left-up;

left-left-up; and

left.

The present invention has been described based on specific embodiments, incorporating details to facilitate the understanding of the principles of construction and operation of the invention. Such a reference here to the specific embodiments of, and its details are not intended to limit the scope of the attached claims. Specialists in the art will understand that various other modifications can be performed in the embodiment chosen for illustration without deviating from the essence and scope of the present invention, as defined by the claims.

1. The method of image compression, programmable controller devices containing phases in which:
break the image into one or more blocks; and
apply gamma transformation to each pixel of the image to generate data with the same number of bits;
calculate values of the prediction for each pixel in each block of the specified one or more blocks using a variety of modes to depict the Azania;
apply quantization to each pixel of each block of the specified one or more blocks with the use of a set of numbers of quantization;
calculate differential pulse code modulation (DICM) for the generation of residues of the quantized values for each of a set of numbers of quantization, the number of bits generated for each block from the specified one or more blocks, equal to the budget of bits;
calculate pulse code modulation (PCM), which includes shifting each pixel value into a fixed number of bits;
choose for each block from the specified one or more blocks of DICM with the number of quantization, which gives the best accuracy of coding;
choose the encoding method of differential pulse code modulation with a given number of quantization and pulse code modulation; and
produce a bit stream containing data encoded by the selected encoding method.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the prediction modes include at least one of the following prediction modes:
General;
DC;
right-up;
right-up-up;
up;
left-up-up;
left-up;
left-left-up; and
left.

3. The method according to claim 1, additionally containing a stage on which to perform entropy encoding to generate code re the military length for each residue of the quantized values.

4. The method according to claim 1, which perform the refinement.

5. The method according to claim 4, in which the step of the refinement includes a separate stage of refinement for each quantization.

6. The method according to claim 4, in which the step of the refinement includes a single stage of refinement.

7. The method according to claim 1, wherein the controller is chosen from the group consisting of a programmable computer-readable media and schemes, depending on the type of application.

8. The method according to claim 1, wherein the device is selected from the group consisting of a personal computer, a portable personal computer type laptop, workstation, server, General-purpose computing machine, pocket computer, personal digital assistant, a cellular/mobile telephone, a smart appliance, a gaming console, a digital camera, a digital camcorder, a mobile phone with built in camera, iPhone (iPhone), iPod (iPodŽ), video player, DVD recorder/playback, TV and home entertainment system.

9. System for image compression programmed in a controller device that contains:
the module is split to split the image into one or more blocks;
gamma module for applying a gamma conversion to generate data with the same number of bits;
Odul predictions to calculate a prediction for each pixel in each block of the specified one or more blocks using one or more prediction modes;
the quantization module for applying quantization to each pixel in each block of the specified one or more blocks with the use of a set of numbers tilting;
module differential pulse code modulation (DICM) for calculating differential pulse-code modulation for the generation of residues of the quantized values for each of multiple of the number of quantization, the number of bits generated for each block from the specified one or more blocks, equal to the budget of bits;
module pulse code modulation (PCM) to calculate the pulse-code modulation, comprising shifting each pixel value into a fixed number of bits; and
module bitstream to generate a bit stream, and output the bitstream includes selecting for each block from the specified one or more blocks of DICM with the number of quantization, which gives the best accuracy of coding, and choice of encoding method of differential pulse code modulation with a given number of quantization or pulse code modulation.

10. The system according to claim 9, in which the prediction modes include at least one of the following prediction modes:
General;
DC;
right-up;
right-up-up;
up;
left-up-up;
left-up;
left-left-up; and left.

11. The system according to claim 9, in which the controller is selected from the group consisting of a programmable computer-readable media and schemes, depending on the type of application.

12. The system according to claim 9, in which the device vibiano from the group consisting of a personal computer, a portable personal computer type laptop, workstation, server, General-purpose computing machine, pocket computer, personal digital assistant, a cellular/mobile telephone, a smart appliance, a gaming console, a digital camera, a digital camcorder, a mobile phone with built in camera, iPhone (iPhone), iPod (iPodŽ), video player, DVD recorder/playback, TV and home entertainment system.

13. The shooting device, comprising:
the receiving component video to produce a video;
memory for storing the application is configured to:
partitioning the image into one or more blocks; and
application of gamma transformation to each pixel of the image to generate data with the same number of bits;
to compute the prediction for each pixel in each block of the specified one or more blocks using the set of prediction modes;
applying quantization to each pixel of each the block from the specified one or more blocks with the use of a set of numbers of quantization;
calculating differential pulse code modulation (DICM) for the generation of residues of the quantized values for each of a set of numbers of quantization, the number of bits generated for each block from the specified one or more blocks, equal to the budget of bits;
calculate the pulse-code modulation (PCM), which includes shifting each pixel value into a fixed number of bits;
selecting for each block from the specified one or more blocks of DICM with the number of quantization, which gives the best accuracy of coding;
select the encoding method of differential pulse code modulation with a given number of quantization and pulse code modulation; and
the generation of the bit stream containing data encoded by the selected encoding method.

14. The shooting device according to item 13, in which the prediction modes include at least one of the following prediction modes:
General;
DC;
right-up;
right-up-up;
up;
left-up-up;
left-up;
left-left-up; and
left.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus comprises a video encoder that encodes a plurality of views of a scene, a multiplexer that constructs a data structure for signalling that a corresponding MPEG-2 standard bit stream comprises a first view of the scene associated with a first view order index and a second view of the scene associated with a second view order index, wherein the first view order index and the second view order index are non-consecutive, and an output interface that outputs the data structure.

EFFECT: enabling a receiving device, after receiving a transport level stream containing a plurality of sub-bit streams, each having non-consecutive views, to reorder views in the sub-bit streams such that the transport stream is ordered properly, ie, in ascending order from the standpoint of view order indices, such that a decoder can properly decode frames of each of the views.

32 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

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EFFECT: effective quality of prediction.

13 cl, 15 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: image decoding apparatus receives a predictive-coded bit stream which is generated by dividing each frame of a moving image signal into reference units of a given size. The apparatus decodes the bit stream to obtain a moving image signal. The apparatus includes a decoding unit for decoding the bit stream to obtain information which indicates a given size. The apparatus also operates in motion prediction mode and determines the motion vector for each of the reference units, or for each of the single motion prediction units defined as units obtained by hierarchical division of the reference units. The motion prediction mode determines the motion prediction procedure for single motion prediction units.

EFFECT: high efficiency of decoding information.

2 cl, 26 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

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EFFECT: enabling forward and inverse decorrelation of digital video images during compression, reconstruction and transmission over communication channels with minimal computational complexity.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 app

FIELD: information technology.

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9 cl, 38 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

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21 cl, 14 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

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4 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

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FIELD: information technology.

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10 cl, 40 dwg

FIELD: physics, computer engineering.

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17 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics, computer engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means of digitising a frame image.

EFFECT: frame digitisation with not three converters in each matrix element but with one converter in each matrix element which, during the frame period, concurrently and synchronously performs three successive conversions of colours R, G, B with 15 bits each, and image digitisation ends at the end of the frame period.

4 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: image compression method, based on excluding a certain portion of information, wherein the information is excluded from the space domain through numerical solution of Poisson or Laplace differential equations, and subsequent estimation of the difference between the obtained solution and actual values at discrete points of the image; generating an array of boundary conditions, which includes a considerable number of equal elements which is compressed, and the image is reconstructed by solving Poisson or Laplace partial differential equations using the array of boundary conditions.

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2 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: method is carried out by realising automatic computer formation of a prediction procedure which is appropriately applied to an input image. The technical result is achieved by making an image encoding device for encoding images using a predicted pixel value generated by a predetermined procedure for generating a predicted value which predicts the value of a target encoding pixel using a pre-decoded pixel. The procedure for generating a predicted value, having the best estimate cost, is selected from procedures for generating a predicted value as parents and descendants, where the overall information content for displaying a tree structure and volume of code estimated by the predicted pixel value, obtained through the tree structure, is used as an estimate cost. The final procedure for generating a predicted value is formed by repeating the relevant operation.

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12 cl, 14 dwg

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: in the method of processing of raster images, including compression of an image by the method of "cut block coding" or its modifications, before the procedure of compressing coding they perform digital filtration, which increases sharpness of the compressed image, and after the decoding procedure they perform smoothing digital filtration of the decoded image.

EFFECT: improved quality of decoded raster images when methods used for their compressing coding on the basis of cut block coding or their modifications, improved current formalised criteria.

3 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: method of encoding transform coefficients includes: encoding the position and value of a last non-zero coefficient of a block; encoding at least one coefficient in accordance with a first coding mode if the amplitude of said at least one coefficient is less than or equal to a threshold; and determining a cumulative sum of amplitudes of previously coded non-zero coefficients that are greater than the threshold; and if the cumulative sum is less than a cumulative threshold value, and the position of the last non-zero coefficient is less than a location threshold: coding a subsequent coefficient in accordance with the first coding mode; otherwise, coding a subsequent coefficient in accordance with a second coding mode.

EFFECT: high encoding efficiency.

22 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: methods and systems for processing document object models (DOM) and processing video content are provided. Information content which is represented by a DOM and which includes a scripting language associated with the information content is received and original content of the DOM is stored after execution of the scripting language. Further, video content is adapted for client devices. The scripting language associated with the information content can be sent to client device along with a modified DOM and processed video content. Pre-processing of the scripting language is carried out to identify nodes related to video content and to maintain all other original nodes, for example.

EFFECT: easier processing of video data.

23 cl, 12 dwg

Video camera // 2473968

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: video camera has a portable housing having a light focusing lens, a light-sensitive device which converts the focused light into source video data, a storage device installed in the housing, and an image processing system configured to introduce predistortions into the source video data and compression thereof, wherein the compressed source video data remain essentially visual without loss after decompression, and also configured to store compressed source video data in the storage device.

EFFECT: reduced loss of quality of a compressed image during decompression and display.

22 cl, 18 dwg

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a processor arranged as capable of realisation of a set of commands for calling a facility of intracycle filtration of blocking effect deletion and for universal correction of blocking effect in a decoded output signal during operation of a post-cycle filtration using the facility of intracycle filtration of blocking effect deletion, at the same time the universal correction of blocking effect includes the following: performance of an operation of strong filtration in respect to units in a decoded output signal for correction of an inherited blocking effect, at the same time units contain missed macrounits and units with a template of a coded unit, equal to zero, and inclusion of a facility of intracycle filtration of blocking effect removal for edges of a fragment of an image of fixed size, which are not arranged on the border of the unit of the appropriate intermediate macrounit, for correction of the inherited blocking effect; and a memory connected to the processor.

EFFECT: development of a method of universal correction of blocking effect, including inherited blocking effect.

19 cl, 23 dwg, 7 tbl

Virtual code window // 2463662

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: method of encoding a graphic display to provide a unique, distinctive machine-readable code for a plurality of commodities involves obtaining an image of part of the graphic display. An electronic image of the temporary boundary around a certain part of the graphic display is formed relative a fixed trigger point. Part of the obtained image lying inside that boundary is processed to obtain a descriptor. Data are assigned to the descriptor. Further, that relationship is stored in a storage. The graphic display is fixed for a plurality of commodities and the temporary boundary is different for each commodity such that part of the graphic display which forms the code is different for each commodity.

EFFECT: high protection from copying, forgery or unauthorised reading of a graphic code.

7 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: in the method, conversion of radiation intensity of matrix elements into binary codes is carried out in parallel and synchronously with all matrix elements at the same time, represented by triads of "radiation brightness-to-code" converters of three fundamental colours R, G, B, which convert radiation brightness to binary codes at the speed of light, and digitisation of the frame image ends with the end of the frame interval.

EFFECT: high speed of digitisation.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: systems for encoding and decoding video signals.

SUBSTANCE: method and system for statistical encoding are claimed, where parameters which represent the encoded signal are transformed to indexes of code words, so that decoder may restore the encoded signal from aforementioned indexes of code words. When the parameter space is limited in such a way that encoding becomes inefficient and code words are not positioned in ordered or continuous fashion in accordance with parameters, sorting is used to sort parameters into various groups with the goal of transformation of parameters from various groups into indexes of code words in different manner, so that assignment of code word indexes which correspond to parameters is performed in continuous and ordered fashion. Sorting may be based on absolute values of parameters relatively to selected value. In process of decoding, indexes of code words are also sorted into various groups on basis of code word index values relatively to selected value.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of compression, when encoding parameters are within limited range to ensure ordered transformation of code word indexes.

6 cl, 3 dwg

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