Infrared reflector

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: infrared reflector consists of a metal substrate, characterised by that it is coated with a layer of zirconium nitride and chromium nitride of general formula (ZrxCr1-x)1-yNy with x ranging from 0.15-0.7 and y ranging from 0.01 to 0.265. The method of production involves producing a metal substrate; depositing a layer of zirconium nitride and chromium nitride on said substrate by physical vapour deposition using a target which contains 15-70 wt % zirconium, with the remaining part consisting of chromium and impurities which are inevitable in the treatment process, and injecting nitrogen with a neutral carrier gas in ratio of 4/16 to 16/16 while simultaneously sputtering zirconium and chromium.

EFFECT: designing an infrared reflector, having high heat reflecting power and high resistance to high temperatures in corrosive or oxidative media.

17 cl

 

The present invention relates to the development of infrared reflectors.

One of the main challenges of the 21st century are issues related to energy, namely: production, distribution and consumption of energy in the most efficient and most environmentally friendly way. This task costs in all sectors of the economy and the impact on industrial activities, aimed at finding solutions with low energy consumption.

In terms of reducing energy consumption are investigated coating capable of maintaining elevated temperature in an enclosed volume, i.e. to prevent energy loss into the environment. For this purpose, the coating should have a high reflectivity for thermal radiation (near and middle infrared (IR) spectrum). High reflectivity of thermal radiation means that the average reflectance of infrared radiation in the range of 2.5-to 14.5 μm exceeds 70%.

As a rule, in the closed volume of the type of home electric furnace or exhaust system walls absorb infrared radiation from the heating elements. They are heated and, in turn, emit radiation of larger wavelengths as the temperature is lower than the temperature of the heating elements. This radiation is then partially absorbed by the objects located in the cavity,and the residue is again absorbed by the walls. Part neizrechennoe heat energy is transferred by convection within the cavity and the conductivity between the different layers of the wall to the outer wall of the cavity, where this energy is dissipated in the surrounding air by convection after increasing the temperature of the various layers through which it passes. One of the technical solutions that can be used to limit energy losses into the cavity of the external environment and to improve the energy efficiency of equipment, is to "capture" infrared radiation within the cavity. This solution allows to avoid energy losses and possibly involves the use of insulating foam. Metal substrate, if necessary, with a metallic coating, are suitable for this purpose is particularly ideal because of their high heat-reflecting ability. However, such their use, there are many drawbacks:

premature corrosion of the substrate, for example, in the case of application of cold rolled or dark-grey cast iron;

- corrosion in alkaline medium, for example, in the case of aluminum or laminirovannogo coverage;

- yellowing of the surface with increasing temperature, as, for example, in the case of the use of stainless steel.

- lack of ability to clean the surface in contact with dirt;/p>

- oxidation in a wet environment, for example, in the case of copper or aluminum.

To withstand high temperatures and corrosive and/or oxidizing environments, there are typically painted or enameled surfaces. However, these surfaces have low heat-reflecting ability and do not provide a gain in energy. Conversely, the use of cavity walls, metal surfaces, possibly with a metallic coating, provides a gain in energy of the order of 20% compared to painted or enameled walls.

The purpose of the present invention is to provide an infrared reflector that has both high heat-reflecting ability and high resistance to high temperatures in corrosive or oxidizing environments. This reflector has been designed and developed to eliminate the above described disadvantages and to obtain other advantages.

While the invention is primarily infrared reflector comprising a metallic substrate, characterized mainly by the fact that she was covered with a layer of zirconium nitride and chromium, expressed the General formula (ZrxCr1-x)1-yNywith x in the range from 0.15 to 0.7 and y in the range from 0.01 to 0,265.

Infrared reflector according to the image the structure may also include the following characteristics, separately or in combination:

the thickness of the layer of zirconium nitride and chromium is from 1 to 150 nm;

- the proportion of zirconium x in this layer is from 0.25 to 0.5;

- the share of nitriding in this layer is from 0.1 to 0.25;

- the average reflectivity of the metal substrate in the infrared range of 2.5 to 14.4 μm ranges from 80% to 99%;

The metal substrate consists of a steel plate coated with a pre-coating:

- aluminum alloy comprising from 8 to 11% by weight of silicon and from 2 to 4% by weight of iron with the rest consisting of aluminum and impurities inherent in the process;

or an aluminum layer, where the remainder consists of impurities inherent in the process;

or consistently applied aluminum alloy comprising from 8 to 11% by weight of silicon and from 2 to 4% by weight of iron with the rest consisting of aluminum and impurities inherent in processing, and a layer of aluminum alloy.

Infrared reflector can be used for lining the internal walls of the cavity, preferably the same as the internal cavity of home cooking stoves or exhaust system.

Thus, it is clear that the solution to the above technical problem lies in the choice of the metal surface with high teletraining the second ability and its treatment by coating of zirconium nitride and chromium.

Secondly, the present invention consists in the method of manufacturing the infrared reflector of the present invention, comprising the following operations:

- obtaining of the metal substrate;

- applying on the substrate a layer of a nitride of zirconium and chromium using physical vapour deposition, preferably by magnetron sputtering, using:

goals ranging from 15 to 70% by weight of zirconium, with the rest consisting of chromium and impurities inherent in the process;

- nitrogen injection box with a neutral carrier gas, respect from 4/16 to 16/16, with simultaneous deposition of zirconium and chromium.

Other distinctive features and advantages of this invention will become clear after reading the following description.

Thus, the infrared reflector according to the invention includes, first, a metal substrate, if necessary, with a metallic coating. Depending on the application and the required characteristics may be used with the following metallic coating, but it should be borne in mind that this list is not exhaustive: dark grey cast iron; galvanized steel; steel with a coating of a zinc alloy containing 5% by weight of aluminium (Galfan®); steel coated with zinc, containing 55% by weight of aluminum, OK the lo to 1.5% by weight of silicon, with the rest consisting of zinc and impurities inherent in processing (Aluzinc®, Galvalume®); steel coated with aluminum alloy containing from 8 to 11% by weight of silicon and from 2 to 4% by weight iron, with the rest consisting of aluminum and impurities inherent in processing (Alusi®); steel coated with an aluminum layer (Alupur©); stainless steel; aluminum; brass; steel coated with successively coating of aluminum alloy containing from 8 to 11% by weight of silicon and from 2 to 4% by weight iron, with the rest consisting of aluminum and impurities inherent in processing (Alusi®), and a layer of aluminum alloy of a thickness of from 20 to 60 nm. The average reflectivity of these substrates in the infrared range of 2.5-to 14.5 μm is from 80 to 99%. Further, throughout the text the term "metal substrate" will mean the metal substrate with an optional coating of one or more layers of metal.

In addition, the cavity walls may be sharp, aggressive conditions, such as:

- temperatures up to 400°C;

- the influence of mud aggressive type;

- exposure to an alkaline environment.

All of the above conditions threaten the integrity of the outer layer of the infrared reflector.

Unexpectedly, the authors of the present invention found that when applied to meta is symbolic of the substrate with high heat-reflecting ability of a layer of zirconium nitride and chromium the substrate acquires resistance to corrosive conditions, at the same time retaining its heat-reflecting ability.

A layer of zirconium nitride and chromium, according to the invention, can be obtained from an alloy containing from 15 to 70% by weight of zirconium, with the rest consisting of chromium and impurities inherent in processing. It was found that the zirconium content is below 15% or above 70% contributes to the deterioration of the performance characteristics of the layer, in particular, were observed poor cleanability when the zirconium content is below 15% and a low resistance when the zirconium content is above 70%. As for chrome, it contributes to the creation of layers having heat resistance and having a dark color. The formed layer, thus, has a share of zirconium, x is between about 0.15 and 0.7.

Applying a layer on a metal substrate may be performed by any method of vacuum deposition, from which we can mention, as examples of the physical vapor deposition by magnetron sputtering, electron beam deposition, ion beam deposition, sputtering with ion cannons, jet-vacuum deposition, ion plating.

Preferably, we will begin with the target composition, comprising 46% by weight of zirconium and 54% by weight of chromium (Zr46Cr54). In fact, the layers obtained from this alloy have a good combination of the required characteristics. Because the conditions of zanesenjaka affect the percentage of zirconium and chromium, actually observed in the formed layer, and because the accuracy of measuring instruments introduces inaccuracy in the measurement data, it is preferable, we will strive to achieve the target share of zirconium x formed in the layer in the range from 0.25 and 0.5.

During the deposition of the nitride layer is performed by introducing nitrogen. Such nitriding is a necessary condition for obtaining the desired characteristics. Nitrogen significantly affects teploprovodnosti, and the color of the layer.

A very small amount of introduced nitrogen is sufficient to achieve a satisfactory properties. For constructional reasons, the amount of introduced nitrogen should not exceed the stoichiometry of the type Me3N4where Me represents the atoms of zirconium and chromium. This stoichiometry corresponds to the maximum percentage of nitrogen by weight of 26.5%.

Preferably, the nitrogen will be carried out in such a way as to obtain the stoichiometry of the type of MeN; a small deviation type MeN0,8or MeN1,2from this the desired stoichiometry are valid. This stoichiometric composition, demonstrating optimal heat-reflecting ability, corresponds to a nitrogen content of from 10% to 25% by weight, depending on the relative content of zirconium and chromium.

The nitriding layer controls the comfort of a nitrogen flow, and, in particular, the ratio of costs of argon and nitrogen. Since the ratio between the desired nitriding and nitrogen flow depends on the geometry of the device for spraying, the applicable rate shall be selected by the person skilled in the art on the basis of common knowledge. The deposition is carried out so that the alloy of zirconium and chromium had a degree of nitriding at from 0.01 to 0,265, and, preferably, from 0.1 to 0.25.

Because teploprovodnosti layer depends on its thickness, this thickness is chosen so that the average reflectivity of the infrared reflector remained above 70%. Below this value, the surface is no longer considered an infrared reflector. The maximum thickness of which should not be exceeded in order to maintain sufficient transparency depends on the particular metal substrate and the stoichiometric composition of the layer. For each metal substrate and each of the specific stoichiometry of the maximum thickness can be estimated using digital simulation based on the real and complex part of the refractive index of the formed layer, that is, for each wavelength in the range from 2.5 to 14.5 microns. For example, in the case of a layer of zirconium nitride and chromium with the General formula (ZrxCr1-x)1-yNywith x=0.3 and y=0,12, sawed at the substrate Alusi®, pointed to by the e above is heat-reflecting ability of 70% is obtained when the layer thickness of 150 nm, which will be the maximum thickness.

Infrared reflector according to the present invention has the following characteristics:

- The average reflectivity is close to the heat-reflecting ability of the metal substrate and above 70%;

- It can withstand temperatures up to 400°C;

- Can be easily cleaned in case of contamination;

- Can withstand alkaline environments;

We have also identified the following additional benefits:

- A layer of zirconium nitride and chromium improves the corrosion resistance of the metal substrate to atmospheric corrosion;

- This layer is dark grayish-blue color when the thickness is less than 40 nm and grey-anthracite color with greater thickness. This grey-anthracite color helps to use this layer for home electric furnaces, where layers of gray are preferred. This color can also be a positive factor for decorative applications.

For the purpose of illustrating the present invention tests were conducted, which will be described below as non-limiting examples.

Tests

The thickness of the sprayed layer is estimated as follows. During the preparation for the deposition, after all the deposition parameters (namely the type of installation, the composition of the target composition, the intensity of the nab, the population and the consumption of gas) will be selected, directly applying a layer of partially masked silicon within a specified period of time. Then measure the difference of the thickness of the coated and uncoated parts of silicon by using a profilometer type "Dektak". This operation is repeated for different values of the duration of application. Speed determined by linear regression is then used to select the duration of the application depending on the desired layer thickness, for the same set of variables.

The reflectivity of the resulting layer is measured using an integrating sphere with a coating of material Infragold®. A beam of given wavelength, the incident angle of 8°, is reflected by the sample, the reflectivity is to be measured, and then integrating sphere and measured by spectrometric sensor. The average value of the reflectivity can be determined by scanning at wavelengths from 2.5 to 14.5 microns. Calibration is performed according to the normative documents, certified metrological organization.

Evaluation of heat resistance is produced by exposure to infrared reflector to temperatures of 400°C for four hours. Any oxidation of the outer layer of the reflector is manifested in the form of a color change. If the color change imperceptibly of neverbeen the m eye it is quantified by using spectrocolorimeter. The difference between the start and end of tsvetovymi shades is expressed as Δa* and & Delta; b* colorimetric line CIE 76 L*a*b*. In the case of the present invention, thermal stability is considered satisfactory when Δ* and & Delta; b* remain below 2. After exposure to temperatures of 400°C for four hours, it was also confirmed that the heat-reflecting ability has not changed.

Under easy cleanability refers to the ability to easily remove carbonized elements with the upper layer of the infrared reflector. The evaluation system ease of Ocidente gives the possibility to quantitatively assess the ability of this layer to restore its original appearance after use. This evaluation system ease of Ocidente includes the following operations:

- a certain part of the surface is applied a mixture of food (egg yolk, salt, milk, lemon juice, ketchup or jam);

- this mixture is subjected to charring in the oven, heating up to 200°C for 10 minutes, at the time of temperature rise 25 minutes.

after cooling in succession cleaning to remove charred mixture as possible.

Ease of Ocidente is estimated as follows:

- 5: the surface can ochistitsya cloth;

- 4: the surface can be cleaned with a soft surface moistened sponge;

- 3: the surface can be cleaned with an abrasive surface moistened sponge;

- 2: the surface can be cleaned with a soft surface moistened sponge and tool type Decap'four® for cleaning home electric furnaces;

- 1: the surface can be cleaned with an abrasive surface moistened sponge and tool type Decap'four® for cleaning home electric furnaces;

- 0: the surface is not cleared.

For the present invention is the ease of Ocidente is considered satisfactory when the average score obtained for a mixture of all the above mentioned food products, is strictly greater than 3.

Resistance to alkaline environments evaluated by coating on the outer layer of the infrared reflector means type Decap'four® for cleaning home electric furnaces. The resistance to the alkaline environment is considered satisfactory if the contact with the above tool does not cause any changes in the layer.

The degree of nitriding and the specific content of zirconium in the formed layer is measured by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy.

Examples

As examples of the implementation of the present invention is considered physical vapor deposition by magnetron sputtering of a layer of zirconium nitride and chromium with the General formula ZrxCr 1-x)1-yNyon the substrate Alusi®.

In a vacuum chamber with a base pressure of 10-6mbar (10-4kPa) are argon and nitrogen in the specified depending on the geometry of the camera. Generates plasma between the substrate and the target ZrxCr1-xin the magnetron mode under the influence of an electric voltage generated by the generator with a capacity of 360 watts. The atoms of zirconium and chromium break with goals and discarded on a substrate.

Table 1 shows the characteristics of some of the obtained layers and their properties.

Table 1
(*= infrared reflector according to the present invention)
Test No.1234567
Target trackAlusi AS120 netZr-Cr (46%-54)*Zr-Cr (46%-54%) *Zr-Cr (46%-54%) *Zr-Cr (46%-54%) *Zr-Cr (86%-14%)Zr-Cr (86%-14%)
From osenia costs Ar/N 2/16/816/416/1616/816/816/4
Thickness, nm/4060601504550
Heat-reflecting ability92%90%73%77%70%90%85%
Operating temperatureYesYesYesYesYesNoNo
Leggiest3444444
Alkaline resistantNo YesYesYesYesYesYes
Shade/Grey-blueGreyGreyGreyBlueBluish-purple

It turned out that trebuemye technical characteristics have only layers of the present invention. In fact:

- Substrate Alusi, not covered with a layer of zirconium nitride and chromium, alkali resistance and ease of Ocidente proved unsatisfactory.

- When using Zr86-CR14the layer has poor heat resistance.

- When using Zr46-Cr54as indicates the test No. 5, the layer thickness of more than 150 nm is not possible to obtain satisfactory heat-reflecting ability, and it is above 70%.

In addition, measurement by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy allowed us to make sure that the layers according to the invention have a degree of nitriding of the order of 0.1-0.15, and the proportion of zirconium of about 0,25-0,35.

It should be borne in mind that the applications mentioned in this description are ill is administrative in nature and are not limiting of the present invention. The present invention can be applied in other areas where it is desirable to adjust the reflective properties of a surface, for example, when creating selective filters, heat shields automobile engines, headlight lenses, etc.

1. Infrared reflector comprising a metallic substrate, characterized by the fact that it is covered with a layer of zirconium nitride and chromium General formula (ZrxCr1-x)1-yNywith x in the range from 0.15 to 0.7 and y in the range from 0.01 to 0,265.

2. Infrared reflector according to claim 1, in which the thickness of a layer of zirconium nitride and chromium is from 1 to 150 nm.

3. Infrared reflector according to claim 1, in which the proportion of zirconium x in the specified layer is from 0.25 to 0.5.

4. Infrared reflector according to claim 2, in which the proportion of zirconium x in the specified layer is from 0.25 to 0.5.

5. Infrared reflector according to claim 1, in which the degree of nitriding y in the specified layer is from 0.1 to 0.25.

6. Infrared reflector according to claim 2, in which the degree of nitriding y in the specified layer is from 0.1 to 0.25.

7. Infrared reflector according to claim 3, in which the degree of nitriding y in the specified layer is from 0.1 to 0.25.

8. Infrared reflector according to claim 4, in which the degree of nitriding y in the specified layer is from 0.1 to 0.25.

9. Infrared reflector according to any one of claims 1 to 8, in which the specified m is a metallic substrate has an average reflectivity in the range of infrared radiation from 2.5 to 14.5 μm from 80% to 99%.

10. Infrared reflector according to claim 9, in which the specified metal substrate consists of steel with pre-applied layer of aluminum alloy containing from 8 to 11% by weight of silicon and from 2 to 4% by weight iron, with the rest consisting of aluminum and impurities inherent in the process.

11. Infrared reflector according to claim 9, in which the specified metal substrate consists of steel with pre-applied layer of aluminum, and the remainder of the layer consists of impurities inherent in the process.

12. Infrared reflector according to claim 9, in which the specified metal substrate consists of steel with pre-consistently applied: a layer of aluminum alloy containing from 8 to 11% by weight of silicon and from 2 to 4% by weight iron, with the rest consisting of aluminum and impurities inherent in processing, and a layer of aluminum alloy of a thickness of from 20 to 60 nm.

13. The method of obtaining infrared reflector, comprising the following stages:
- obtaining of the metal substrate;
- applying on the substrate a layer of a nitride of zirconium and chromium using physical vapour deposition, using:
goals ranging from 15 to 70% by weight of zirconium, with the rest consisting of chromium and impurities inherent in the process;
- nitrogen injection box with neutral the first carrier gas, respect from 4/16 to 16/16, with simultaneous deposition of zirconium and chromium.

14. The method according to item 13, in which the indicated deposition is carried out by magnetron sputtering.

15. The use of infrared reflector according to any one of claims 1 to 12 or obtained in accordance with the methods indicated in paragraph 13 or 14, for manufacturing the inner walls of the cavities.

16. The use of infrared reflector 15 in which the specified cavity is the home oven for cooking.

17. The use of infrared reflector 15 in which the specified cavity is the exhaust system of the vehicle.



 

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18 cl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method involves local laser deposition of a layer of transparent or opaque material on the surface. Laser deposition is carried out on mirror reflecting adjacent surfaces or coatings of plates already mounted in an interferometer in the gap between surfaces. The gap is filled with a medium which forms a film upon laser irradiation, and the surface is locally irradiated with laser radiation. Thickness of the deposited layer of material can be controlled during deposition by interference measurement of deviation of the length of the optical path of the light beam between the mirror reflecting surfaces of the interferometer plates from the resonance length for the interferometer. The laser beam can scan the surface, wherein its intensity can be modulated with the length of the optical path between the mirror reflecting surfaces.

EFFECT: correcting the shape of surfaces of optical components already mounted in an optical device.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: laser radiation focused on the surface of a photosensitive layer is modified on depth in proportion to the power density of the radiation propagating in the photosensitive layer. Before entering a focusing lens, the laser radiation is collimated into a parallel beam whose diameter is smaller than the entrance aperture of said lens and is shifted in parallel to the optical axis by a value where one of the edges of the longitudinal section of the exposing radiation cone in the photoresist layer becomes parallel to the optical axis of the focusing lens. In the second version, an immersion liquid is further placed in the interval between the output lens of the focusing lens and the surface of the photosensitive layer.

EFFECT: high diffraction efficiency of kinoform lenses by reducing loss on counter slopes of zones by increasing the gradient of the slopes formed directly during direct laser writing.

2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method according to the invention involves adding to a reaction mixture an effective amount of a compound which reduces protein absorption, hardening said mixture in a mould to form a contact lens and removing the lens from the mould with at least one aqueous solution.

EFFECT: making silicone-hydrogel contact lenses with low protein adsorption, which are comfortable and safe to use, and do not require high production expenses.

23 cl

Optical monocrystal // 2495459

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: monocrystals are designed for infrared equipment and for making, by extrusion, single- and multi-mode infrared light guides for the spectral range from 2 mcm to 50 mcm, wherein a nanocrystalline structure of infrared light guides with grain size from 30 nm to 100 nm is formed, which determines their functional properties. The monocrystal is made from silver bromide and a solid solution of a bromide and iodide of univalent thallium (TIBr0.46I0.54), with the following ratio of components in wt %: silver bromide 99.5-65.0; solid solution TIBr0.46I0.54 0.5-35.0.

EFFECT: reproducibility and predictability of properties, avoiding cleavage effect, resistance to radioactive, ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation.

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: method involves shaping of a reflector based on organic plastic material and non-organic substance with reflection coefficient of not less than 0.9 by preparing a mixture of initial components under pressure. As organic plastic material there used is a mixture of fluorine and polycarbonate; as non-organic substance - titanium dioxide, at the following component ratio, wt %: polycarbonate 100; fluorine 3.5-5.0; titanium dioxide 0.5-1.0. Forming can be performed by pressing at pressure of 800 to 1500 atm and at temperature of 240-270°C to thickness of not less than 2 mm or by casting at pressure of 750 to 1500 atm and at temperature of 280-290°C to thickness of at least 2 mm. Polycarbonate with melt flow-behaviour index of 2-60 g/10 min can be used as polymer material.

EFFECT: enlarging processing methods, temperature interval of processing, reducing cost and material consumption.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: polymer materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention provides composition containing from about 50 to about 80% of component selected from group consisting of di(meth)acylate of ethoxylated bisphenol A, di(meth)acylate of non-ethoxylated bisphenol A, di(meth)acylate of propoxylated bisphenol A, epoxy(meth)acrylates of bisphenol A, and mixtures thereof; from more than 0 to about 30% of component selected from group consisting of tetrahydeofuryl (meth)acrylate, isobornyl (meth)acrylate, cyclohexyl (meth)acrylate, and mixtures thereof; from more than 0 to about 15% of component selected from group consisting of dipentaerythritol penta(meth)acrylate, trimethylolpropane tri(meth)acrylate, pentaerythritol tri(meth)acrylate, tri(meth)acrylate of ethoxylated or propoxylated trimethylolpropane, tri(meth)acrylate of ethoxylated or propoxylated glycerol, pentaerythritol tetra(meth)acrylate, bis-trimethylolpropane tetra(meth)acrylate, dipentaerythritol hexa(meth)acrylate, and combinations thereof. Such composition is suited to manufacture eyeglass lenses.

EFFECT: expanded possibilities in manufacture of polymer-based lenses, including multifocal ones.

21 cl, 3 tbl, 18 ex

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