SUBSTANCE: infrared reflector consists of a metal substrate, characterised by that it is coated with a layer of zirconium nitride and chromium nitride of general formula (ZrxCr1-x)1-yNy with x ranging from 0.15-0.7 and y ranging from 0.01 to 0.265. The method of production involves producing a metal substrate; depositing a layer of zirconium nitride and chromium nitride on said substrate by physical vapour deposition using a target which contains 15-70 wt % zirconium, with the remaining part consisting of chromium and impurities which are inevitable in the treatment process, and injecting nitrogen with a neutral carrier gas in ratio of 4/16 to 16/16 while simultaneously sputtering zirconium and chromium.
EFFECT: designing an infrared reflector, having high heat reflecting power and high resistance to high temperatures in corrosive or oxidative media.
The present invention relates to the development of infrared reflectors.
One of the main challenges of the 21st century are issues related to energy, namely: production, distribution and consumption of energy in the most efficient and most environmentally friendly way. This task costs in all sectors of the economy and the impact on industrial activities, aimed at finding solutions with low energy consumption.
In terms of reducing energy consumption are investigated coating capable of maintaining elevated temperature in an enclosed volume, i.e. to prevent energy loss into the environment. For this purpose, the coating should have a high reflectivity for thermal radiation (near and middle infrared (IR) spectrum). High reflectivity of thermal radiation means that the average reflectance of infrared radiation in the range of 2.5-to 14.5 μm exceeds 70%.
As a rule, in the closed volume of the type of home electric furnace or exhaust system walls absorb infrared radiation from the heating elements. They are heated and, in turn, emit radiation of larger wavelengths as the temperature is lower than the temperature of the heating elements. This radiation is then partially absorbed by the objects located in the cavity,and the residue is again absorbed by the walls. Part neizrechennoe heat energy is transferred by convection within the cavity and the conductivity between the different layers of the wall to the outer wall of the cavity, where this energy is dissipated in the surrounding air by convection after increasing the temperature of the various layers through which it passes. One of the technical solutions that can be used to limit energy losses into the cavity of the external environment and to improve the energy efficiency of equipment, is to "capture" infrared radiation within the cavity. This solution allows to avoid energy losses and possibly involves the use of insulating foam. Metal substrate, if necessary, with a metallic coating, are suitable for this purpose is particularly ideal because of their high heat-reflecting ability. However, such their use, there are many drawbacks:
premature corrosion of the substrate, for example, in the case of application of cold rolled or dark-grey cast iron;
- corrosion in alkaline medium, for example, in the case of aluminum or laminirovannogo coverage;
- yellowing of the surface with increasing temperature, as, for example, in the case of the use of stainless steel.
- lack of ability to clean the surface in contact with dirt;/p>
- oxidation in a wet environment, for example, in the case of copper or aluminum.
To withstand high temperatures and corrosive and/or oxidizing environments, there are typically painted or enameled surfaces. However, these surfaces have low heat-reflecting ability and do not provide a gain in energy. Conversely, the use of cavity walls, metal surfaces, possibly with a metallic coating, provides a gain in energy of the order of 20% compared to painted or enameled walls.
The purpose of the present invention is to provide an infrared reflector that has both high heat-reflecting ability and high resistance to high temperatures in corrosive or oxidizing environments. This reflector has been designed and developed to eliminate the above described disadvantages and to obtain other advantages.
While the invention is primarily infrared reflector comprising a metallic substrate, characterized mainly by the fact that she was covered with a layer of zirconium nitride and chromium, expressed the General formula (ZrxCr1-x)1-yNywith x in the range from 0.15 to 0.7 and y in the range from 0.01 to 0,265.
Infrared reflector according to the image the structure may also include the following characteristics, separately or in combination:
the thickness of the layer of zirconium nitride and chromium is from 1 to 150 nm;
- the proportion of zirconium x in this layer is from 0.25 to 0.5;
- the share of nitriding in this layer is from 0.1 to 0.25;
- the average reflectivity of the metal substrate in the infrared range of 2.5 to 14.4 μm ranges from 80% to 99%;
The metal substrate consists of a steel plate coated with a pre-coating:
- aluminum alloy comprising from 8 to 11% by weight of silicon and from 2 to 4% by weight of iron with the rest consisting of aluminum and impurities inherent in the process;
or an aluminum layer, where the remainder consists of impurities inherent in the process;
or consistently applied aluminum alloy comprising from 8 to 11% by weight of silicon and from 2 to 4% by weight of iron with the rest consisting of aluminum and impurities inherent in processing, and a layer of aluminum alloy.
Infrared reflector can be used for lining the internal walls of the cavity, preferably the same as the internal cavity of home cooking stoves or exhaust system.
Thus, it is clear that the solution to the above technical problem lies in the choice of the metal surface with high teletraining the second ability and its treatment by coating of zirconium nitride and chromium.
Secondly, the present invention consists in the method of manufacturing the infrared reflector of the present invention, comprising the following operations:
- obtaining of the metal substrate;
- applying on the substrate a layer of a nitride of zirconium and chromium using physical vapour deposition, preferably by magnetron sputtering, using:
goals ranging from 15 to 70% by weight of zirconium, with the rest consisting of chromium and impurities inherent in the process;
- nitrogen injection box with a neutral carrier gas, respect from 4/16 to 16/16, with simultaneous deposition of zirconium and chromium.
Other distinctive features and advantages of this invention will become clear after reading the following description.
Thus, the infrared reflector according to the invention includes, first, a metal substrate, if necessary, with a metallic coating. Depending on the application and the required characteristics may be used with the following metallic coating, but it should be borne in mind that this list is not exhaustive: dark grey cast iron; galvanized steel; steel with a coating of a zinc alloy containing 5% by weight of aluminium (Galfan®); steel coated with zinc, containing 55% by weight of aluminum, OK the lo to 1.5% by weight of silicon, with the rest consisting of zinc and impurities inherent in processing (Aluzinc®, Galvalume®); steel coated with aluminum alloy containing from 8 to 11% by weight of silicon and from 2 to 4% by weight iron, with the rest consisting of aluminum and impurities inherent in processing (Alusi®); steel coated with an aluminum layer (Alupur©); stainless steel; aluminum; brass; steel coated with successively coating of aluminum alloy containing from 8 to 11% by weight of silicon and from 2 to 4% by weight iron, with the rest consisting of aluminum and impurities inherent in processing (Alusi®), and a layer of aluminum alloy of a thickness of from 20 to 60 nm. The average reflectivity of these substrates in the infrared range of 2.5-to 14.5 μm is from 80 to 99%. Further, throughout the text the term "metal substrate" will mean the metal substrate with an optional coating of one or more layers of metal.
In addition, the cavity walls may be sharp, aggressive conditions, such as:
- temperatures up to 400°C;
- the influence of mud aggressive type;
- exposure to an alkaline environment.
All of the above conditions threaten the integrity of the outer layer of the infrared reflector.
Unexpectedly, the authors of the present invention found that when applied to meta is symbolic of the substrate with high heat-reflecting ability of a layer of zirconium nitride and chromium the substrate acquires resistance to corrosive conditions, at the same time retaining its heat-reflecting ability.
A layer of zirconium nitride and chromium, according to the invention, can be obtained from an alloy containing from 15 to 70% by weight of zirconium, with the rest consisting of chromium and impurities inherent in processing. It was found that the zirconium content is below 15% or above 70% contributes to the deterioration of the performance characteristics of the layer, in particular, were observed poor cleanability when the zirconium content is below 15% and a low resistance when the zirconium content is above 70%. As for chrome, it contributes to the creation of layers having heat resistance and having a dark color. The formed layer, thus, has a share of zirconium, x is between about 0.15 and 0.7.
Applying a layer on a metal substrate may be performed by any method of vacuum deposition, from which we can mention, as examples of the physical vapor deposition by magnetron sputtering, electron beam deposition, ion beam deposition, sputtering with ion cannons, jet-vacuum deposition, ion plating.
Preferably, we will begin with the target composition, comprising 46% by weight of zirconium and 54% by weight of chromium (Zr46Cr54). In fact, the layers obtained from this alloy have a good combination of the required characteristics. Because the conditions of zanesenjaka affect the percentage of zirconium and chromium, actually observed in the formed layer, and because the accuracy of measuring instruments introduces inaccuracy in the measurement data, it is preferable, we will strive to achieve the target share of zirconium x formed in the layer in the range from 0.25 and 0.5.
During the deposition of the nitride layer is performed by introducing nitrogen. Such nitriding is a necessary condition for obtaining the desired characteristics. Nitrogen significantly affects teploprovodnosti, and the color of the layer.
A very small amount of introduced nitrogen is sufficient to achieve a satisfactory properties. For constructional reasons, the amount of introduced nitrogen should not exceed the stoichiometry of the type Me3N4where Me represents the atoms of zirconium and chromium. This stoichiometry corresponds to the maximum percentage of nitrogen by weight of 26.5%.
Preferably, the nitrogen will be carried out in such a way as to obtain the stoichiometry of the type of MeN; a small deviation type MeN0,8or MeN1,2from this the desired stoichiometry are valid. This stoichiometric composition, demonstrating optimal heat-reflecting ability, corresponds to a nitrogen content of from 10% to 25% by weight, depending on the relative content of zirconium and chromium.
The nitriding layer controls the comfort of a nitrogen flow, and, in particular, the ratio of costs of argon and nitrogen. Since the ratio between the desired nitriding and nitrogen flow depends on the geometry of the device for spraying, the applicable rate shall be selected by the person skilled in the art on the basis of common knowledge. The deposition is carried out so that the alloy of zirconium and chromium had a degree of nitriding at from 0.01 to 0,265, and, preferably, from 0.1 to 0.25.
Because teploprovodnosti layer depends on its thickness, this thickness is chosen so that the average reflectivity of the infrared reflector remained above 70%. Below this value, the surface is no longer considered an infrared reflector. The maximum thickness of which should not be exceeded in order to maintain sufficient transparency depends on the particular metal substrate and the stoichiometric composition of the layer. For each metal substrate and each of the specific stoichiometry of the maximum thickness can be estimated using digital simulation based on the real and complex part of the refractive index of the formed layer, that is, for each wavelength in the range from 2.5 to 14.5 microns. For example, in the case of a layer of zirconium nitride and chromium with the General formula (ZrxCr1-x)1-yNywith x=0.3 and y=0,12, sawed at the substrate Alusi®, pointed to by the e above is heat-reflecting ability of 70% is obtained when the layer thickness of 150 nm, which will be the maximum thickness.
Infrared reflector according to the present invention has the following characteristics:
- The average reflectivity is close to the heat-reflecting ability of the metal substrate and above 70%;
- It can withstand temperatures up to 400°C;
- Can be easily cleaned in case of contamination;
- Can withstand alkaline environments;
We have also identified the following additional benefits:
- A layer of zirconium nitride and chromium improves the corrosion resistance of the metal substrate to atmospheric corrosion;
- This layer is dark grayish-blue color when the thickness is less than 40 nm and grey-anthracite color with greater thickness. This grey-anthracite color helps to use this layer for home electric furnaces, where layers of gray are preferred. This color can also be a positive factor for decorative applications.
For the purpose of illustrating the present invention tests were conducted, which will be described below as non-limiting examples.
The thickness of the sprayed layer is estimated as follows. During the preparation for the deposition, after all the deposition parameters (namely the type of installation, the composition of the target composition, the intensity of the nab, the population and the consumption of gas) will be selected, directly applying a layer of partially masked silicon within a specified period of time. Then measure the difference of the thickness of the coated and uncoated parts of silicon by using a profilometer type "Dektak". This operation is repeated for different values of the duration of application. Speed determined by linear regression is then used to select the duration of the application depending on the desired layer thickness, for the same set of variables.
The reflectivity of the resulting layer is measured using an integrating sphere with a coating of material Infragold®. A beam of given wavelength, the incident angle of 8°, is reflected by the sample, the reflectivity is to be measured, and then integrating sphere and measured by spectrometric sensor. The average value of the reflectivity can be determined by scanning at wavelengths from 2.5 to 14.5 microns. Calibration is performed according to the normative documents, certified metrological organization.
Evaluation of heat resistance is produced by exposure to infrared reflector to temperatures of 400°C for four hours. Any oxidation of the outer layer of the reflector is manifested in the form of a color change. If the color change imperceptibly of neverbeen the m eye it is quantified by using spectrocolorimeter. The difference between the start and end of tsvetovymi shades is expressed as Δa* and & Delta; b* colorimetric line CIE 76 L*a*b*. In the case of the present invention, thermal stability is considered satisfactory when Δ* and & Delta; b* remain below 2. After exposure to temperatures of 400°C for four hours, it was also confirmed that the heat-reflecting ability has not changed.
Under easy cleanability refers to the ability to easily remove carbonized elements with the upper layer of the infrared reflector. The evaluation system ease of Ocidente gives the possibility to quantitatively assess the ability of this layer to restore its original appearance after use. This evaluation system ease of Ocidente includes the following operations:
- a certain part of the surface is applied a mixture of food (egg yolk, salt, milk, lemon juice, ketchup or jam);
- this mixture is subjected to charring in the oven, heating up to 200°C for 10 minutes, at the time of temperature rise 25 minutes.
after cooling in succession cleaning to remove charred mixture as possible.
Ease of Ocidente is estimated as follows:
- 5: the surface can ochistitsya cloth;
- 4: the surface can be cleaned with a soft surface moistened sponge;
- 3: the surface can be cleaned with an abrasive surface moistened sponge;
- 2: the surface can be cleaned with a soft surface moistened sponge and tool type Decap'four® for cleaning home electric furnaces;
- 1: the surface can be cleaned with an abrasive surface moistened sponge and tool type Decap'four® for cleaning home electric furnaces;
- 0: the surface is not cleared.
For the present invention is the ease of Ocidente is considered satisfactory when the average score obtained for a mixture of all the above mentioned food products, is strictly greater than 3.
Resistance to alkaline environments evaluated by coating on the outer layer of the infrared reflector means type Decap'four® for cleaning home electric furnaces. The resistance to the alkaline environment is considered satisfactory if the contact with the above tool does not cause any changes in the layer.
The degree of nitriding and the specific content of zirconium in the formed layer is measured by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy.
As examples of the implementation of the present invention is considered physical vapor deposition by magnetron sputtering of a layer of zirconium nitride and chromium with the General formula ZrxCr 1-x)1-yNyon the substrate Alusi®.
In a vacuum chamber with a base pressure of 10-6mbar (10-4kPa) are argon and nitrogen in the specified depending on the geometry of the camera. Generates plasma between the substrate and the target ZrxCr1-xin the magnetron mode under the influence of an electric voltage generated by the generator with a capacity of 360 watts. The atoms of zirconium and chromium break with goals and discarded on a substrate.
Table 1 shows the characteristics of some of the obtained layers and their properties.
|(*= infrared reflector according to the present invention)|
|Target track||Alusi AS120 net||Zr-Cr (46%-54)*||Zr-Cr (46%-54%) *||Zr-Cr (46%-54%) *||Zr-Cr (46%-54%) *||Zr-Cr (86%-14%)||Zr-Cr (86%-14%)|
|From osenia costs Ar/N 2||/||16/8||16/4||16/16||16/8||16/8||16/4|
It turned out that trebuemye technical characteristics have only layers of the present invention. In fact:
- Substrate Alusi, not covered with a layer of zirconium nitride and chromium, alkali resistance and ease of Ocidente proved unsatisfactory.
- When using Zr86-CR14the layer has poor heat resistance.
- When using Zr46-Cr54as indicates the test No. 5, the layer thickness of more than 150 nm is not possible to obtain satisfactory heat-reflecting ability, and it is above 70%.
In addition, measurement by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy allowed us to make sure that the layers according to the invention have a degree of nitriding of the order of 0.1-0.15, and the proportion of zirconium of about 0,25-0,35.
It should be borne in mind that the applications mentioned in this description are ill is administrative in nature and are not limiting of the present invention. The present invention can be applied in other areas where it is desirable to adjust the reflective properties of a surface, for example, when creating selective filters, heat shields automobile engines, headlight lenses, etc.
1. Infrared reflector comprising a metallic substrate, characterized by the fact that it is covered with a layer of zirconium nitride and chromium General formula (ZrxCr1-x)1-yNywith x in the range from 0.15 to 0.7 and y in the range from 0.01 to 0,265.
2. Infrared reflector according to claim 1, in which the thickness of a layer of zirconium nitride and chromium is from 1 to 150 nm.
3. Infrared reflector according to claim 1, in which the proportion of zirconium x in the specified layer is from 0.25 to 0.5.
4. Infrared reflector according to claim 2, in which the proportion of zirconium x in the specified layer is from 0.25 to 0.5.
5. Infrared reflector according to claim 1, in which the degree of nitriding y in the specified layer is from 0.1 to 0.25.
6. Infrared reflector according to claim 2, in which the degree of nitriding y in the specified layer is from 0.1 to 0.25.
7. Infrared reflector according to claim 3, in which the degree of nitriding y in the specified layer is from 0.1 to 0.25.
8. Infrared reflector according to claim 4, in which the degree of nitriding y in the specified layer is from 0.1 to 0.25.
9. Infrared reflector according to any one of claims 1 to 8, in which the specified m is a metallic substrate has an average reflectivity in the range of infrared radiation from 2.5 to 14.5 μm from 80% to 99%.
10. Infrared reflector according to claim 9, in which the specified metal substrate consists of steel with pre-applied layer of aluminum alloy containing from 8 to 11% by weight of silicon and from 2 to 4% by weight iron, with the rest consisting of aluminum and impurities inherent in the process.
11. Infrared reflector according to claim 9, in which the specified metal substrate consists of steel with pre-applied layer of aluminum, and the remainder of the layer consists of impurities inherent in the process.
12. Infrared reflector according to claim 9, in which the specified metal substrate consists of steel with pre-consistently applied: a layer of aluminum alloy containing from 8 to 11% by weight of silicon and from 2 to 4% by weight iron, with the rest consisting of aluminum and impurities inherent in processing, and a layer of aluminum alloy of a thickness of from 20 to 60 nm.
13. The method of obtaining infrared reflector, comprising the following stages:
- obtaining of the metal substrate;
- applying on the substrate a layer of a nitride of zirconium and chromium using physical vapour deposition, using:
goals ranging from 15 to 70% by weight of zirconium, with the rest consisting of chromium and impurities inherent in the process;
- nitrogen injection box with neutral the first carrier gas, respect from 4/16 to 16/16, with simultaneous deposition of zirconium and chromium.
14. The method according to item 13, in which the indicated deposition is carried out by magnetron sputtering.
15. The use of infrared reflector according to any one of claims 1 to 12 or obtained in accordance with the methods indicated in paragraph 13 or 14, for manufacturing the inner walls of the cavities.
16. The use of infrared reflector 15 in which the specified cavity is the home oven for cooking.
17. The use of infrared reflector 15 in which the specified cavity is the exhaust system of the vehicle.
SUBSTANCE: reflecting article includes a transparent substrate, having a first and a second base surface; a base layer formed on top of at least part of the second base surface; a primary reflecting coating formed on top of at least part of the base layer; an inorganic protective coating consisting of silicon dioxide, aluminium oxide or a mixture of silicon dioxide and aluminium oxide, formed on top of at least part of the primary reflecting coating; as well as a top coating which contain zinc stannate, formed between the primary reflecting coating and the inorganic protective coating. The base layer contains titanium dioxide with thickness of 1-3 nm.
EFFECT: higher reflecting power and longer operating life.
15 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: unfolded large mirror reflector for spacecraft has a reflecting surface made from cells in form of mirror elements mounted on frames, an unfolding mechanism, hinges and retaining devices. The cells are in form of identically shaped lobes with identical reflecting surfaces lying radially from the centre to the round face of the reflector. In the folded position of the reflector, its lobes, inner frontal surfaces of which are parts of the cylindrical surface, lie over each other while facing the reflecting surfaces to one side. Elements of their retaining devices are connected to reciprocal parts of the retaining devices lying on a movable cylinder connected to the unfolding mechanism with an electromechanical drive, the outer diametre of which is less than the diametre of the cylindrical surface of the faces, with possibility of multiple translational and rotational transverse movements. Said movable cylinder lies inside not less than two concentric fixed uniform structures with cylindrical faces, having a surface for seating the lobes, and the first lobe is placed on the faces of the fixed structures, fixed on them in a position which corresponds to the working position.
EFFECT: high reliability, high directivity and simple technique for making the cells.
5 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: reflector has a crystalline polymer in which crystalline and amorphous zones are adjacent, and the amorphous zone has a plurality of aligned layers which contain amorphous particles aligned in a predetermined direction. According to the method, the reflector is formed by stretching crystalline plastic material at temperature lower than the crystallisation temperature Tc of the crystalline polymer in the predetermined direction so as to form a plurality of stretched layers in the amorphous zone.
EFFECT: high reflecting power, simple technique for making the reflector, low production costs.
18 cl, 15 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a thermally stable multilayer mirror for the extreme (short wave) ultraviolet (UV) spectral range and can be used as a heated collector mirror of a source of radiation in the extreme UV range. The multilayer mirror for reflecting radiation in the extreme UV range has multiple alternating molybdenum and silicon layers. On multiple boundary planes between the molybdenum and silicon layers there are barrier layers which contain silicon nitride or silicon boride, respectively.
EFFECT: high thermal stability, particularly stability at temperatures higher than 300°C, with high reflecting power of the multilayer mirror.
16 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: mirror consists of a substrate and separation and reflecting layers. The substrate is made from composite material containing the following, vol. %: diamond 50-75, silicon carbide 20-45, silicon 3-20. The separation layer contains the following, vol. %: silicon carbide 10-35 and silicon 65-90. The method involves making a substrate, moulding a separation layer on its surface and optical processing of the surface and depositing a reflecting layer, wherein the separation layer is obtained by impregnating a porous carbon-fibre workpiece placed on the surface of the substrate with liquid silicon.
EFFECT: improved operational characteristics, simple technology of making the mirror.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: slits are made on the base of the mirror, which form elements in form of single-span beams with peripheral sections of the reflecting surface at opposite ends of the mirror. The ends of the beams are joined to the base by elastic supporting crosspieces lying at an acute angle to the optical axis of the mirror. The length of the beams, the length of the crosspieces and angle of inclination of the crosspieces are selected under the condition for conversion of thermal displacement of corresponding edges of the peripheral sections of the mirror into their translational displacement with a component which is unidirectional and comparable to the value of thermal deformation of the central part of the reflector.
EFFECT: provision for passive compensation for bending thermal deformation of the mirror when its radiation dose changes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of electric engineering immediately dealing with design of a mobile terminal reflector represented by a plate having a front and a rear sides, its cavity-shaped concave part being covered with a reflecting material that provides for reflection of light falling onto the front surface of at least part of the plate. In the plate rear side there is a transmitter element additionally integrated designed so that to enable its positioning on top of the lens of the camera connected to the mobile terminal so that to enable the camera receiving visual information via the transmitter element. The reflector plate mirroring part is designed as integrated into the reflector plate proper that serves as the element protecting the camera. The reflective coating is applied onto the plate inward surface, for example through metal powder particles vacuum deposition.
EFFECT: user availability of a mobile terminal equipped with a wide-angle mirror that is impact-resistant, reliable and cost-efficient to manufacture.
19 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: reflecting appliance can be used as an automotive vanity mirror. The proposed appliance includes a substrate usually made of glass, reflecting layer and photo-catalytic layer based on titanium dioxide. The reflecting layer consists of partially oxidised or nitrated metal selected from chrome, titanium, aluminium, Si, zirconium and alloys thereof, the said layer being below stoichiometrical state. Note that full reflection of light by proposed reflecting appliance, integrated over all visible area, lies in an interval between 40% and 75%. The appliance can include a barrier layer located between photo-catalytic layer and substrate, and a surface layer on the front side.
EFFECT: production of reflecting appliance with hydrophilic and photo-catalytic properties, reflection of light maintained at such level which is not excessive even at neutral colouring.
17 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: controlled optics.
SUBSTANCE: semi-passive bimorph flexible multiplayer mirror can be used as corrector in adaptive systems for dynamic controlling of radiation wave front. Deformed controlled bimorph semi-passive mirror has passive substrate and at least two layers of control electrodes provided with piezo-ceramic discs, which discs are separated by "ground electrodes". Shape and disposition of electrodes of all layers are specified independently to compensate specific type of aberration.
EFFECT: improved sensitivity; reduced sizes; reduced applied voltages.
FIELD: the group of inventions refer to laser technique and may be used in mirror elements of laser resonators and in arrangements for transmission of laser radiation.
SUBSTANCE: the laser mirror has two identical, not communicating between themselves, symmetrical priming contours of heat-carrying agents located between the front plate on whose exterior side a reflective surface is fulfilled, and the rear plate on both sides of the diagram located in the symmetry plane of the arrangement. Each of the priming contour of the heat-carrying agents is fulfilled in the shape of in-series located, beginning from the diagram, a driving collector, a draining collector, a heat exchanger whose exterior surface adjoins to the inner surface of the corresponding plate. The cavity of the driving collector is connected via channels passing through the draining collector with the heat-exchanger which is connected with the cavity of the draining collector. In the second variant of the arrangement the reflective surfaces of the laser mirror are fulfilled on the exterior sides of the front and the rear plates. The heat exchangers are fulfilled in the shape of identical infiltration elements of the same sizes and forms correspondingly to the front and the rear plates.
EFFECT: reduces thermal distortions of the reflective surface and also increases the service term of the laser mirror.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves defining surfaces of a glass structure to be made in form of alternating parallel and/or curvilinear strips, while also determining coefficients of reflection, transmission and absorption, refraction indices, geometric shapes and dimensions of the strips and the required change in said parameters both along and across the strips, as well as the need to distribute the strips into zones with different light transmission characteristics so that, at given angles or ranges of incidence angles of rays, only the required part of rays of the required wavelength range passes in a directed manner through the entire glass surface. For each angle of incidence in the 0-90° range, the total percentage of directed light transmission is calculated as a ratio of the total area of the output surface, through which rays pass, to the area of the whole first receiving surface, and strips are made on surfaces of the glass structure by further processing the outer surface of the glass and/or gluing a film with strips made in advance, and/or by placing in laminated glass between layers.
EFFECT: providing selective control, according to a predetermined law, of values of light flux and direction of rays passing through a glass structure depending on angles of incidence.
8 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: composition consists of 90-96 wt % of a base - mixture of polydimethylsiloxane (40-60 wt %) and polymethylphenylsiloxane (60-40 wt %) liquid with viscosity of 3000-40000 mm2/s at temperature of 20°C and 4-10 wt % thickener - silicon dioxide. The composition has a refraction index of 1.4100-1.4300, penetration value of 160-280 units, and operates in the temperature range from (-70°C) to (+300°C).
EFFECT: improved properties of the composition.
2 tbl, 12 ex
SUBSTANCE: radiation diffracting film has a viewing surface and an ordered periodic array of particles embedded in the material of the array. The array of particles has a crystalline structure, having (i) a plurality of first crystal planes of said particles that diffract infrared radiation, where said first crystal planes are parallel to said viewing plane; and (ii) a plurality of second crystal planes of said particles that diffract visible radiation. When the film is turned about an axis perpendicular to the viewing surface and at a constant viewing angle of said film, visible radiation with the same wavelength is reflected from the second crystal planes with intervals equal to about 60°.
EFFECT: designing a film for authenticating or identifying an object.
23 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: optical film has a moth-eye relief structure, having multiple protrusions which include multiple slanting protrusions that are inclined relative the primary surface of the film in essentially the same direction when viewing the primary surface of the film from above. The slanting protrusions lie on the periphery of the optical film and are inclined into the film when viewing the primary surface of the optical film from above. The method of making the film includes a step of applying a physical force to the moth-eye structure so as to slant said multiple protrusions. Said step includes a polishing sub-step which involves polishing the moth-eye structure in a predetermined direction.
EFFECT: providing directivity of optical properties of the optical film.
19 cl, 26 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method according to the invention includes the following steps: providing a mould for making a soft contact lens, the mould having a first mould half which forms a first moulding surface, which forms the front surface of the contact lens, and a second mould half which forms a second moulding surface, which forms the rear surface of the contact lens, said first and second mould halves configured to be connected to each other such that a cavity forms between said first and second moulding surfaces; feeding a mixture of monomers of lens forming materials into the cavity, where said mixture of monomers includes at least one hydrophilic amide-type vinyl monomer, at least one siloxane-containing (meth)acryalide monomer, at least one polysiloxane vinyl monomer or macromer and about 0.05 to about 1.5 wt % photoinitiator, where the lens forming material is characterised by the capacity to be cured by UV radiation having intensity of about 4.1 mW/cm2, in about 100 s; and irradiating the lens forming material in the mould for 120 s or less with spatially confined actinic radiation in order to cross-link the lens forming material to form a silicone hydrogel contact lens, where the contact lens made has a front surface, formed by the first moulding surface, opposite the rear surface formed by the second moulding surface, and a lens edge formed in accordance with spatial confinement of the actinic radiation.
EFFECT: making silicon hydrogel contact lenses whose edges are defined not by touching moulding surfaces, but by spatial confinement of radiation, which enables to reuse the mould to make high-quality contact lenses with good reproducibility.
SUBSTANCE: method involves local laser deposition of a layer of transparent or opaque material on the surface. Laser deposition is carried out on mirror reflecting adjacent surfaces or coatings of plates already mounted in an interferometer in the gap between surfaces. The gap is filled with a medium which forms a film upon laser irradiation, and the surface is locally irradiated with laser radiation. Thickness of the deposited layer of material can be controlled during deposition by interference measurement of deviation of the length of the optical path of the light beam between the mirror reflecting surfaces of the interferometer plates from the resonance length for the interferometer. The laser beam can scan the surface, wherein its intensity can be modulated with the length of the optical path between the mirror reflecting surfaces.
EFFECT: correcting the shape of surfaces of optical components already mounted in an optical device.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: laser radiation focused on the surface of a photosensitive layer is modified on depth in proportion to the power density of the radiation propagating in the photosensitive layer. Before entering a focusing lens, the laser radiation is collimated into a parallel beam whose diameter is smaller than the entrance aperture of said lens and is shifted in parallel to the optical axis by a value where one of the edges of the longitudinal section of the exposing radiation cone in the photoresist layer becomes parallel to the optical axis of the focusing lens. In the second version, an immersion liquid is further placed in the interval between the output lens of the focusing lens and the surface of the photosensitive layer.
EFFECT: high diffraction efficiency of kinoform lenses by reducing loss on counter slopes of zones by increasing the gradient of the slopes formed directly during direct laser writing.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method according to the invention involves adding to a reaction mixture an effective amount of a compound which reduces protein absorption, hardening said mixture in a mould to form a contact lens and removing the lens from the mould with at least one aqueous solution.
EFFECT: making silicone-hydrogel contact lenses with low protein adsorption, which are comfortable and safe to use, and do not require high production expenses.
SUBSTANCE: monocrystals are designed for infrared equipment and for making, by extrusion, single- and multi-mode infrared light guides for the spectral range from 2 mcm to 50 mcm, wherein a nanocrystalline structure of infrared light guides with grain size from 30 nm to 100 nm is formed, which determines their functional properties. The monocrystal is made from silver bromide and a solid solution of a bromide and iodide of univalent thallium (TIBr0.46I0.54), with the following ratio of components in wt %: silver bromide 99.5-65.0; solid solution TIBr0.46I0.54 0.5-35.0.
EFFECT: reproducibility and predictability of properties, avoiding cleavage effect, resistance to radioactive, ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method involves shaping of a reflector based on organic plastic material and non-organic substance with reflection coefficient of not less than 0.9 by preparing a mixture of initial components under pressure. As organic plastic material there used is a mixture of fluorine and polycarbonate; as non-organic substance - titanium dioxide, at the following component ratio, wt %: polycarbonate 100; fluorine 3.5-5.0; titanium dioxide 0.5-1.0. Forming can be performed by pressing at pressure of 800 to 1500 atm and at temperature of 240-270°C to thickness of not less than 2 mm or by casting at pressure of 750 to 1500 atm and at temperature of 280-290°C to thickness of at least 2 mm. Polycarbonate with melt flow-behaviour index of 2-60 g/10 min can be used as polymer material.
EFFECT: enlarging processing methods, temperature interval of processing, reducing cost and material consumption.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: polymer materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention provides composition containing from about 50 to about 80% of component selected from group consisting of di(meth)acylate of ethoxylated bisphenol A, di(meth)acylate of non-ethoxylated bisphenol A, di(meth)acylate of propoxylated bisphenol A, epoxy(meth)acrylates of bisphenol A, and mixtures thereof; from more than 0 to about 30% of component selected from group consisting of tetrahydeofuryl (meth)acrylate, isobornyl (meth)acrylate, cyclohexyl (meth)acrylate, and mixtures thereof; from more than 0 to about 15% of component selected from group consisting of dipentaerythritol penta(meth)acrylate, trimethylolpropane tri(meth)acrylate, pentaerythritol tri(meth)acrylate, tri(meth)acrylate of ethoxylated or propoxylated trimethylolpropane, tri(meth)acrylate of ethoxylated or propoxylated glycerol, pentaerythritol tetra(meth)acrylate, bis-trimethylolpropane tetra(meth)acrylate, dipentaerythritol hexa(meth)acrylate, and combinations thereof. Such composition is suited to manufacture eyeglass lenses.
EFFECT: expanded possibilities in manufacture of polymer-based lenses, including multifocal ones.
21 cl, 3 tbl, 18 ex