Monolithic system of base with resistant composite coating from homopolymer having semi-continuous configuration

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: monolithic system of a base with a resistant composite coating from homopolymer having semi-continuous configuration comprises load-distributing elements for formation of seams. Comprises a base that includes blocks from polystyrene foam and a bearing semi-continuous cement-concrete coating, the formwork for which is formed by blocks from polystyrene foam that are part of the base. Load-distributing elements are made in the form of load-distributing plates. Each of load-distributing plates comprises two anchors with two reinforcement bars for setting the position of the seam shaper and a hinged joint made as capable of counterclockwise rotation under action of a support moment, developed by the load, and clockwise rotation under action of the support moment developed by load-distributing plates.

EFFECT: efficient operation of a base under action of various loads, reduced material intensity and labour intensiveness.

6 cl, 6 dwg

 

The technical field

The invention relates to a monolithic system base with resistant composite coating of homopolymer with semi-continuous configuration. More specifically, the invention relates to semi-continuous concrete surface abutting parcels, educated distribute the load plates, which have structural strength. These plates provide absorption, attenuation and distribution of loads and resistance to the accompanying efforts, as well as to abrasion caused by load without displacement along the axis of the coupling sections and determine the direction of wear. The said coating is placed on the base, which is independent in relation to the natural soils and which performs the function main and grounds.

The level of technology

Currently, the surfaces intended for the formation of large public areas, mainly roads and airports, can be formed using rigid and flexible pavements. Known in particular for concrete and bituminous coatings, each of which correspond to certain rules of formation that takes into account the type of material.

In the case of rigid (hard) coating special attention should be paid to the occurrence of unexpected changes in the characteristics of the underlying reason, the person is but the presence of soil, capable of expansion, and thick layers of soft clay. In this regard, in relation to the soils data types, special attention should be given to the grounds. In particular, we use materials of several types, such as a stable form of gravel, pebbles, gravel, stone chippings and sand in layers of different thickness, and/or other materials, such as cement boards. However, first you need to make the removal of soil, i.e. vegetative soil layer, with subsequent leveling the ground for laying several layers forming the base.

There are various design methods, which take into account the types of foundations, soil classes, the materials used to form the Foundation and structure of the mound. Such methods lead to complicated reasons that are not always capable of maintaining the desired structural integrity.

All these types of coatings require for its support of application specific options Foundation.

In addition, the hard coating must comply with the rules. The standards that are used to determine the characteristics of the coating, usually closely associated with aspects such as traffic load, the support of the soil and drainage. One of the main problems you want to solve is different subsidence of adjacent concrete slabs stood in the e coatings, stacked on elastic soils. In this regard, are used items, distribute the load, which minimizes the load transmitted to the base and prevent the deposition plates. Another problem to be solved when using the hard cement concrete surfaces, associated with the sealing of the abutting sections (joints) between the plates. The basic function of the sealing gaps in the joints concrete pavement is to prevent the penetration of water and incompressible solid materials such as sand, small stones and other foreign objects. Infiltration of water through seams adversely affects the durability of the coating, because it is the main reason for the dissolution of the Foundation, which is the deterioration of the quality base layer in the ejection of particles of gravel or crushed stone. This means that the plates become unprotected and, therefore, susceptible to degradation.

Disclosure of inventions

To overcome or minimize these problems, created a solid system of support/coating using a base, which consists of blocks of expanded polystyrene, and the coating containing special elements, distributing the load.

Thus, the problem to be solved by the present invention is to provide for the use of the semi-continuous cementary the frame cover abutting parcels, educated distribute the load plates, which have structural strength. These plates provide absorption, attenuation and distribution of loads and resistance to the accompanying efforts, as well as to abrasion caused by load without displacement along the axis of the coupling sections, and determine the direction of wear. The cover fits on the base, which is independent from natural soil and performs the function of the primary and underlying basis, providing support for semi-continuous concrete pavement.

Used by the system according to the invention the elements, distributing the load essentially correspond to similar elements described in the patent Portugal RT 102947 and improved in such a way as to enable the use of the base blocks of expanded polystyrene. The contents of the RT 102947 included, by reference, in this description as information about the state of the art.

Brief description of drawings

Hereinafter the invention will be described with reference to the accompanying drawings non-limiting example of implementation.

1 schematically illustrates a system according to the invention.

Figure 2 schematically illustrates the joints expansion and contraction.

Figure 3 schematically illustrates the structural seam.

Figure 4 presents the other one is the filtration system according to the invention.

Figure 5 in the perspective image is submitted to distribute the load plate in the system according to the invention.

Figure 6 distributes the load plate is presented on the front view.

The implementation of the invention

Before pouring concrete pavement prepare the corresponding base capable pour area cover, consisting of several longitudinal strips, each of which is formed by the sequence of plates. The sizes of the plates, in turn, are defined by the formwork. At the final stage produces the fill plates.

As shown in the drawings, the base 1 is formed of blocks of expanded polystyrene high density, which, as homopolymers remains stable during the whole lifetime of the system and saves the persistent technical characteristics (such as density and modulus of deformation) and the constant value of the coefficient Vestergaard A/cm3. The base 1 defines the carrying capacity of the entire system, so its design must define this function. Blocks of expanded polystyrene having a specified density and size, placed on the ground (canvas) 2. Error alignment surface should not exceed 5 mm in length, 3 meters

When forming the corresponding formwork is no need to fill it with inert materials with different Gras is allometrically properties and use partitions, as is the case in known systems.

Since the main and additional layers of substrate 1 used in the system according to the invention, formed from expanded polystyrene high density, it acquires certain technical characteristics that remain constant throughout the service life of this material. Among these characteristics can be noted:

- the preservation of the physical and chemical properties;

- maintaining constant density/weight/volume;

- constant modulus of elasticity and deformation;

- permanence properties in the presence of a temperature gradient;

- maintaining the airtightness;

- ensuring uniform load-bearing properties;

- service life of over 100 years;

- reducing the coefficient of friction at the time of compaction;

- can be laid manually, without the aid of heavy equipment;

- the function of the formwork for forming concrete pavement 3;

- the possibility of the formation of inclined surfaces for draining water;

- does not require Scrivania box-like structure in special circumstances;

- the possibility of forming grooves for draining water;

- possibility to submit concrete mix pump that allows the use of concrete, having a greater shrinkage;

- simplification of concrete pouring, since the feed pump facilitates access to the fill area

- improved performance.

Blocks of polystyrene foam replaces the primary and secondary layers of the traditional grounds. In addition, these blocks form a mold, which allows continuous concrete pouring. The extent to which comes the formwork will correspond to the initial specified level of the forming zone. Tolerances on height will be 1 to 2 cm on the length of the block. The length of the casing elements is limited by the need to ensure horizontal alignment and fill in accordance with the specified level.

After the formation of the base 1 and, respectively, the casing may be made concreting to get the cover 3 in accordance with the specifications.

The concreting process includes the following steps.

Preparation

The formation of the longitudinal profile will be made on the spot using a topographical instruments. The specified level is checked using racks, firmly anchored in the ground outside the pour strip with maximum intervals of 50 feet, This allows you to precisely follow the longitudinal profile, parallel to the final level of the formed plate. When bent, the distance between the posts is reduced to provide an accurate observance of the design profile. Installation of racks must be made at least the day before betoni the Finance. Except for the occurrence of local obstacles that must be addressed by the service control, preparation of abutting parcels and installing distribute the load plate should be ahead of the fill about 50 m, in order to ensure continuity of the process.

Diversion of water from the surface will be provided a drainage system, which will be formed simultaneously with the laying of the Foundation 1 (i.e. blocks of expanded polystyrene).

Preparation pour strip to prevent leakage of water from concrete

To prevent any absorption of water from the concrete base 1, it must be covered with a sliding layer thickness of about 0.2 mm and the insulation layer thickness of 20 cm

Concrete composition

Concrete composition should be directed to control the appropriate service for permission to use. It must meet the requirements defined for each individual project.

Manufacturing, transportation and concreting

Manufacturing

The production of a composition should preferably be formed near zone, and the performance of the equipment must be sufficient to ensure fill in the continuous mode.

Transportation

The transport type (cement truck or dump truck) must be approved by the con is roll service.

Concreting

Concreting will be done with the use of vibroblowdown, possibly in conjunction with the correctional line.

Subsequent addition or removal of material is not allowed.

In special areas and compaction of concrete can be produced using hand deep vibrator. So, through this kind of vibrator should iterate through all edges of plates at the joints with the casing.

Atmospheric conditions

The concrete pouring should not be carried out during heavy rain.

Surface treatment

The surface of fresh concrete should be made with brushes, approved by appropriate inspection.

Transverse and longitudinal joints

All transverse and longitudinal joints are supplied distribute the load plates.

Seams compression and expansion are performed, as shown in figure 2.

The depth of the cutting is at least 2 cm

Construction joints

An example of such a weld is shown in figure 3. Construction joints are formed in the area flooded by the end of the day, or in case of interruption of the operation of the fill. As can be seen from the drawing, the front surface of the weld shall be flat and perpendicular to the surface of the coating. As soon as the concrete pouring is resumed, these joints are surrounded by concrete on both sides. In order to ensure the effective section is the group of plates, previous plate wetted agent, adhesion, such as Antisol.

Floor 3 (see figure 4) consists of plates 4, provided with a distributing load plates 5, each of which contains two anchor 6 with two reinforcing rods 7 to set the position of the imaging unit 8 of the seam (joint) and the hinge 9, which under the action of the support moment generated by the load, rotates counterclockwise, and under the action of the support moment generated by distributing the load plate 5 rotates clockwise. The hinge 9 is located under the driver 8 interface and its axis intersects the vertical axis of the seam defined by the imaging unit 8 interface.

The hinge 9 frees the concrete slab 4 from stresses caused by bending/stretching at the moment load balancing, providing insensitivity of the base 1 to the bending moments created by the load, and thereby the possibility of working plates 4, essentially, in terms of compressive stresses. This helps to ensure a factor of safety, far exceeding normal values, and long service life of the base 1 plate 4. Thus, the hinge 9, liberating the concrete slab 4 from the strain caused by bending/stretching at the time of distribution efforts, allows the concrete slabs 4 for a longer period to work in the conditions of the pressing. Thereby eliminating the constant stress state boards and filtered most of the vibrations due to rolling loads.

Plate 4 have the following geometric parameters:

- nominal thickness: variable (determined by the efforts acting on the plate);

tilt - side: typically 2% (see the drawing that corresponds to the cross section);

- nominal length: 5 to 8 m (depending on the applied load);

- nominal width: from 5 to 8 m (depending on the applied load).

Plate 4 will be:

1 - arise from time to time rolling and static loads;

2 - horizontal stress caused by shrinkage of concrete;

3 - horizontal stress caused by friction;

4 - breaking force acting on the plate 4 side supports on the axes of the joints due to load balancing, and

5 - seepage of fluid (particularly water), such as the phenomenon of "liquefaction".

The present invention relates to the coating 3 and which has been tested in a variety of adverse conditions, based on a new concept of support joints, which consists in applying distributing the load plate 5, provided with hinges 9, liberating, as it was described, the concrete slab 4 from stresses caused by bending/standard test bar is eaten in the time of stealing. This implementation ensures insensitivity of the base 1 to bending moments, so that the plate 4 are, essentially, in terms of compressive stresses. In fact, the use of hinges 9 allows to make the base 1 of the polystyrene blocks.

To protect the base 1 from the action of chemical agents and thinners required to seal joints. Such sealing is ensured by the installation of the driver 8 seam, which, given a certain inclination to Oceania water (liquid), in combination with the use of an insulating material such as silicone. This (two-component) material is injected into the joint area, on top of the shaper 8 seam to completely isolate it.

In addition, the base 1 should have a coating of plastic material on its upper and lateral sides. Plastic reduces the coefficient of friction of the concrete slab 4 during its shrinkage 2.5-0.5 times and to provide isolation blocks of expanded polystyrene with respect to any chemical exposure when contact with any liquids on the surface of the cover 3.

Economic aspects

When using the system according to the invention it becomes possible to reduce the cost of manufacture and use of coatings in comparison with traditional solutions. So, there is no need

- investment in heavy equipment on who I work for the removal of the upper portion of the substrate;

- excavation works;

- use of special inert materials;

- installation of these materials;

in the compaction of inert materials;

- alignment of inert materials,

i.e. all kinds of work connected with the laying of the selected material to form the substrate 1 (including the main and underlying part).

The possibility of laying the Foundation 1 manually revolutionizing the whole concept of creating a Foundation, upon which are formed in the cover 3.

Durability (service life more than 100 years) with a complete lack of maintenance significantly reduces the financial costs both in the public and private sectors and allows for investment in other priority areas.

Low capital cost of the proposed technology in combination with durability make it available to all organisations working in this field.

1. A solid system Foundation with resistant composite coating of homopolymer with semi-continuous configuration and contains distribute the load to the joints, characterized in that it comprises a base (1), containing blocks of polystyrene foam and carrying semi-continuous cement floor, formwork which is formed by blocks of expanded polystyrene within the part of the base (1), this distributes the load elements made in the form of distributing the load plate (5), each of which distributes the load plate (5) comprises two anchor (6) with two reinforcing rods (7) to set the position of the shaper (8) seam and hinge (9), is made to rotate counterclockwise under the action of the support moment generated by the load, and clockwise under the action of the support moment generated by distributing the load plate (5).

2. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that the blocks of expanded polystyrene with the dimensions defined by the structural requirements laid manually.

3. The method of construction of a monolithic system, characterized according to claim 1, consisting of a base and a cover, characterized in that the hinge (9) releases the concrete slab from the stresses caused by the bending/stretching at the moment load balancing, providing insensitivity of the base (1) to bending moments created by the load, and thereby the possibility of working plates, essentially, in terms of compressive stresses.

4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the hinge (9) are installed under the driver (8) of the seam so that its axis intersects the vertical axis of the seam defined by the shaper (8) seam.

5. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the base (1) from d is istia chemical agents and thinners seam sealed injective insulating material such as silicone on top of the shaper (8) of the seam, ensuring complete isolation.

6. The method according to any of PP 5, characterized in that the substrate (1) covered on its upper and lateral sides of the plastic to reduce the coefficient of friction of the concrete slab (4) during its shrinkage 2.5-0.5 times and simultaneous protection of blocks of expanded polystyrene from possible water or other liquids on the surface of the system.



 

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FIELD: constructional engineering.

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