Monolithic system of base with resistant composite coating from homopolymer having semi-continuous configuration
SUBSTANCE: monolithic system of a base with a resistant composite coating from homopolymer having semi-continuous configuration comprises load-distributing elements for formation of seams. Comprises a base that includes blocks from polystyrene foam and a bearing semi-continuous cement-concrete coating, the formwork for which is formed by blocks from polystyrene foam that are part of the base. Load-distributing elements are made in the form of load-distributing plates. Each of load-distributing plates comprises two anchors with two reinforcement bars for setting the position of the seam shaper and a hinged joint made as capable of counterclockwise rotation under action of a support moment, developed by the load, and clockwise rotation under action of the support moment developed by load-distributing plates.
EFFECT: efficient operation of a base under action of various loads, reduced material intensity and labour intensiveness.
6 cl, 6 dwg
The technical field
The invention relates to a monolithic system base with resistant composite coating of homopolymer with semi-continuous configuration. More specifically, the invention relates to semi-continuous concrete surface abutting parcels, educated distribute the load plates, which have structural strength. These plates provide absorption, attenuation and distribution of loads and resistance to the accompanying efforts, as well as to abrasion caused by load without displacement along the axis of the coupling sections and determine the direction of wear. The said coating is placed on the base, which is independent in relation to the natural soils and which performs the function main and grounds.
The level of technology
Currently, the surfaces intended for the formation of large public areas, mainly roads and airports, can be formed using rigid and flexible pavements. Known in particular for concrete and bituminous coatings, each of which correspond to certain rules of formation that takes into account the type of material.
In the case of rigid (hard) coating special attention should be paid to the occurrence of unexpected changes in the characteristics of the underlying reason, the person is but the presence of soil, capable of expansion, and thick layers of soft clay. In this regard, in relation to the soils data types, special attention should be given to the grounds. In particular, we use materials of several types, such as a stable form of gravel, pebbles, gravel, stone chippings and sand in layers of different thickness, and/or other materials, such as cement boards. However, first you need to make the removal of soil, i.e. vegetative soil layer, with subsequent leveling the ground for laying several layers forming the base.
There are various design methods, which take into account the types of foundations, soil classes, the materials used to form the Foundation and structure of the mound. Such methods lead to complicated reasons that are not always capable of maintaining the desired structural integrity.
All these types of coatings require for its support of application specific options Foundation.
In addition, the hard coating must comply with the rules. The standards that are used to determine the characteristics of the coating, usually closely associated with aspects such as traffic load, the support of the soil and drainage. One of the main problems you want to solve is different subsidence of adjacent concrete slabs stood in the e coatings, stacked on elastic soils. In this regard, are used items, distribute the load, which minimizes the load transmitted to the base and prevent the deposition plates. Another problem to be solved when using the hard cement concrete surfaces, associated with the sealing of the abutting sections (joints) between the plates. The basic function of the sealing gaps in the joints concrete pavement is to prevent the penetration of water and incompressible solid materials such as sand, small stones and other foreign objects. Infiltration of water through seams adversely affects the durability of the coating, because it is the main reason for the dissolution of the Foundation, which is the deterioration of the quality base layer in the ejection of particles of gravel or crushed stone. This means that the plates become unprotected and, therefore, susceptible to degradation.
Disclosure of inventions
To overcome or minimize these problems, created a solid system of support/coating using a base, which consists of blocks of expanded polystyrene, and the coating containing special elements, distributing the load.
Thus, the problem to be solved by the present invention is to provide for the use of the semi-continuous cementary the frame cover abutting parcels, educated distribute the load plates, which have structural strength. These plates provide absorption, attenuation and distribution of loads and resistance to the accompanying efforts, as well as to abrasion caused by load without displacement along the axis of the coupling sections, and determine the direction of wear. The cover fits on the base, which is independent from natural soil and performs the function of the primary and underlying basis, providing support for semi-continuous concrete pavement.
Used by the system according to the invention the elements, distributing the load essentially correspond to similar elements described in the patent Portugal RT 102947 and improved in such a way as to enable the use of the base blocks of expanded polystyrene. The contents of the RT 102947 included, by reference, in this description as information about the state of the art.
Brief description of drawings
Hereinafter the invention will be described with reference to the accompanying drawings non-limiting example of implementation.
1 schematically illustrates a system according to the invention.
Figure 2 schematically illustrates the joints expansion and contraction.
Figure 3 schematically illustrates the structural seam.
Figure 4 presents the other one is the filtration system according to the invention.
Figure 5 in the perspective image is submitted to distribute the load plate in the system according to the invention.
Figure 6 distributes the load plate is presented on the front view.
The implementation of the invention
Before pouring concrete pavement prepare the corresponding base capable pour area cover, consisting of several longitudinal strips, each of which is formed by the sequence of plates. The sizes of the plates, in turn, are defined by the formwork. At the final stage produces the fill plates.
As shown in the drawings, the base 1 is formed of blocks of expanded polystyrene high density, which, as homopolymers remains stable during the whole lifetime of the system and saves the persistent technical characteristics (such as density and modulus of deformation) and the constant value of the coefficient Vestergaard A/cm3. The base 1 defines the carrying capacity of the entire system, so its design must define this function. Blocks of expanded polystyrene having a specified density and size, placed on the ground (canvas) 2. Error alignment surface should not exceed 5 mm in length, 3 meters
When forming the corresponding formwork is no need to fill it with inert materials with different Gras is allometrically properties and use partitions, as is the case in known systems.
Since the main and additional layers of substrate 1 used in the system according to the invention, formed from expanded polystyrene high density, it acquires certain technical characteristics that remain constant throughout the service life of this material. Among these characteristics can be noted:
- the preservation of the physical and chemical properties;
- maintaining constant density/weight/volume;
- constant modulus of elasticity and deformation;
- permanence properties in the presence of a temperature gradient;
- maintaining the airtightness;
- ensuring uniform load-bearing properties;
- service life of over 100 years;
- reducing the coefficient of friction at the time of compaction;
- can be laid manually, without the aid of heavy equipment;
- the function of the formwork for forming concrete pavement 3;
- the possibility of the formation of inclined surfaces for draining water;
- does not require Scrivania box-like structure in special circumstances;
- the possibility of forming grooves for draining water;
- possibility to submit concrete mix pump that allows the use of concrete, having a greater shrinkage;
- simplification of concrete pouring, since the feed pump facilitates access to the fill area
- improved performance.
Blocks of polystyrene foam replaces the primary and secondary layers of the traditional grounds. In addition, these blocks form a mold, which allows continuous concrete pouring. The extent to which comes the formwork will correspond to the initial specified level of the forming zone. Tolerances on height will be 1 to 2 cm on the length of the block. The length of the casing elements is limited by the need to ensure horizontal alignment and fill in accordance with the specified level.
After the formation of the base 1 and, respectively, the casing may be made concreting to get the cover 3 in accordance with the specifications.
The concreting process includes the following steps.
The formation of the longitudinal profile will be made on the spot using a topographical instruments. The specified level is checked using racks, firmly anchored in the ground outside the pour strip with maximum intervals of 50 feet, This allows you to precisely follow the longitudinal profile, parallel to the final level of the formed plate. When bent, the distance between the posts is reduced to provide an accurate observance of the design profile. Installation of racks must be made at least the day before betoni the Finance. Except for the occurrence of local obstacles that must be addressed by the service control, preparation of abutting parcels and installing distribute the load plate should be ahead of the fill about 50 m, in order to ensure continuity of the process.
Diversion of water from the surface will be provided a drainage system, which will be formed simultaneously with the laying of the Foundation 1 (i.e. blocks of expanded polystyrene).
Preparation pour strip to prevent leakage of water from concrete
To prevent any absorption of water from the concrete base 1, it must be covered with a sliding layer thickness of about 0.2 mm and the insulation layer thickness of 20 cm
Concrete composition should be directed to control the appropriate service for permission to use. It must meet the requirements defined for each individual project.
Manufacturing, transportation and concreting
The production of a composition should preferably be formed near zone, and the performance of the equipment must be sufficient to ensure fill in the continuous mode.
The transport type (cement truck or dump truck) must be approved by the con is roll service.
Concreting will be done with the use of vibroblowdown, possibly in conjunction with the correctional line.
Subsequent addition or removal of material is not allowed.
In special areas and compaction of concrete can be produced using hand deep vibrator. So, through this kind of vibrator should iterate through all edges of plates at the joints with the casing.
The concrete pouring should not be carried out during heavy rain.
The surface of fresh concrete should be made with brushes, approved by appropriate inspection.
Transverse and longitudinal joints
All transverse and longitudinal joints are supplied distribute the load plates.
Seams compression and expansion are performed, as shown in figure 2.
The depth of the cutting is at least 2 cm
An example of such a weld is shown in figure 3. Construction joints are formed in the area flooded by the end of the day, or in case of interruption of the operation of the fill. As can be seen from the drawing, the front surface of the weld shall be flat and perpendicular to the surface of the coating. As soon as the concrete pouring is resumed, these joints are surrounded by concrete on both sides. In order to ensure the effective section is the group of plates, previous plate wetted agent, adhesion, such as Antisol.
Floor 3 (see figure 4) consists of plates 4, provided with a distributing load plates 5, each of which contains two anchor 6 with two reinforcing rods 7 to set the position of the imaging unit 8 of the seam (joint) and the hinge 9, which under the action of the support moment generated by the load, rotates counterclockwise, and under the action of the support moment generated by distributing the load plate 5 rotates clockwise. The hinge 9 is located under the driver 8 interface and its axis intersects the vertical axis of the seam defined by the imaging unit 8 interface.
The hinge 9 frees the concrete slab 4 from stresses caused by bending/stretching at the moment load balancing, providing insensitivity of the base 1 to the bending moments created by the load, and thereby the possibility of working plates 4, essentially, in terms of compressive stresses. This helps to ensure a factor of safety, far exceeding normal values, and long service life of the base 1 plate 4. Thus, the hinge 9, liberating the concrete slab 4 from the strain caused by bending/stretching at the time of distribution efforts, allows the concrete slabs 4 for a longer period to work in the conditions of the pressing. Thereby eliminating the constant stress state boards and filtered most of the vibrations due to rolling loads.
Plate 4 have the following geometric parameters:
- nominal thickness: variable (determined by the efforts acting on the plate);
tilt - side: typically 2% (see the drawing that corresponds to the cross section);
- nominal length: 5 to 8 m (depending on the applied load);
- nominal width: from 5 to 8 m (depending on the applied load).
Plate 4 will be:
1 - arise from time to time rolling and static loads;
2 - horizontal stress caused by shrinkage of concrete;
3 - horizontal stress caused by friction;
4 - breaking force acting on the plate 4 side supports on the axes of the joints due to load balancing, and
5 - seepage of fluid (particularly water), such as the phenomenon of "liquefaction".
The present invention relates to the coating 3 and which has been tested in a variety of adverse conditions, based on a new concept of support joints, which consists in applying distributing the load plate 5, provided with hinges 9, liberating, as it was described, the concrete slab 4 from stresses caused by bending/standard test bar is eaten in the time of stealing. This implementation ensures insensitivity of the base 1 to bending moments, so that the plate 4 are, essentially, in terms of compressive stresses. In fact, the use of hinges 9 allows to make the base 1 of the polystyrene blocks.
To protect the base 1 from the action of chemical agents and thinners required to seal joints. Such sealing is ensured by the installation of the driver 8 seam, which, given a certain inclination to Oceania water (liquid), in combination with the use of an insulating material such as silicone. This (two-component) material is injected into the joint area, on top of the shaper 8 seam to completely isolate it.
In addition, the base 1 should have a coating of plastic material on its upper and lateral sides. Plastic reduces the coefficient of friction of the concrete slab 4 during its shrinkage 2.5-0.5 times and to provide isolation blocks of expanded polystyrene with respect to any chemical exposure when contact with any liquids on the surface of the cover 3.
When using the system according to the invention it becomes possible to reduce the cost of manufacture and use of coatings in comparison with traditional solutions. So, there is no need
- investment in heavy equipment on who I work for the removal of the upper portion of the substrate;
- excavation works;
- use of special inert materials;
- installation of these materials;
in the compaction of inert materials;
- alignment of inert materials,
i.e. all kinds of work connected with the laying of the selected material to form the substrate 1 (including the main and underlying part).
The possibility of laying the Foundation 1 manually revolutionizing the whole concept of creating a Foundation, upon which are formed in the cover 3.
Durability (service life more than 100 years) with a complete lack of maintenance significantly reduces the financial costs both in the public and private sectors and allows for investment in other priority areas.
Low capital cost of the proposed technology in combination with durability make it available to all organisations working in this field.
1. A solid system Foundation with resistant composite coating of homopolymer with semi-continuous configuration and contains distribute the load to the joints, characterized in that it comprises a base (1), containing blocks of polystyrene foam and carrying semi-continuous cement floor, formwork which is formed by blocks of expanded polystyrene within the part of the base (1), this distributes the load elements made in the form of distributing the load plate (5), each of which distributes the load plate (5) comprises two anchor (6) with two reinforcing rods (7) to set the position of the shaper (8) seam and hinge (9), is made to rotate counterclockwise under the action of the support moment generated by the load, and clockwise under the action of the support moment generated by distributing the load plate (5).
2. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that the blocks of expanded polystyrene with the dimensions defined by the structural requirements laid manually.
3. The method of construction of a monolithic system, characterized according to claim 1, consisting of a base and a cover, characterized in that the hinge (9) releases the concrete slab from the stresses caused by the bending/stretching at the moment load balancing, providing insensitivity of the base (1) to bending moments created by the load, and thereby the possibility of working plates, essentially, in terms of compressive stresses.
4. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the hinge (9) are installed under the driver (8) of the seam so that its axis intersects the vertical axis of the seam defined by the shaper (8) seam.
5. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the base (1) from d is istia chemical agents and thinners seam sealed injective insulating material such as silicone on top of the shaper (8) of the seam, ensuring complete isolation.
6. The method according to any of PP 5, characterized in that the substrate (1) covered on its upper and lateral sides of the plastic to reduce the coefficient of friction of the concrete slab (4) during its shrinkage 2.5-0.5 times and simultaneous protection of blocks of expanded polystyrene from possible water or other liquids on the surface of the system.
SUBSTANCE: combined frame-raft foundation for low height construction on soft soil includes a girder reinforced concrete foundation under all bearing walls of the building from factory-built slabs joined to each other and combined into a system of cross bands laid onto a levelled base on the hydraulic insulation layer in the form of a film under the entire building, each of the slabs is made with a section of closed shape with an insulant arranged inside, and the space between the slabs of the frame is filled with earth mass and a layer of the insulant on top, forming the bearing structure of the first floor slab. Slabs of the girder reinforced concrete foundation under all bearing walls are made in the form of a shell of trapezoid rigid shape of section of spatial and closed type, formed from upper and lower slabs of the spatial type, connected to each other. The lower slab is arranged as wider than the upper one and is equipped with boards along the length. The upper slab is made with inclined ribs. In the boards and in the lower part of inclined ribs there are slots, where bushing keys are embedded, with the help of which the upper and lower slabs are connected to each other, and in the places of joints the slabs are equipped with reinforcement protrusions for joining with reinforcement of adjacent elements with node embedding.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of a frame raft foundation due to increased rigidity, improved thermal protection properties, reduced material intensity and labour costs in manufacturing, provision of operation reliability.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: basement comprises a natural or an artificial base with a curvilinear cylindrical surface, a membrane laid onto the base and a support contour in the form of a system of cross beams. The membrane is laid via gaskets made of two layers of the material sliding relative to each other, onto the curvilinear cylindrical surface of the natural or artificial base arranged in a pit and turned upwards with a convexity. In the transverse direction the membrane is attached by edges to the support contour in the form of a system of cross beams, which is submerged into the natural base.
EFFECT: reduced subsidence of a basement, higher reliability of a structure above the basement, creation of an efficient membrane basement, reduced material intensity.
SUBSTANCE: method for construction of a foundation includes preparation of a pit bottom for a foot, production of its rigid filler and an external shell of truncated cone shape with expansion of the lower part of its wall and formation of a compacted soil core. The foundation is erected from structural and soil construction elements. The bottom of the pit is prepared for the foot of the structural element with a groove in soil with the specified geometric shape, its rigid filler is made in a sectional conical form from fractions of lumpy clay and cement-sand mortar with the foot of the specified geometric shape. Expansion of the lower part of the wall in the external monolithic reinforced concrete shell is carried out with a foot with the specified geometric shape as well. A soil construction element is formed under a foot of a structural element with a rated pushing load from a structure, as a rigidly coupled compacted core in the form of a circular cone.
EFFECT: improved quality, reliability, bearing capacity of a base, performance, provision of foundation interaction with a base.
8 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: lock prefabricated strip footing includes a support slab and rows of foundation slabs arranged on it. The support slab has a face inclined and bonder surfaces, the upper rib for a slot fixation into a lock of the above block. Foundation units have vertical and horizontal slots, protruding beyond faces of the bed and outbond surface by 1/3 of the width, at the same time the last row of the strip footing is arranged from a block, having a flat upper horizontal surface for resting of wall materials when erecting above walls.
EFFECT: reduced labour intensiveness of foundation blocks assembly, increased accuracy of foundation blocks installation, reduced deviations from horizontal and vertical planes, higher resistance of foundation blocks to displacement due to application of geometric parameters of a foundation block.
5 cl, 1 ex, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: foundation includes boards arranged on a levelling sand preparatory base, having limiters under a foot. Boards have through slots along edges, and limiters are arranged in the form of flat plates, as capable of their insertion into through slots.
EFFECT: increased rated resistance of base soil, increased bearing capacity and reduced subsidence of a structure.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: prestressed shallow foundation formed by a foundation slab, a ground base and a support board installed under the foundation slab and under the ground base at the optimal depth. On the foundation slab there are jacks arranged, which are connected with traction rods and with ground anchors, inserted into the support board and stressed with a total force, which is equal to or is slightly higher than the weight of the erected structure. Anchor traction rods are arranged with tubular section to supply mortar during arrangement of a support board.
EFFECT: invention provides for minimisation of ground base deformation and for elimination of bases and foundations of nearly located buildings and structures, reduction of material intensity and labour intensiveness in construction of foundations.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to erect a foundation on heaving soils includes installation of a foundation slab and heat insulation material onto a levelled base. A sliding layer is laid on the prepared base, and a multi-layer spatial foundation platform, comprising heat insulation material, is erected in a monolithic manner. The lower reinforced concrete slab is formed with vertical reinforcement rods protruding into crossing ribs along the entire height of the platform. Heat insulation material is laid onto the lower reinforced concrete slab with the possibility to arrange a system of crossing ribs. Crossing ribs are formed. An intermediate reinforced concrete slab is formed, the second layer of heat insulation material is set on it. Cross ribs are formed, and the upper reinforced concrete slab is formed, besides, the vertical reinforcement rods are connected to reinforcement of all slab layers.
EFFECT: reduced labour costs, provision of heat insulation material durability against potential damage, higher spatial stiffness of the foundation slab and its distributing capacity, provision of protection against frost swelling.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: heat-insulation foundation comprises wall, foot, insulator of wall, additional insulator of foundation connected to insulators of foot and blind area. Lower edge of foundation insulator is below the level of freezing of soil, and external moistureproof gasket is arranged at the edge of blind area insulator. Additional moistureproof gasket is also located under foot, connected to external moistureproof gasket, and fill is provided between foundation insulator and external moistureproof gasket.
EFFECT: improved operational properties of heat insulation foundation, simplified design, saving of energy resources.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: foundation comprises artificial bed with curvilinear surface, bearing elements and shell arranged on bed. Bearing elements are arranged in the form of radial and circular tapes for shells with positive Gauss curvature or transverse and longitudinal tapes for shells with zero Gauss curvature, forming meshy shell and laid through gaskets made of two layers of material, which slide relative to each other, onto concrete surface formed on curvilinear surface of artificial bed arranged in pit and inverted upwards with its convexity. Radial or transverse tapes are fixed by their edges to support contour in the form of support ring or a system of cross beams, which is deepened into natural bed, and gasket of elastic material is located between concrete of shell and support contour.
EFFECT: reduced settling of foundation, lower material intensity, provision of efficient and reliable protection of above-foundation structure.
SUBSTANCE: foundation comprises support part, vertical stiffening ribs installed in it, which form square metal frame, under-column part arranged on vertical stiffening ribs - metal frame and equipped with elements of column structure connection. Support part is equipped with lower and upper reinforcement grids, and stiffening ribs are arranged in the form of at least three beams coming out of a single centre located on vertical axis of foundation, are arranged in the form of bent profiles and equipped with stiffening elements. Stiffening ribs are installed between lower and upper reinforcement grids, and elements of column structure connection to support part are arranged in the form of reinforcement leads.
EFFECT: reduced metal intensity and increased bearing capacity of foundation, simplified design.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly new building erection and existent building reconstruction under any engineering-geological circumstances.
SUBSTANCE: foundation structure comprises shallow foundation and reinforcement members. Reinforcement members are made as vertical bars of precast or cast-in-place piles having diameters less than 200 mm and arranged along foundation perimeter. The piles are spaced a distance from outer foundation faces. The distance is equal to 0.1-0.5 of reinforcement member diameter. Distance between neighboring piles is equal to 2-4 reinforcement member diameters and reinforcement member length is 15-20 diameters thereof.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity due to creating compressive operational conditions under different engineering-geological circumstances, increased dynamic rigidity of foundation base and reduced foundation deformation and vibrational amplitude.
FIELD: building, particularly panel foundations for multistory buildings and structures, which apply non-uniform loads to ground base.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming crossing slots in ground; reinforcing the slots with frames and concreting the slots. For panel foundation erection in clay ground pit is preliminarily dug in ground. Then crossing slots adapted for reinforcing frames receiving are created in pit ground, wherein the reinforcing frames have projected parts. Areas of reinforcing frames intersection are additionally reinforced along with connecting projected parts and concreting thereof to fill the slots.
EFFECT: increased operational effectiveness and reduced costs.
FIELD: building, particularly to erect bored cast-in-place foundations of increased load-bearing abilities including ones having bottom marks typical to shallow foundations.
SUBSTANCE: stepped foundation comprises bored cast-in-place sections formed with the use of auger. Lower foundation step includes four peripheral cylinders of Dp.l. diameters and heights equal to above diameters. Peripheral cylinder centers are located at apexes of square having side lengths equal to Dp.l.. Square center coincides with center of support. Central support abutting four peripheral cylinders of lower foundation step has four expanded parts with Dc.exp diameters determined as Dc.exp=(1.0-1.2)Dp.l. and cylindrical bore having diameter Dp.up determined as Dp.up=(0.6-0.8)Dp.l.. Foundation bottom is 0.7 m below ground surface. Foundation erection method involves forming drilled pile sections; serially drilling wells having daug.1 diameters as each peripheral cylinder having Dp.l. is forming; creating each peripheral cylinder having height equal to Dp.l. by supplying working material for above cylinder forming; filling remainder well section with ground material, particularly with ground excavated from above object. Auger having diameter, which provides necessary Dp.l. diameter is used. The auger provides usage of technological processes, which provides 1.05-1.1 increase of pile diameter in comparison with auger diameter daug.1 and 1.1-1.2 increase of ground pile diameter in comparison with daug.1 diameter. After four peripheral cylinders of lower foundation step creation well having daug.2 diameter is drilled by means of direct auger rotation and ground excavation to day surface. The well has center coinciding with central support center and depth selected so that the well reach tops pf peripheral lower step cylinders. Then lower expanded part of central support is formed, wherein the expanded part has expansion degree Bc.exp./daug.2 equal to 1.5-2.0. During cylindrical bore drilling the expanded part has expansion degree Dp.up/daug.2 equal to 1.2-1.5.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity per foundation volume unit, extended field of technical means.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect foundations in natural base.
SUBSTANCE: method involves driving pair of members pivotally connected with each other and provided with single bevels at lower ends thereof in ground; digging-out trench; installing guiding member on trench bottom; forcing plate members in ground up to plate members abutting upon guiding member and closing of beveled upper ends thereof; installing the similar pair of members having lengths exceeding that of the first pair in trench; driving above pair in ground up to upper beveled ends closing; concreting the trench.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity of the foundation due to inclined members embedding and ground compaction under foundation bottom.
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect multistory buildings on non-uniformly compressible clay base.
SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating crossing trenches in ground; filling the trenches with concrete and joining thereof with slab covering the trenches. Trenches are excavated from pit bottom for different depths. Lower trench parts are provided with widened abutment sections having reinforcement bars included therein. The reinforcement bars are used as non-stretched threads. Trenches and slab are reinforced with nettings. Cell centers of the slab are anchored.
EFFECT: increased rigidity of foundation slab due to provision of ribs in ground.
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect foundations on natural bases.
SUBSTANCE: shallow foundation comprises support mats and foundation building blocks. Support mats have through orifices along mat perimeters. Upper parts thereof have extensions shaped as truncated cones and adapted to immerse piles in ground as load increases during structure overbuilding.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing ability.
FIELD: construction, particularly to reconstruct buildings and building structures.
SUBSTANCE: foundation comprises supports, sheath freely formed in ground inside area defined by foundation so that convexity thereof faces upwards and connected to supports by means of flexible ties. Cement mix layer, metal arch trusses and reinforced concrete layer are serially arranged on ground inside area defined by foundation. Metal sheets are laid on arch trusses and connected with each other through welded joints to create flexible sheath. Pre-stressed flexible ties inserted in through support orifices and provided with fixing anchors are placed over the sheath. In the second embodiment foundation comprises support, sheath freely arranged in ground inside area defined by foundation so that convexity thereof faces upwards and connected to supports by means of flexible ties. Ground mix layer reinforced with cement mix, metal sheets and reinforced concrete layer are serially located on ground inside area defined by foundation. Metal sheets are bent along predetermined profile and connected with each other to create sheath. Relaxed flexible ties inserted in through support orifices and provided with fixing anchors are placed over the sheath.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: construction, surface mounted structures.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to construction and can be used when erecting buildings with considerable loading on a compressed clay bed. The technique for erecting a solid core foundation slab with closed vertical walls, directed downwards, involves designing a foundation pit, trenches, reinforcing them with frames and filling with concrete, and joining the surface with a slab. The trenches are dug from the bottom of the foundation with different depths. The trenches are then joined, thereby forming several closed contours, whose depth increases from the central part of the slab to the edges. The technical outcome is increase in strength of the foundation slab due to effect of the square shaped closed edges in the ground.
EFFECT: increased strength of the foundation slab.
FIELD: constructional engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to constructions on heaving soils. House footing based on freezing through soils includes a rigid body with flanges and indents from soil side, footing indent inserts made of heat-insulating material, e.g. polystyrene foam at such ratio of flange and footing indent areas that soil pressure from the lower flange surface is not less than standard pressure of frost soil heaving, soil pressure from the lower insert surface is not exceeding design compression resistance of insert material. Also, the said footing contains supplementary heat insulation laid outside of the footing. The upper edge of supplementary heat insulation is passed from external edge of the footing in the form of interrupted inserts through rigid body of the footing and connected to supplementary heat insulation of opposite external edge of the footing. Relative area of interrupted inserts (β=Aint.ins./A0) is given by the relation β≤1-σmax/R, where Aint.ins. is sectional area of interrupted inserts, m2, A0 is gross sectional area of the footing within inserts arrangement regions, m2, σmax is maximum external load pressure in footing material, MPa, R is design resistance of footing material, MPa. Indents and flanges of the footing from soil side are alternating along footing length. Indents centres from soil sides are provided under interrupted inserts centres of supplementary heat insulation from each external edge of the footing.
EFFECT: possibility to lay foundation above the design depth of heaving soil frost penetration level.
4 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction of the basements of buildings. The basement structure of a building includes heat - and waterproofing layer (17, 18, 40) which is laid on a flat horizontal surface (51) layer of the material breaking capillary action. The basement structure includes a frame (31) which surrounds specified heat - and waterproofing layer (17, 18, 40), at least, in its top part, thus fixing integrity of basement structure in a horizontal plane and which serves for punctiform bracing of the building supported by basement structure. The specified basement structure is encapsulated with foil (111) from a metal material.
EFFECT: prevention of smell penetration in a building and water-proofing maintenance; possibility of fast and energy conserving erection of the basement.
8 cl, 8 dwg