Method of processing radio electronic crap
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to combined methods of separation of solid materials, particularly, to processing of radio electronic scrap. Proposed method comprises primarily two-step separation of solid materials by hammer crushers to required size, magnetic and screen separation of ground scrap with subsequent pneumatic classification by bulk density of oversize and undersize products of screen classification. Note here that ground scrap fraction of boundary size obtained at pneumatic classification is subjected to additional grinding at ball mill to size of nonmetallic component of not over 1 mm. To isolate metallic component of processed scrap aforesaid ground fraction is subjected to pneumatic classification by bulk density.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of processing.
The invention relates to the separation of solid materials using a combination of separation methods, such as magnetic, gravity separation and pneumatic cascade-gravity classification, and may be the most widely used in the processing of electronic scrap to extract the metals and plastics sorting.
In the processing of electronic scrap inevitably formed irretrievable waste containing metals and materials, polluting the environment and leading to the loss of raw materials.
There is a method of processing electronic and cable scrap patent RF №2166378, IPC VS 7/08, 1999 and No. 2321462, IPC WV 9/06, 2006, including crushing, grinding, classification by particle size smaller than 5 mm and electrical separation.
The disadvantages of the known methods is the need for crushing and grinding of obtaining crushed particles not more than 5 mm to ensure separation of the ground particles of scrap in bulk density by electrostatic separation.
In addition, the use of electrostatic separator, the source of increased danger, imposes increased demands on production location and the staff.
A method of refining mixtures of plastics and installation for processing mixtures of dps is stmas by the RF patent №2150385, IPC WV 17/00, 1995, including, including the stage of grinding material, preferably with the help of cutting roller mill, extraction of magnetic materials using suspended magnet, the classification of the dimensions for separating fine particles using a drum screen, separation (classification) heavy fractions using a pneumatic classifier, homogenization (fine grinding) of the processed material, re-screening (classification) of fine-grained material with a drum screen, the filtration of coarse-grained material using a rod rumble, remove (classification based on the geometric dimensions) formed during the process fractions excessive size and additional grinding these particles using a knife crusher.
The disadvantages of this method is also repeated grinding, especially with the help of cutting grinders, cutter grinders. The wear on the cutting edges of the cutting tool requires timely replacement to ensure the required degree of size reduction, elimination of breakdowns and accidents. Grinding with the help of cutting grinders and blade grinders in the known methods due to the necessity of obtaining crushed particles of the processed product is not more certain geometric dimensions (the same is consequently identical) to highlight the components of processed scrap by multiple classification using screens and pneumatic classification.
There is a method of recycling waste lamps under the patent of the Russian Federation No. 2035244, MKI VW 1/00, 1995, which, according to the authors, can be adopted for the prototype. The known method includes the crushing of the raw material, classification by size of constituent particles, magnetic and electric separation, and the crushing of the raw material is produced in jaw and roll crushers, and then the resulting material is classified according to the geometrical sizes with a selection of oversize and undersize products. Undersize product is again subjected to further fragmentation in the cone inertial crusher with subsequent magnetic separation of the crushed product, non-metallic product fraction is classified again by geometric sizes for selection of oversize material metals, and undersize material is again subjected to crushing to a particle size of 1 mm and subjected to gravitational enrichment for isolation of products containing metals, which are again subjected to magnetic and electrostatic separation. As can be seen on this well-known method of processing multiple crushing(grinding) of the source material is consistently in jaw and roll crushers, after classification underflow again subjected to crushing in a cone inertial crusher, then dumb the magnetic fraction of the newly classified to highlight undersize product, which again undergoes gravitational enrichment for isolation of products containing metal by magnetic and electrostatic separation. In addition, in the known method, crushing and grinding is carried out in the jaw, roll and cone inertial crusher is designed for crushing brittle materials with low ductility of the as milled material in this case is destroyed by crushing. Viscous and plastic materials, such as ductile metals and plastics, with such grinding does not shatter into individual elements, and rasprashivaete and, therefore, the grinding in such crushers irrational.
Famous hammer crusher for primary crushing of thin metal waste (Grubert. Preparation of the metallic secondary materials (resources, classification, grinding). M.: metallurgy, 1989, 359 pages Translated from German Popov GF, Rudenskogo YEAR
The use of hammer crushers, hammers which have substantially greater resistance when compared with knives knife and cutting shredders, it is not possible to control the formation process and obtain a comminuted particles of a given shape. The disadvantage of hammer crushers is also different trudnoporoshkuemye size obtained by brittle fracture changes cennych particles of the processed product. With this method of grinding the application of electrostatic and electrodynamic separation for separation of metals from the crushed product is not rational.
For the separation of metals from shredded hammer crushers electronic scrap used pneumatic classifiers, for example, patent RF №2313406, IPC V B9/02, 2006, in which the ground product of electronic scrap is allocated metal fraction for further processing, but in the classification on the pneumatic classifier is allocated and fraction products the boundary size, with shredded particles textolite (steklotekstolity) substrates containing copper, lead, tin with traces of precious metals and fine particles of other metals. Separate fine particles of the metal contained in this product is extracted using the screens, and the remaining fraction products of low bulk density interspersed with non-ferrous metals must be disposed or firing in the kiln system with post-combustion and gas cleaning.
The purpose of the invention to improve the technical efficiency of the recycling method.
This objective is achieved in that in the present method of processing electronic scrap, including the original grinding material, grinding produce, mostly two-stage, MoE is of Ottovich crushers with magnetic separation of shredded scrap at each stage of grinding, classification by size (the dimensions) after the last stage of grinding and pneumatic bulk density separately oversize and undersize product classification by size. The fraction of shredded scrap boundary size obtained by pneumatic classification, consisting of crushed particles textolite (steklotekstolity) substrates of electronic scrap containing copper, lead, tin with the remnants of the precious metals, is subjected to additional grinding in a ball mill to a particle size of non-metallic component of this product is not more than 1 mm, and again the resulting milled product is subjected to pneumatic classification for the selection of metallic impurities.
The essence of the invention lies in the fact that the alleged new set of features, namely:
grinding the original scrap in hammer mills, mainly in two stages;
subsequent magnetic separation after each grinding stage;
separation of shredded scrap the dimensions after the last, mainly the second grinding stage for the selection of oversize and undersize products;
a separate pneumatic classification bulk density of oversize and undersize product 4 product:
fraction high the lines density, mainly copper and albanito-lead alloys;
light fraction products of low bulk density (plastics), but relatively large geometrical dimensions;
dust fraction is the smallest (dispersed) non-metallic particles of processed scrap;
fraction products the boundary size and specific density is mainly crushed particles textolite (steklotekstolity) substrates of electronic scrap containing copper, lead, tin with traces of precious metals;
subsequent grinding in a ball mill products boundary size and density to a particle size of not more than 1 mm non-metallic component of the product boundary size;
pneumatic classification of the crushed ball mill product to highlight a metal component of the crushed fraction.
Announced a new set of features of the method of processing electronic scrap allows you to increase the depth of processing is to reduce the deadweight loss of scarce materials such as copper and albanological alloys - electronic scrap, reduce the number of degrees of grinding the processed scrap, refuse to use for grinding knife grinders and electrostatic separators for separation of metals that strengthen the AET technology processing and reduces both capital and operating costs.
Example. In the South Urals specialized recycling center recycling of electronic units mounted Assembly without prior disassembly of the total mass 2971 kg has been split in two stage hammer crusher to a particle size of not more than 15 mm Crushed by the crusher product at each stage was subjected to magnetic separation. The non-magnetic fraction of the product was subjected to classification by size (the dimensions) on the screen. Oversize and undersize products screening each separately subjected to classification by a pneumatic cascade-gravity classifier with a corresponding adjustment of the air flow through the main perejitye modules classifier depending on the size of the processed comminuted mass of the product of bulk density on 4 types of products:
the finished product is crushed particles of high bulk density copper and albanito-lead alloys; waste - crushed particles of low bulk density of plastic particles without foreign inclusions;
pulverized waste - the smallest non-metallic fine-dispersed particles removed by the system vacuum cleaners;
particle marginal density of the crushed particles textolite (steklotekstolity) substrates of electronic scrap containing copper, lead, tin with OST DAMI precious metals and fine particles of metals total weight 255 kg;
The crushed particle marginal density total weight 255 kg was subjected to regrinding in a ball mill.
Ball mill product to grind to a particle size of only plastic part is not more than 1 mm, the particle Size of grinding metal inclusions are not regulated.
Crushed in a ball mill product total weight 255 kg was again subjected to pneumatic classification with appropriate adjustment of the air flow through the main perejitye modules latter, the particle size of the crushed ball mill plastic part of the product.
Pneumatic classifier in this case has allocated 4 product type:
the finished product is crushed particles having a high bulk density of the fine particles of metals - copper and albanito-lead alloys - total weight : 19 kg;
waste - crushed particles of low bulk density - plastic non-metallic inclusions;
waste - crushed particles of low bulk density smaller geometric dimensions - plastic;
pulverized waste - the smallest non-metallic particles removed by the system of dust collection.
So declared by way of 255 kg faction boundary density of the processed electronic scrap allocated 19 kg magnetodynamic and albanito-lead alloy, which showed the possibility is realizatsii way characterized in the claims, and to increase the depth of processing of electronic scrap 0.63%without the use of knife grinders, electrostatic separation, to reduce the number of stages of grinding.
Decided to industrial use of the proposed method of processing.
A method of processing electronic scrap, including predominantly two-stage grinding in a hammer crusher, magnetic separation, classification screen mesh after the final grinding stage according to the size and classification of pneumatic bulk density separately oversize and undersize sieve products classification, characterized in that the fraction of shredded scrap boundary size obtained by pneumatic classification, is subjected to additional grinding ball mill to a particle size of non-metallic component fraction is not more than 1 mm and the newly formed shredded mass is subjected pneumatic classification bulk density for the allocation of a metal component.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to screening rocks and construction materials, crushing and sorting jobs, and screen sizing of construction materials. Rod screen comprises rotary cylindrical drum, loaders and unloaders, drive and working member composed of rotary drum oscillation drive. Said working member is composed of rolling rods arranged inside cylindrical perforated drum to roll there over inside said perforated drum. Said rolling rods are limited in lengthwise displacement and composed of guide elements made up of three rectangular strips twisted in vertical plane relative to their mirror axis and bent in helical lines in transverse direction and bent in opposite sides along notches made at 60 degrees to each other and to lengthwise edges of the strips to make equilateral triangles at opposite sides of said strip. Strips are interconnected along lengthwise edges at the angle to each other to make three broken helical lines over outer perimetre of said rolls and three broken helical lines of opposite direction and pitch smaller than that of broken line in main direction. Sides of six equilateral triangles converge at main direction line break points.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of screening, simplified design and servicing.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to loose material classification and may be used in metallurgy, construction, chemical industry, etc. Proposed screen comprises sieving surface, drive, loader and unloader. First section is composed of two subsections, one being made of two large perforated equilateral triangles connected by their base with sides of large perforated equilateral trapezoid. Second subsection is composed of small perforated equilateral trapezoid with two small perforated triangles connected by their sides to those of said trapezoid, triangle bases being equal to large sides of perforated triangles of the first subsection. Note here that larger bases of perforated trapezoids in two subsections are identical and equal to small sides of perforated triangles in first subsection to make the section small inlet. Lower bases of perforated trapezoids are identical and equal to large side of perforated triangles in second subsection to make large outlet of the section whereto second section is connected and composed of straight triangular prism made by cutting cube in diagonal. Helical spring with device to vary turn pitch by spring compression or expansion is arranged along sieving surface length.
EFFECT: expanded sieving performances.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to loose material classification and may be used in metallurgy, construction, chemical industry, etc. Direct feed screen comprises sieving surface, drive, loader and unloader. Said sieving surface represents multistart hollow surface composed of three and more rectangular strips coiled in vertical plate in lengthwise direction and curved in helical lines in transverse direction at cylindrical mandrel to form helical lines and helical curvilinear surfaces along perimetre in the form of helical channels of concave or convex shape relative to sieving surface mirror axis with centers of curvature located outside or onside sieving surface cross-section. Sieving surface can be composed of three and more helical perforated strips convexed or concaved relative to sieving surface rotational surface that feature different order and magnitude of curvature relative to said axis with centers located inside or outside cross-section of sieving surface. Helical spring with device to vary turn pitch by spring compression or expansion is arranged along container length.
EFFECT: higher intensity of mixing.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: testing screen includes a drive mechanism and a set of screens. At that, in order to increase screening efficiency, the drive mechanism is made in the form of several, at least three cylinders with movable stocks passing through their central hole and fixed in elastic toroids. Toroids are filled with fluid medium providing pneumatic control of back-and-forth- movement in cylinders.
EFFECT: increasing screening efficiency due to goal-directed programming of screening functions and stepless control and smooth control of a process.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to adapter system for attachment of sieving surfaces to jigging screen. Attachment of sieving screen to jigging screen wall comprises insert fitted at screen wall and adapter secured to insert at required height. Insert has some parallel grooves to interact with several ribs on adapter. Grooves and ribs are arranged on sides of the insert and adapter to face each other in fitting.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability of attachment with no variation in design.
11 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural machinery industry and can be used in devices for post-harvest grain treatment. The grain-cleaner comprises a frame, a feeding device, a cylindrical sieve, a casing and a drive. Inside the cylindrical sieve a distributor rotor is rotatably located. The cylindrical sieve is mounted with the ability to rotate and change its axis angle of slope to the horizon. The distributor rotor is made in the form of a screw with continuous or tape spiral and is mounted with the ability to change its angle of slope to the horizon. The external diameter of the spiral, the pitch of the spiral turns and spiral tape width of the distribution screw on its various parts are made different. The spiral turns of the distribution screw are provided with one or more sets, and the number of the sets of the spiral turns at different sections of the distribution screw can also be different.
EFFECT: implementation of the distributor rotor in the form of a screw with a continuous or tape spiral eliminates its clogging with straw particles contained in grain, simplifies the construction of the grain-cleaner and improves its reliability.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining, particularly, to screening of lump materials. It may be used in equipment intended for storage, transportation and processing of lump material in mining, metallurgy, coal and construction industries. Screen loading section comprises intake composed of rigid metallic structure secured to tie-beams, and elastic elements. Elastic elements are composed of vertical plate arranged in dense rows along material feed direction. Said plates are hinged rods arranged horizontally at section metallic structure across material fee direction.
EFFECT: higher reliability and durability, decreased impact load.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to harvesting or post-harvest processing of buckwheat and can be used in determining the extent of damage to buckwheat grain. In implementation of this method, at first the content of full-value grain, separated husk and husk in a full-value grain is determined in each of the outputs in percentage. Then, the weighted average content of these components in all of the outputs is determined. According to the data obtained the extent of damage to buckwheat grain is determined according to a formula:
EFFECT: proposed method provides objective assessment of extent of the damage to buckwheat grain by combine harvesters in harvesting or grain-cleaning machines in post-harvest processing.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to control over sieves. Proposed method comprises, at least, one sieving surface and means to feed initial material thereon. Said material is divided into first fraction to be left on said surface and second fraction passing through said surface. Proposed method defines automatically the amount of material on sieving surface and material feed rate. Besides, sieve granulometers are used to effect automatic control over particle size of spigot and initial material fed onto sieving surface. Said surface is furnished with plates arranged in steps with clearance there between. Efficiency of separation is calculate to adjust initial material feed rate at belt feeder at adjustable feed rate.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of control.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to screening rocks and construction materials, crushing and sorting jobs, and screen sizing of construction materials. Conical screen comprises drum, drive, loader and unloader. Screening surface is composed of six and more trapezoidal perforated strips with length increasing over that of screening surface. Said strips are coiled in vertical plane across their lengthwise axis and flexed along helical lines at conical mandrel in transverse direction. They are flexed along incision lines made by honing or forming. Besides, they are located on perforated strips at 60 degrees to each other on both sides of perforated strips to make, along screening surface perimetre, helical lines and perforated helical surfaces with variable spacing.
EFFECT: expanded performances and higher efficiency.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to concentration of minerals, namely, to separation of dry diamond-containing materials, for example, primary drawing concentrates. Electrometric separator comprises loading hopper, two shaking feeders, transducer for contactless measurement of electric charge with sensitive electrode, transducer preamplifier, data processing unit, actuator, actuator control unit, concentrate receiver and rejects receiver. Transducer sensitive electrode is composed of paired electrically isolated plates. Every pair of said plates are equipped with individual preamplifier and individual data processing unit. Note that actuator is made up of a set of air valves arranged in one line. Note also that the number of said air valves equals that of pairs of sensitive electrode plates.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of separation.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to concentration of minerals, namely, to separation of dry diamond-containing materials, for example, primary drawing concentrates. Proposed method comprises transfer of stock in measurement zone, triboelectric charging by friction against surface of earthed metal vibration hammer, contactless triboelectric charge sign and magnitude measurement by transducer, transducer signal amplification and comparison with separation threshold, time delay and control over actuators, and deflecting diamond into concentrate receiver by actuator. Negative polarity electric field is induced above vibration hammer surface in triboelectric charging and light of spectrum visible region is irradiated.
EFFECT: higher sensitivity and selectivity.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to concentration of minerals, namely, to separation of dry diamond-containing materials, for example, primary drawing concentrates. Proposed method comprises transfer of sorted material with vibration charging by friction of material against vibrating chute. Free falling flow is formed. Tribocharge is measured by contactless method be means of transducer connected to fast-acting electrometric amplifier. Transducer signal is amplified and processed. Time delay duration is generated. Transducer signal is processed simultaneously and in parallel by two independent channels. Note here that, in first channel, amplified transducer signal is integrated and compared with first separation threshold. Results of comparison is converted into digital form and stored for complete result processing interval. In second channel, transducer second pulse life is pre-selected, then time interval corresponding to second pulse peak is selected to generate second channel output signal. Stored signal availability at first channel output is checked up. If available, time delay duration generation is initiated.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of measuring charge, reduced probability of ingress of associated minerals into concentrate.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device designed to produce dispersed mineral products by grinding, sizing in flow classifier and sorting mineral stock. Proposed device comprises mill, flow classifier and dispersed air separation system. Electrostatic separation chamber is arranged between flow classifier and air separation system to separate foreign particles charged tribo-electrically in flow classifier.
EFFECT: increased tribo-electric charging of foreign particles in flow classifier.
8 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is meant for measuring electric charge of mineral particles, specifically for detecting diamonds in diamond-containing mineral mixtures for their subsequent extraction using an actuating mechanism. The sensor contactless measurement of electric charge consists of three main electrodes: a sensitive electrode 1, a top grounded electrode 2, a bottom grounded electrode 3. The sensor has a grounded housing with the sensitive electrode inside, fitted on a high-quality insulator. The main element of the sensor is the sensitive electrode with an inner channel through which the material to be separated moves. Differences between versions of the sensor lies in that, in the first version the inner surface of the sensitive electrode is cylindrical, in the second version the inner surface of the sensitive electrode has a square cross section and in the third version, the inner surface of the sensitive electrode has a rectangular cross section.
EFFECT: achieving the maximum possible stable value of induced charge on the sensitive electrode equal to the charge of the moving charged mineral particle, provision for a stable waveform of the sensor current signal independent of the shape of the grounded housing with the sensitive electrode inside.
3 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to separation of dry diamond-containing materials, for instance, concentrates of primary enrichment. Method for separation of diamond-containing materials includes displacement of sorted material to measurement zone. Together with displacement of separated material, its triboelectric charging is carried out by friction against surface of grounded metal vibrating tray. Separated mixture of minerals is supplied in the mode of free falling flux. Contactless measurement of sign and value of induced triboelectric charge is carried out with the help of detector connected to fast-acting electrometric amplifier connected to unit of signal processing. Separation threshold is selected based on previously assessed values for natural diamonds of preset class of fineness. Detector for contactless measurement is arranged with the help of sign measurement and tribocharge value in the form of internal sensitive electrode - metal pipe of rectangular section installed on high-quality insulator inside metal grounded body.
EFFECT: possibility to additionally extract diamonds from tailings of, for instance, roentgenoluminescence separation.
11 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: technological processes, electricity.
SUBSTANCE: feeder of electrostatic separator contains casing with inlet and outlet openings and guide elements, which are installed one under the other in casing with the possibility of changing inclination angle and distance between them. Feeder is equipped with trap of conductor particles, which is installed between inlet opening and upper guide element with the possibility of free rotation, and feeder casing is equipped with the second outlet opening and partition, at that one of outlet openings is installed under the bottom guide elements, the second one - under trap of conductor particles, and partition is installed between these openings.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of materials preparation for separation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises cylindrical chamber whose side is an electrode, central electrode that is made of two cylinders provided with vertical slots and arranged in a staggered order. The top section of the inner cylinder of the central electrode has an opening for discharging the particles of barren rock. The device has additional electrodes made of rings and mounted on the top and bottom sides of the closed cylindrical chamber and additional electrodes mounted on the outer side of the bottom of the closed cylindrical chamber to force the metallic particles to move to the collector. The device is provided with air ducts having nozzles for supplying air in the tangential direction and toward the center of the closed cylindrical chamber.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: food-processing, fish, dairy and meat industries; cryoseparation of loose saturated food materials.
SUBSTANCE: proposed electrical cryoseparator includes heat-insulated chamber, feeder and corona-forming, earthed and electrostatic electrodes mounted vertically. Cryogenic chamber is provided with pipe line with injectors for delivery of liquid coolant. Cryogenic chamber is arranged inside heat-insulated chamber; temperature in cryogenic chamber is below that in heat-insulated chamber. Material is first fed to cryogenic chamber where components acquires tribocharge on vibrating feeder after which they are directed to inter-electrode space for final separation. Under action of electrical forces, husk and pulp particles are separated into receivers and pulp is directed for storage at negative temperature.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of separation of ground material into fractions.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: agricultural mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device includes bin, system of electrodes for forming corona and electrostatic sections of electric field and tray for grain fractions. Device is also provided with grain flow control unit, electromagnet for additional separation of blend mounted in zone of falling of charged grain preliminarily separated by electric field below electrodes creating electrostatic section and electromagnet position regulator. Electromagnet is made in form of separate sections having independent magnetic axes. Electromagnet sections are mounted at shift of their magnetic axes in horizontal plane relative to each other so that direction of electric and magnetic forces acting on freely falling grain should coincide in direction and be maximum.
EFFECT: improved quality of separation; increased productivity.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves crushing and pulverisation of crude ore, its selective flocculation, deslurrying and magnetic separation of deslurrying sands so that iron-ore concentrate is obtained, at pulverisation of crude ore, it is processed with a disperser containing silicate salts, the consumption of which is 0.2-0.6 kg per tonne of pulverised ore; with that, as silicate salts, there used is 1.0-1.5% of weight fraction of salt of heavy metals in the form of chrome, copper or zinc, and selective flocculation of particles of pulverised ore is made in liquid medium of deslurrying device at pH=7.0-10.5.
EFFECT: effective separation of mineral component of iron-ore raw material so that high-quality concentrate and final benefication tailings are obtained.