Method of controlling directed light transmission
SUBSTANCE: method involves defining surfaces of a glass structure to be made in form of alternating parallel and/or curvilinear strips, while also determining coefficients of reflection, transmission and absorption, refraction indices, geometric shapes and dimensions of the strips and the required change in said parameters both along and across the strips, as well as the need to distribute the strips into zones with different light transmission characteristics so that, at given angles or ranges of incidence angles of rays, only the required part of rays of the required wavelength range passes in a directed manner through the entire glass surface. For each angle of incidence in the 0-90° range, the total percentage of directed light transmission is calculated as a ratio of the total area of the output surface, through which rays pass, to the area of the whole first receiving surface, and strips are made on surfaces of the glass structure by further processing the outer surface of the glass and/or gluing a film with strips made in advance, and/or by placing in laminated glass between layers.
EFFECT: providing selective control, according to a predetermined law, of values of light flux and direction of rays passing through a glass structure depending on angles of incidence.
8 cl, 12 dwg
The technical field to which the invention relates.
The invention is applicable in the field of architecture and construction with glazing window openings, in the transport engineering for glazing Windows and other parts of the body (fuselage and the like), in the manufacture of lighting equipment, glasses, eyepieces, lenses, and other areas of technology that are used glazed construction, and refers mainly to those cases where the light source and/or glazed object move relative to each other, i.e. the angle of incidence of light rays on the receiving surface varies in time.
The level of technology
In any glazed designs regardless of the application it is assumed partial transmission of the incident light flux, and the rest is reflected and absorbed. It is known that the incident luminous flux f0, LM, is divided into three components: reflected fρpassing fτand absorbed fαluminous flux, LM:
The reflection coefficient ρ, the transmittance τ and absorption α of light of a certain wavelength are related by the equation:
The most common area of application of glass - construction, where the light source is solar radiation. Building glass transmits solar radiation is s with a wavelength of from 280 to 2150 nm, i.e. ultraviolet, visible and infrared part of the spectrum of solar radiation, so the transmittance of the glass is characterized by many parameters, the main ones are: LT - light transmittance in the visible region between 380 and 780 nm, UV - transmittance of ultraviolet radiation from 280 to 380 nm, DET - direct transmission of solar energy between 300 and 2150 nm, SF - solar factor, or total noise energy, which includes in addition to the direct component of the DET and even energy emitted from the glass into the room after the absorption of part of the incident energy, i.e. the concept of light transmission is also related to the concept of teploproduktia glass. Detailed terminology characteristics of the glass contained in the materials websites:
Characteristics of light transmission of the glass in other areas of its application in the sense of not fundamentally differ from the above and are selected depending on the type of light source and importance of the various components of the light and teploproduktia for this specific area.
Depending on the destination glazed designs require different ratios between the three separated components of the incident light stream. These relations are regulated in many different types of glass, among which the normal (n is polished), float glass (polished), reinforced, laminated, sunscreen (tinted or coated), patterned, selective (low-e-glass, types: k-glass - paved and i-glass with a soft coating, tempered, soft and covered with a self-cleaning films for various purposes glass. Reference data on currently produced the kinds of glass are listed on the following websites:
A ratio of three parts of the luminous flux for each type of glass depends on the angle of incidence of light rays on the receiving surface of the glazed structure, i.e. changes with movement of the light source and/or glazed structures relative to each other. In the case of glazing window openings in buildings, this angle varies depending on geographical location and time of year. In the case of glazing of vehicles the angle of incidence, additionally it also depends on the driving conditions of the vehicle itself.
Consider the transmittance of sheet glass thickness of 4 mm (Fig 1, a scale 10:1) within the applicability of the rules of geometrical optics. It is known that the angle of incidence of the light beam Θ0on the surface of the glass depend on the angles of reflection Θρand Θρ=Θ 0and the refraction of the ray Θnsin Θ0=n sin Θn(by law Snell), where n is the refractive index of the glass. For plane-parallel glass under the same environment on both sides of him Θτ=Θ0where Θτ- the angle of the last beam. Solid lines figure 1 shows the path of rays at Θ0=30° (the refractive index of the glass adopted n=1.5), dotted with Θ0=60°. Accordingly, the angles of refraction of the beam are Θn=19°28I12IIand Θn=35°15I36II. The incident luminous flux per unit area, and the associated intensity of incident radiation at both corners taken the same. In the most common applications glazed designs large part of the light passes through the glass, reflected and absorbed only a small part.
It is known that with increasing angle of incidence of the beam on the surface increases the reflection coefficient ρ, hence, increases the reflected part of the light. From figure 1 it is seen that the path length of the beam passing through the material, affecting the amount of absorbed light flux also depends on the angle of incidence of the beam on the surface (in this case, the path length increases by 14%). A small part of the light flux is reflected, then partially absorbed,when the output beam of the glass from the edge with the environment surface (figure 1), and it happens repeatedly, however, this part of the stream because of the smallness can be neglected. So, with increasing incidence angle due to the increase of reflected and absorbed light fluxes decreases past the luminous flux. For example, double glazing transmittance (the ratio of the last of the luminous flux to the incident), respectively: 0.7 at a zero angle of incidence; China 0,686 at 37°; 0,646 at 53°; mean HDI of 0.531 at 66° and 0,265 at 78° (http://www.nestor.minsk.by/sn/1999/13/sn91317.htm). It is seen that at small angles of incidence, the transmittance varies slightly, however, with increasing angles decreases strongly.
Thus, when changing the angle of incidence of the light beam on the surface of the glass with the same intensity of incident radiation spontaneously change of correlation coefficients of reflection, absorption and transmission of radiation and, therefore, change the values of light transmission of the glass in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared ranges, because we are the coefficients depend on the wavelength of the incident radiation. In addition, when the angle of incidence of the beam on the receiving surface in accordance with the rules of geometrical optics is changed and the angle of inclination of the past through the glass design of the beam (figure 1).
These symptoms are typical for all types of glass used in glass structures and optical devices of any form, dimensions, properties, purpose, and number of layers of glazing. These symptoms are also characteristic of the invention, therefore, almost any glazed construction is analogous inventions.
When the angle of incidence of light from the source passes through the glass construction of the portion of the direct (unscattered) light can cause adverse effects such as reflections and too brightly lit surfaces, as well as non-optimal distribution of brightness inside glazed illuminated object or device, external blindness from the direct rays etc. So at some angles or ranges of angles of incidence of light on the receiving surface of the glazed construction there is a need for selective regulation of transmission and the direction passing rays depending on the angle of incidence of the rays in addition to the above on the example of figure 1 spontaneous change these settings when you change the angle of incidence. The ratio of the luminous flux transmitted under certain rules of geometrical optics angle through the glass design directionally, i.e. without taking into account the past of the scattered light flux to the incident on the design of a given angle luminous flux hereinafter designated by the term "directional light". Regulation on ravenage light transmission glazed designs depending on angles of incidence of rays are governed both directions passing rays, and the values held in these directions of light fluxes.
Partially the above problems can be solved by some well-known methods, for example using photochromic glass (http://www.bse.chemport.ru/fotohromnoe_steklo.shtml), which are able to reversibly change the transmittance in the visible region when the intensity of incident ultraviolet or short wavelength visible radiation due to photochemical processes occurring inside the glass. More details are described in the literature: gentle A.I. Sically and photonically. M: mechanical engineering, 1966; Chomsky VA Photochromic glass. "Opto-mechanical industry", 1967, No. 7.
For vision correction glasses are used with mnogotochechnymi lenses (http://users.iptelecom.net.ua/~optometr/index05.htm), consisting of areas with different refractive indices and designed to regulate the direction of the rays, but along the way is provided and effortlessly place a call the distribution of transmittance of the lens. On the same site described sunglasses eyeglass lenses with gradient colouring, the light transmission characteristics which are gradually changing in one direction due to gradual changes in color and/or intensity of color of the lens surface.
Another way is to use laminated glass (http://www.akma.spb.ru/) with adjustable transparency, changing the transmittance the two modes due to the orientation of the liquid crystals, contained in the inner layer of glass. By passing an electric current through the layer of liquid crystals are in the ordered state and the glass is transparent, in the absence of a current of disordered crystals scatter light and the glass opaque.
The increase in light transmission or reflection is achieved using the "enlightened" optics due to the interference arising from the reflection from the front and back surfaces of a thin non-absorbent layer of material (http://bse.sci-lib.com/article093447.html respectively with a lower or higher refractive index compared with that for glass markings on the glass with a thickness that depends on the wavelength. Literature: Enlightenment optics edited Ivhraacka. M.-L., 1946; Rosenberg CENTURY Optics of thin-layer coatings. L., 1958; the so-CALLED Krylov. Interference coatings. L., 1973.
Improved light transmission characteristics in the infrared region (teploproduktia) allows the use in window constructions "heat mirror" (http://esco-ecosys.narod.ru/2004_6/art60.htm reflecting heat rays toward income in the heating period longwave radiation is returned to the room, and in the hot season of intense solar radiation is reflected back.
All of the above methods provide regulation characteristics sitepromotion is, however, it is in all cases based not directly on the angle of incidence of rays, and other factors, i.e. there is no direct dependence of transmittance on the angle of incidence of rays and it does not seem possible additional (to the above figure 1) regulation characteristics of light transmission selectively depending on just the angle of incidence of the rays. To achieve this glazed design should contain a variety of additional devices redistribution of the light flux, such as louvers, grilles, shutters, diaphragms, which change their position in relation to the glazed design can provide for the regulation of the passing light flux depending on the angle of incidence of the rays. Thus, only the combination of glazed designs and options redistribution of light provides selective regulation of directional light transmission depending on the angle of incidence of the rays on this composite construction.
Close analogs of the invention are shutters, movable grilles and blinds of various types with manual or automatic control in cases when they are used together with glazed structures (IPC: EV 9/24 (2010.01). - Screening devices and other devices for protection against SV is the in particular from the sun; other devices for protection from peeking in the window for closing openings in buildings, vehicles, fences or other devices).
This subset includes the prototype of the invention - the combination of lamellar blinds with Windows (IPC: EV 9/264 (2010.01). - A combination of lamellar blinds with Windows or Windows with double glazing as a device to protect from light, in particular from the sun, and from peeking in the window). Best selective regulation of directional light transmission of such a combined structure depending on the angle of incidence of the rays (the height of the sun) can be supported using a horizontal lifting of lamellar blinds with automatic or manual adjustment of the angle of rotation of the slats depending on the height of the sun. Such devices are, for example, a company Somfy (http://www.somfy.com/portail/index.cfm). Spontaneous directional change of the light transmission window design is made according to the scheme shown in figure 1, additional selective regulation of transmission and directions passing rays depending on the angle of incidence of the rays is due to the change of the angle of rotation of the slats of the blinds, in addition, effortlessly place a call, the transmission of light in the room is adjusted by raising the slats.
The disadvantage of this JV is soba regulation is the need to use additional devices for the redistribution of light fluxes and their manual or automatic control, which leads to more complicated and expensive constructions and inconvenience of use. In addition, the adjustable device, such as a horizontal or vertical blinds, because of the complex curved trajectory of the sun may not provide optimal light transmission and direction of transmitted light rays in any orientation window on the sides of the light (this requires blinds with different tilt angle of the slats relative to the position of the window at different azimuth orientation). For the South sector preferred horizontal blinds, Eastern and Western sectors - vertical. Effortlessly place a call regulation transmission when lifting or shifting of the slats, respectively, horizontal or vertical blinds are also restricted in one direction (the division into two parts - the upper and the lower or right-to-left). Adjustable devices redistribution of the light flux complicated, and in some cases almost impossible to use, for example, curved glass surfaces is widely used in the construction and transport of bent glass (cylindrical, spherical, and other glazed structures), as well as for sloping glazed surfaces.
Disclosure of inventions
The invention consists in the aggregate of the following is x common to all instances of its application characteristics:
1) taking into account the shape, dimensions, destination, number of glazing layers, the kinds of the glass used and the optical characteristics of the existing glazed designs, especially the dependence of the reflection coefficient of the receiving surface and directions passing through the design of beams, therefore, transmittance and absorption, from the angles of incidence of rays on the design, determine the characteristic parameters of self-regulation directional light transmission, and taking into account thermal energy of light, teploproduktia all glazed designs depending on angles of incidence of rays in working for this construction the wavelength range (when considering bilateral transmission possible cases fall on both sides of the rays of different range) namely, the dependency relations generated passed through design focused beams (without passing scattered rays) luminous flux to the incident light stream and passing these rays is found according to the rules of geometrical optics, from the angles of incidence of rays on the glazed design, then, if in the construction of additional devices redistribution of light fluxes to account for their contribution to the overall regulation of the directional light transmission depending on angles of incidence of rays, compare the obtained parameters is regulirovaniya required for construction of this assignment and identify opportunities to improve performance regulation of the light transmission structure, including with regard to effortlessly place a call distribution transmittance;
3) make the required number of strips on these specific areas of the design with regard to used in the case of glass types by additional effortlessly place a call processing surfaces known methods (staining, diffusion of ions or metals, sandblasting, grinding, electrolysis, chemical treatment, etching, deposition of thermally evaporated substances, coating, such as metal and/or metal oxide coating on a hot glass by pyrolysis or cold glass by the method of cathode sputtering in a magnetic field at a high vacuum processing using electrical or wave energy, irradiation with different particles, drying, dehydration, degidroksilirovanie etc. or paste film strips with different coefficients of reflection, transmission and absorption.
On the first ground, also characteristic analogs and prototypes, is self-directed is built of light transmission glazed designs depending on angles of incidence of rays, additional regulation is only possible with devices of redistribution of light fluxes. The second and third characteristics distinctive from analogs and prototypes provide additional regulation and without such devices. These three main essential characteristic of the invention allow to achieve in all cases of its use of the following technical results:
1) selective regulation by a predetermined law of the number of rays (quantities of light beams, passing through the glazed design directionally, without scattering, depending on angles of incidence of rays (IPC: G05D 25/00 (2010.01));
2) selective regulation by a predetermined law of directions passing through a glazed design of beams depending on angles of incidence of rays (IPC: G05D 3/00 (2010.01)).
The first technical result is ensured by the regulation due to the pre-calculated parameters of bands and their relative position, the second is due to the different refractive indices of the bands. These two technical result interrelated and complex provide selective regulation of directional light transmission glazed designs depending on angles of incidence of rays, i.e. the invention relates to the category of the IPC G05D 27/00 (2010.01). It is also related to the category of the IPC F21V 13/00 (2010.01). In different applications the image is the shadow of the degree of importance of each result may be different.
The invention is intended to solve the following tasks (saving shapes, sizes, main destination glazed construction, number of glazing layers and kinds of the glass used):
1) required characteristics of directional control of light transmission structures depending on angles of incidence of rays without additional devices redistribution of light fluxes, which allows to simplify and reduce the cost of construction, to abandon manual or automatic control, to improve the appearance, to limit the influence of dust and other atmospheric phenomena;
2) empowerment of the combined directional control of light transmission structures depending on angles of incidence of rays in the application of the invention together with additional devices redistribution of light fluxes;
3) the capacity to manage directional light transmission designs depending on angles of incidence of rays with complex curved and/or inclined movement of the light source and/or glazed object relative to each other;
4) ensuring effortlessly place a call regulation transmission and/or directions passing rays depending on angles of incidence of rays in all shapes and sizes of the zones and in all directions on the surface of the glazed design, the functions, including gradual gradient control light transmission and/or directions of the rays passing;
5) provide directional control of light transmission structures depending on angles of incidence of rays for the whole incident radiation without changing its spectrum and selectively only to a certain part of the spectrum and transmittance with different spectral characteristics in different zones and in any direction on the surface of the structure;
6) the capacity to manage bilateral directional light transmission, including teploproduktia designs, depending on angles of incidence of rays;
7) the capacity to manage directional light transmission structures with curved and/or sloped glazed surfaces depending on angles of incidence of rays.
In each case the application of the invention solve a particular task or several tasks in any combination.
The most important applications of the invention are architecture and construction. From a rich and often contradictory requirements of window designs, with the invention connected: the optimal transmission times of year and day, to protect the premises from excessive light and heat in the hot season and saved the giving it heat during the heating season, protection from peeking in the window and the view from the room.
For complete meet these requirements by the first characteristic of the invention determine the parameters of the self-regulation of this window design, establish a hierarchy of importance of the requirements for this design at a given azimuth Windows of this floor with the surrounding buildings and at a given latitude and complex curvilinear and ever-changing path of the sun depending on time of year and day. Determine what time of year and day in what areas you want to skip a certain number of luminous flux, how to protect against heat loss during the heating season, what areas need to be protected from peeking in the window and what a review is needed inside the room, as well as determine the optimum control without additional devices redistribution of light fluxes. Figure 2 and 3 (1:100) as an example, respectively shows the section and plan of the site with an estimated 3-storey building (current location on the 2nd floor, the window is oriented to the southwest) and the opposing 4-storey building. Required without the use of additional light distribution devices to ensure optimal control of light transmission in the hottest period of the year, to reduce heat loss from reflected on the walls of long-wave heat rays from the heater, to protect the area beds from peeking and to provide an overview of some territory from the premises. Minimum Θ1νand maximum Θ2νthe angles of incidence of rays (figure 2) show that in the vertical plane protection zones beds only from the window of the 4th floor and partially on 3 floors, and the range of angles in the horizontal plane Θ12h(figure 3) shows that the area beds available for rays from all 4 boxes 3 and 4 floors of the opposing building and the necessary protection of the entire width of the window. The sun's rays in the vertical plane (figure 2) begin to get the current window on top of the roof of the opposing building at an angle of incidence Θ3νand the angle Θ4νrepresents the maximum angle of incidence of sun rays for a given latitude in the hottest period. However, from figure 3 it is seen that at the South-West azimuth window the sun's rays are most intense when the horizontal angle range Θ34hi.e. opposing the building when adjusting the light transmission window can be ignored, because the optimal regulation is reasonable in this range of angles. Next, let from premise a review in a vertical plane in the range of angles between Θ5νand Θ6νin the horizontal plane in the range of angles Θ56h. Reflected heat rays fall on the window over the entire height with a minimum Θ7ν and maximum Θ8νthe angles of incidence (figure 2). From figure 3 it is evident that they may be deposited across the entire width of the window is the range of angles Θ78hi.e. the entire surface of the window need to be protected from heat loss.
On the second basis, taking into account the hierarchy of requirements determine the number and location of surfaces with alternating stripes (if possible, these surfaces are chosen not on the two external surfaces of the structure in order to protect themselves strips or apply for this laminated glass with alternating bands between its inner layers) and choose the parameters of the bands on these surfaces. If necessary, the selected surface of the window construction is divided into zones with different optical characteristics (including change of the spectrum, for example, when the stained glass glazing). For the case described in figure 2 and 3, satisfy the requirements set in the following way. Figure 4 (M 1:15) the window is calculated premises with 3-layer glazing, all sizes taken from figure 2 and 3. Thin solid horizontal line splits the window into the lower zone, where more important to be protected from peeking, and remaining on top the area where you want optimal control of light transmission in the hottest period. To perform these two tasks based on the data from figure 2 and 3 are recommended on both surfaces of storagekey glazing apply alternating stripes, on the form In gray shows the scattering solar radiation stripes (on the form And they are depicted as thin black lines), white - ordinary glass. As figure 2 and 3, figure 4 does not account for the refraction of light, as well as the location, shape and size all bars are indicated schematically, how accurate calculation below. The parameters of the bands at the bottom of the window (figure 4 indicated only band on the inner side of the 2-layer glazing) are selected so that the entire width of the window, alternating horizontal parallel stripes (they could be tilted with respect to the shifting of the facades of the two buildings relative to each other) in the range of vertical angles Θ1ν-Θ2ν(2) ensured the maximum obstruction of the direct rays. On both surfaces of the upper part of the 2-layer glazing is recommended in this case to apply a curved alternating stripes, "witness" for the trajectory of the sun for a given latitude in the hottest period and providing, for example, the minimum transmittance at the maximum angle of incidence of the sun's rays Θ4ν. On the form In (4), the dashed lines indicate zone full bandwidth of 1 - and 2-m layers of glazing to provide the necessary overview of the public from the premises (from figure 2 and 3), slightly contrary to the protection from peeking in the window (two mutually exclusive of each on the UGA tasks). Reverse visibility with the public in the premises falls on the surface of the ceiling and insignificant (figure 2 and 3). To reduce heat losses during the heating season is recommended on the inner surface of the 1-3 layers of glazing to apply horizontal alternating stripes, reflects the corresponding long-wave radiation inside the range of angles Θ7ν-Θ8ν(2) over the entire area of the window, and passed through a 3rd layer of glazing and reflected only from the 1-layer beams will provide a slight increase in temperature in the two chambers of the glazing and will reduce the temperature difference between the inner surface of the window and the adjacent area of the room. Figure 4 in each zone shows alternating stripes with the same area width and constant optical characteristics of the bands. When necessary to achieve different surface area and a predetermined distribution of directional light transmission at different angles or ranges of angles of incidence of rays pick the appropriate geometric dimensions (width bands) and/or the transmittance of the bands, for example, provide a gradient decrease or increase the widths of alternating bands and/or transmittance over a given surface in a perpendicular (normal) to the bands direction, and optionally Walpole.
An important advantage of the invention is the ability to control directional light transmission in sloped glazed structures, and structures with the use of curved glass. A striped lane for one-layer slanted design with curved glass feature, as figure 5 (depicted schematically, the parameters of the bands is selected taking into account the curvature of the surfaces and refraction of light, order the exact calculation below). In this case, the problem of the maximum scattering of the incident at an angle parallel beam of rays, the rays scattered by the input surface with scattering bands (thick line), which took part on the output surface.
To limit falling into the room from direct sunlight and transmission mainly of scattered light from the sky and reflected from the surface of the earth light (albedo) and to protect adjacent buildings from overheating and truck drivers from glare reflected from the mirrored Windows and facades of multi-storey buildings rays (similar to the problems described in the literature: Solar Radiation Control in Buildings / E.L. Hark-ness, M.L. Mehta. - London (1978)) to furnish these Windows and facades recommend fluted glass with one corrugated surface with alternating bands, and some bands for sun protection assume with a mirror coating (anti-glare the design). This glazing is shown in Fig.6, thick lines shown reflect solar radiation strips, the remaining strips M.B. transmitting or scattering, in this case depicted skipping strip, i.e. they miss part of the direct light and diffused light of the sky and albedo. You can see that all reflected rays are directed above the horizontal and will not blind the drivers etc. For reduction in dust deposition and impacts of atmospheric precipitation corrugated surface of the glazing install from within.
In the case of "heat mirror" design with the technological capabilities of the membrane "heat mirror" is recommended to make as one of surfaces with alternating stripes.
On the third basis, taking into account operating conditions choose the most suitable method of manufacturing strips, for example in the reconstruction of the existing window design, the easiest way is to stick the tape with alternating stripes. When the simultaneous solution of several tasks, especially when bilateral regulation of transmission (figure 4), the manufacturing methods of the bands pick up comprehensively, taking into account all requirements, to the extent possible, for example, one band may reflect infrared radiation, but if you want to skip or scatter visible etc.
DL the window structures, first of all, the first of two technical results, namely, the control of the number of rays (quantities of light beams, passing through the window design directionally, without scattering, depending on angles of incidence of rays. Additional regulation of directions passing rays depending on the angle of incidence (the second technical result of the invention) for window designs insignificant, although it is slightly due to changes in refractive index when processing lanes, spontaneous regulation occurs according to the scheme presented in figure 1. If you want to ensure uniform light transmission window design when changing the angle of incidence of the ray parameters of alternating bands of pick up so as to compensate for the spontaneous regulation of light transmission (figure 1) taking into account the movement of the light spots from the Windows when the sun moves (for example, to ensure the most uniform illumination in an art gallery).
Below are the features and technical results of the invention for other applications in cases where there are any differences of its features and/or technical results, but also solved in this application tasks on a case-architectural glazing.
When applying the invention, the glazing of vehicles principal profile is its features and technical results compared with architectural glazing no, except that additionally take into account the change of the angles of incidence of rays, depending on the driving conditions of a vehicle, especially an automobile. But a similar solved by architectural glazing tasks solve the problem of protection for the driver from the glare of the headlights of other cars in certain ranges of angles of incidence of rays on glass and mirrors of the car with the spectrum of the artificial light of headlights.
For lighting the light source is in close proximity to the glass svetoraspredelenie, i.e. the rays falling on the glazed design, in most cases are not parallel, except that the light source and glazed design fixed relative to each other (angle of incidence of the rays is constant), so application of the invention take account of these distinctive features from the above cases. Destination lighting offers maximum light transmission through the glass svetoraspredelenie given and constant angles of incidence of rays from the source, so here the geometrical and optical parameters of alternating bands selected taking into account the regulation mainly to achieve the required distribution of the outgoing light flux at desired angles, including effortlessly place a call, and change with extra radiation. When applying the invention in the lighting apparatus to solve the task of providing for each zone output surface glazed designs are required for different areas of the output values rays of the light fluxes with the necessary range.
Optical system with lenses, eyepieces, lenses, etc. have the least bias shapes and sizes passed through a lens system images, i.e. the maximum light passing through them, to avoid distortion during the passage of the rays. When applying the invention, if necessary, provide effortlessly place a call distribution of transmittance on the surface of the lens as on a ring and sectoral areas, including different areas of the spectral characteristics of the transmittance, for systems of several lenses take into account the properties of the main planes of the system.
To correct geometry, such as spherical aberration on one of the surfaces of the lenses put annular alternating stripes of equal or different thickness and width with different refractive indices. Figure 7 shows a section of such a lens with a gradually decreasing to the edges of the lens refractive indices of the bands (n3<n2), in the field of paraxial rays band is not applied or is applied with a refractive index of n1- the same as the lens. On the upper half of the lens p is shown the passage of the rays without the participation of the bands it is seen that with the removal of the incident beams from the axis of the lens increases the aberration - beam 2 enters the point F2and the beam 3 - point F3i.e. further away from the point F1hit paraxial beam 1. Refractive index of n2and n3and thickness of the bands picked so that the rays gathered at the point F1(shown in the lower half of the lens 7).
On Fig shows a lens on the surface to which applied alternating scattering bands highlighted with thick lines. In this case, the relative position of the strips on both surfaces and allow to maximize directional light transmission in the fall of parallel rays (solid line) coaxial to the axis direction of the lens. From Fig it is seen that at another angle of incidence of rays, depicted by the dashed lines, the portion of the direct rays that have passed in the same amount as when coaxially incidence of sun rays through the entrance surface, scatters on the output surface and direct transmittance decreases. So allow semioriental axis of the optical system toward the light source for maximum light transmission or, on the contrary, the possibility of determining the angle of incidence of rays on the change of light transmission.
To optimise the performance of "enlightenment" optics, taking into account the change of the angles of p is the origin parallel rays on a curved surface of the lens depending on the distance from the axis of the lens (7) and the corresponding change of the reflection coefficient, select for different annular alternating strips of such thickness and refractive indices (band M.B. layered with gradual change of refractive index or even with his smooth change in thickness)that occur at different radial zones corresponding interference ensured the maximum transmittance or reflection for each zone across the surface of the lens to the desired wavelength range of the incident radiation.
So, when applying the invention in optical systems it is important to the achievement of both its technical results, and the importance of one or another of the result depends on solving specific tasks.
Glasses for vision correction select the geometrical and optical parameters of alternating strips to obtain the desired distribution of directions coming out of the spectacle lenses rays (according to the scheme presented on Fig.7, strip M.B. printed on both surfaces of the lens), if necessary, also provide different zones of the lens transmittance, including a range of wavelengths. In sunglasses strips mutually have thus to limit contact with the retina harmful rays, such as ultraviolet range under certain ranges of angles of incidence of rays, for example high standing of the sun, the way the application reflecting, absorbing and scattering bands (according to the scheme shown in Fig). For therapeutic points more than second important technical result, for sun - first.
Due to the dispersion of light provide selective transmission through the glass design-rays only a certain range of wavelength at certain angles or ranges of angles of incidence of light. Figure 9 shows the lens on the input and output surfaces of which are applied with a light absorbing band (marked with thick lines). This prism is an example of glass surfaces in the form of non-parallel planes, both surfaces of which are made in the form of alternating parallel and/or curved bands. Incident on the prism at a given angle white light in the variance is decomposed into a spectrum, and of the prisms in this case leaves only the long-wavelength part of the spectrum with a lower refractive index, the remainder is absorbed by the strips on the output surface. So get lighting effects. Important here both the technical result of the invention.
For special lighting effects and illuminations, including advertising, and to protect against forgery various glass containers or other glass objects using appropriate optical and geometrical parameters of alternating bands of bespechivaet the appearance of any image or part thereof only at a specific and predetermined angle or range of angles. As an example, figure 10 shows a cut glass object, on the inner surface of which is mirror strip, and on the outside attached to the strip of glass, which transmits incident light only at a certain angle (angle range). Passing through the object rays are carried out under definite and known angle see the reflected rays. To increase the degree of protection or additional effects on the mirror strip is applied to the image and/or inscription. The resulting reflected from the mirror image can be repainted to the attached strip is made so that it missed the rays of a specific spectral range (for example, according to the principle shown in Fig.9). This same principle (figure 9) is used in holography for more coherent light from the light source, and the scheme described in figure 10, to produce a hologram of an object only under certain and known angles, directing luminous flux by using the relative position of the bands on different surfaces and the corresponding selection of their optical characteristics. In the important case both the technical result of the invention.
Brief description of drawings
The description shall include the following figures:
1) Figo is a 1 - the scheme of passage of rays through a single plane-parallel glass at angles of incidence of 30° and 60° (line thickness, showing the incident, refracted, reflected and transmitted rays correspond to the intensity of the rays to spread in the glass case designs with high transmittance);
2) figure 2 - schematic vertical section of a site with two buildings for solving complex bilateral optimal light and teploproduktia (rotated 90° counterclockwise);
3) figure 3 - plan area with two buildings for solving complex bilateral optimal light and teploproduktia (rotated 90° counterclockwise);
4) figure 4 - scheme for solving the problem of complex bilateral optimal light and teploproduktia through the window with triple glazing (rotated 90° counterclockwise);
5) figure 5 - diagram of rays passing through a single layer of bent glass with alternating stripes on both surfaces;
6) figure 6 - diagram of the transmission and reflection of the rays in the design with a single layer of corrugated glass with alternating stripes on the receiving surface;
7) figure 7 - diagram of the correction of spherical aberration by using alternating bands with different refractive indices;
8) figure 8 - control scheme is ketopropane spherical lens depending on the angle of incidence of the rays;
9) figure 9 - diagram of the rays passing through the lens with two surfaces with alternating strips;
10) figure 10 - diagram of the reflection beams from the glazed structures under a preset angle;
11) figure 11 - diagram for the graph-analytical calculation of the control light transmission through a single plane-parallel glass;
12) figure 12 - graphics based on the total percent transmittance unscattered rays of angles of incidence for different widths of alternating bands and different layout.
The implementation of the invention
When carrying out the invention sequentially performs the operations specified in its three attributes.
On the first ground, taking into account all geometrical and optical characteristics of any given glazed construction, by calculation according to the laws and rules of geometrical optics and/or by using in-situ measurements to determine the dependence of the ratio of passing the directed light flux to the incident luminous flux, and the dependence of the direction of passage of rays from the angles of incidence of rays on the design, i.e. not dependent on the use of the invention existing parameters of self-regulation directional light and teploproduktia design working for her range of wavelengths. These two dependencies ensure the achievement of both the technical results of the Britania in any glazed structures within, established physical laws. However, for many glassed structures this is not enough. Therefore, to control light transmission, as a rule, apply additional devices redistribution of light fluxes (e.g., in window structures), and to regulate the directions of transmission of rays of the body of glass is divided into zones with different refractive indices (for example, in the medical glasses). When applying the invention to such cases take into account the influence of these factors and consider the possibility of effective regulation required for the construction limits and under given conditions without the use of additional devices or separation of the glass into zones. In addition, consider the possibility of expanding the existing limits of regulation and provide new features or properties of the structure using the invention, including effortlessly place a call distribution of transmittance. Thus, when making the first characteristic of the invention analyze the characteristics specified glazed designs and aim to improve certain characteristics.
According to the second feature of the invention determine what changes need to be made to the existing glazed design under given conditions, to perform the task, i.e. to determine the number p is used, which should be made with alternating strips, as well as optical and geometrical parameters of all stripes. Consider the implementation of a simple application of the invention if desired uniform over the entire area of glazing regulation of one-way directional light transmission depending on the incidence angle of the parallel rays on the plane-parallel single glass with high transmittance (the angle of incidence of the rays varies only in the vertical plane, the projection of the rays on a horizontal plane at all angles of incidence perpendicular to the surface of the glass).
Figure 11 in the scale of 10:1 is a diagram of the rays passing through a single flat glass with refractive index n=1.5 and thickness s=4 mm, both surfaces of the glass are parallel, alternating stripes (cut made perpendicular to the stripes). Solid lines depict the path of the rays at an angle of incidence of 30°, dotted at 60° (the reflected rays, which in this case is much less intensity not specified). Thin lines depict sections of the strips without processing glass, thick - with additional processing for dispersion passing rays. In this case, the width of the pass bands at the receiving and output surfaces is t1=3.0 mm and t3=2.5 mm, the width of rasei the surrounding bands respectively t2=1.0 mm and t4=1,5 mm For uniform regulation across the step, i.e. the sum of the widths of two adjacent strips, pick up the same on both surfaces: t1+t2=t3+t4. The percentages passing the directed rays with respect to the incident for different angles of incidence are obtained from the ratios of the widths of the stripes: 100% accept, when the beam is not a single diffuse band at 0% when at least one of the scattering strip.
From 11 shows that 25% of the rays at any angle scatters on the receiving surface, since t2=0,25(t1+t2). Unscattered refracted rays passing through the glass fall on the second surface, where the percentage of scattered rays is dependent on the angle of fall. Bandwidth through the receiving surface at all angles of incidence t1=3.0 mm (boundaries indicated by solid lines at an angle of incidence of 30° and dotted at 60°). Because at 30° incidence angle at the exit surface of the dispersed rays additionally width t4the total percentage of P passing through the glass of the unscattered rays will be:
At an angle of incidence of 60°, respectively:
where the width of the total bandwidth at an angle of incidence of 60° - l, mm, as can be seen from 11, p the BHA:
l=t1-l2=t1-(0,5 t4+0,5 t1+l0-l1)=0,5 t1-0,5 t4-l0+l1=0,5×3-0,5×1,5-1,4142+2,8284=2,1642 mm
where l0and l1mm - displacement of the refracted rays at the exit surface with respect to the input, respectively, for angles of 30° and 60° figure 11 (in the General case for all angles of incidence limm).
Offset liwith the passage of the rays through the plane-parallel glass at different angles of incidence Θ0and the refractive index n and the thickness s, mm, determined from the formulas:
For example, calculated by this formula offset for angles of incidence of 30° and 60° respectively equal to: l0=1,4142 mm and l1=2,8284 mm. Formula derived from the law Snell and properties of trigonometric functions. By law Snell:
From the formula for a right triangle with legs of liand s (nafig the legs l 0and l1accordingly, for angles of 30° and 60°):
From here get the above formula to calculate displacements liat any angle of incidence. The formula for determining the width of the total bandwidth and calculate the percentage passing through the glass of the direct (unscattered) rays for any incidence angle is found from the analysis of graphic plots that resembles figure 11 for angles of 30° and 60°. The dependence of the total percentage P passing unscattered rays of angles of incidence, calculated by this method for angles of incidence from 0° to 90° every 10° and 45°angle shown in Fig line 1. In the range of angles of incidence from about 14° to 45° the percentage transmittance is 37.5 per cent - and equally minimal, as all RA is Sivaya a strip of width t 4at the exit surface (11) in this range of angles of incidence overlaps a portion of the rays that have passed is directed through the receiving surface, and at 30° incidence angle scattering band t4is exactly in the center of the bandwidth, i.e. at angles of incidence close to 30°, is the minimum bandwidth. The maximum bandwidth for the calculations is when the angles of incidence of from about 70° to 90° (Fig, line 1). For specification of character of line 1 in some ranges when calculating the values of percent transmittance for intermediate angles (and similarly for the other curves).
If necessary, narrow the range the same minimum direct transmission at angles of incidence close to 30°, increase the width of the t4the scattering of the strip at the exit surface with respect to its center up and down (11) at a constant width t1skipping strip on the receiving surface. With equal widths of these bands (t1=t4=3 mm, therefore, t2=t3=1 mm) 100% of the rays incident at an angle of 30°will be scattered, 25% is dissipated at the receiving surface (t2=0,25(t1+t2)), the remaining 75% to the output surface. Thus, for an angle of 30° directional transmittance is 0%. The results of the calculation by the above method when considering the condition of t4 1=3 mm for all angles of incidence shown on Fig line 2. In this case, the maximum percentage of bandwidth (25%) is in the range from 0 to 9° and from 51 to 90°. Line 3 Fig shows an opposite case, when the width of the transmissive strips on both surfaces is the same (t1=t3=3 mm), and the steps of the bands on the two surfaces are pushed together so that everything is not scattered on the receiving surface at an angle of incidence of 30° beams were unscattered through the output surface, the width of the scattering bands is also the same (t2=t4=1 mm). Since t1=0,75(t1+t2), the maximum direct interest transmittance at 30° incidence angle equal to 75%. For other angles the transmittance calculated by the methodology, the minimum percentage of bandwidth (50%) is in the range from approximately 0 to 9° and from 51 to 90°. Lines 2 and 3 Fig symmetrical with respect to the horizontal, since the transmission and scattering of the strip at the exit surface replaced with each other.
Line 4 on Fig presents a case, in contrast to the above, when the steps on the two surfaces are not equal (t1=3 mm; t2=1 mm; t3=1.25 mm; t4=0.75 mm), ie (t1+t2)=2(t3+t4- step on the output surface two times less. The steps are shifted for maximum transmission at 30°, as in the previous case, center raseev is the fact that the band width of t 4same on the output surface of the refracted beam at an angle of incidence of 30°, but the maximum percentage of bandwidth due to the reduction of the width of the permeable strip decreased from 75% to 56,25% (Fig, lines 3 and 4), and the maximum not only at an angle of 30°, but also in a certain range of angles symmetrically with respect to this angle (the same is true for the two minima of the transmission relative angles of approximately 9° and 51°). In addition, there is a second peak bandwidth in 56,25% in the range of angles of incidence from about 72° to 83°, which is also a consequence of the reduction step on the output surface.
Lines 1-4 on Fig show ample opportunities for selective control of light transmission at a constant alternating stripes on the receiving surface by changing the width of the bands and their location only on the output surface. Line 5 on Fig shows a case when the width of all alternating strips on both surfaces is the same (t1=t2=t3=t4=2 mm), and the step is shifted so that not all scattered on the receiving surface at an angle of incidence of 30° beams were unscattered through the output surface. Since t1=0,5(t1+t2), the maximum direct interest transmittance at 30° incidence angle equal to 50%. In this case, the minimum percentage bandwidth (0%) is p and the angle of 77°.
Thus, choosing the width of the alternating transmissive and scattering bands and their relative location on the two surfaces, provide different opportunities for selective control of light transmission, for example the achievement of the minimum or maximum directional transmission at certain angles and/or ranges of angles of incidence (Fig). To achieve maximum bandwidth at any angle of incidence steps of the bands on different surfaces move so that all the rays are not scattered on the receiving surface, were unscattered through the output, and the width of the pass bands pick up the same on both surfaces, and the increase in these widths with respect to the widths of the scattering bands represents an increase in the percentage of directional transmission (seen from a comparison of lines 3 and 5 on Fig at angles close to 30°). To achieve maximum bandwidth at any range of angles of incidence symmetrically with respect to some angle of incidence of the width of the transmissive strips on the output surface is chosen greater than the input (then, for example, on line 3 to a maximum of 75% will be for a range of angles close to 30°, and the range will be the greater, the greater the excess of the widths of the pass bands on the output surface), or less (the maximum value in the range of angles of incidence of about 30° is less than 75%, being the m with decreasing width of the transmission band at the output surface relative to input will decrease and the value of the maximum and the angle range with the maximum bandwidth, on the contrary, it will expand). Obviously, 100% directional transmission as the limit is reached at zero width of the scattering bands on both surfaces, i.e. when there is no alternating strips and the surface of the glass is not subjected to additional processing. To achieve the minimum bandwidth (0%) at any angle of incidence steps of the bands shift so that all the rays are not scattered on the receiving surface, dispersed on the output, and the width of the pass bands at the receiving surface and the scattering on the output surface pick up the same (line 2 on Fig at an angle of 30°). For zero transmittance in the range of angles increase the width of the scattering strip on the output surface compared to the input, and the greater this difference, the wider the range. From the comparison of lines 1 and 2 shows that a non-zero minimum bandwidth can only be achieved for a range of angles, but not for a specific angle, and to extend this range to reduce the width of the scattering strip on the output surface. On lines 2 and 4 shows that the maximum bandwidth M.B. in two ranges of angles of incidence, and lines 3 and 4 - M.B. the minimum transmittance in two ranges.
The above cases show that the regulation of percentage transmittance depending on the angle of incidence Lou is her at the same step on the input surface (lines 1-5 on Fig) affect the ratio of the widths of alternating strips on each surface and shearing steps on them. The difference of the steps on the two surfaces also affects the nature of regulation, and for the uniform regulation of light transmission over the entire area of the glazed construction steps pick up the same (all lines on Fig except 4) or multiples (line 4). In case of equality of steps on both surfaces very step size also affects the nature of the regulation. On Fig line 6 presents the case where the width of all the strips and, therefore, both steps is increased two times compared with 11 (t1=6 mm; t2=2 mm; t3=3 mm; t4=5 mm) with the same parameters. From 0° to about 62° level bandwidth is constant and equal to 37.5% (or at least the transmission line 1), then slowly increases. I.e. to weaken the degree of regulation as a range of angles, and the percentage transmittance increase the width of all stripes (seen from a comparison of lines 1 and 6 on Fig). Deregulation of bandwidth depending on the angle of incidence is explained by the fact that in the calculations of percent transmittance dimensions displacement liat all angles of incidence from 0° to 90° are much less than the widths of the scattering and transmission bands (see the calculation of the total bandwidth l for angle 60° 11), and the change of these shifts gradually ceases to affect the nature of the regulation (for example, with further increase of all floor is with on line 6, a horizontal line would have moved to the right angle 62°), and for each glass thickness are the greatest limiting the width of the bands when at all angles of incidence will be the same level of bandwidth, i.e. the regulation will stop (line 6 would be horizontal throughout the site). Such a pattern is typical for all other cases, including for lines 2-5 to Fig, because the change of displacement liwhen you change the angles of incidence and determines the change in percent transmittance. Thus, for more intensive regulation for the widths of the bands pick a size comparable with the magnitudes of the displacements of the ligiven the thickness and the refractive index of the glass. On either of the two surfaces with alternating strips of the lower limit of the widths of diffusing or passing lanes will be 0 mm, i.e. respectively rays or completely pass through this surface, or it is fully dispersed.
Characteristic estimated by the angle of incidence at the cases presented on Fig lines 1-6, and further analysis is taken of the angle of incidence of 30°, i.e. falling under this angle the ray after refraction passes through the center of the scattering or transmission bandwidth on the output surface (for example, as figure 11), but such graphic-analytical calculation using the above method M.B. made for any angle of incidence based on the requirements of the regulation in the particular case. For example, CPA is the link to pig line 7 presents a case when all else constant parameters only 11 steps are shifted for a minimum transmittance at an angle of incidence of 45°, and 30°, i.e. at an angle of 45° refracted ray passes through the center of the scattering strip on the output surface. The maximum bandwidth is now at angles from 0° to about 9°, at least about 30° to 61°, i.e. the values highs (62,5%) and lows (37,5%) on lines 1 and 7 are the same because of the same widths of all stripes. However, the nature of regulation due to the increasing shift of the steps have changed the whole line moved to the right by about 15°, as would be expected when moving from 30° to 45°, and at large angles of incidence decreased percentage of bandwidth.
Thus, given originally parameters glazed design and its interaction with the incident light stream with the use of two surfaces with alternating stripes in different cases (Fig) are detected, the following General laws regulating interest directional light transmission:
- when the angles of incidence from 0° to about 60° dependence regulation is almost straight broken, either horizontal (in cases when the bandwidth on the output surface remains the same in a certain range of angles of incidence), or almost rectilinear inclined (width is propuskanija varies almost proportionally since the difference between the offsets of the licalculated for a given thickness and refractive index of the glass, almost the same every 10° in this range), and the angles of the lines are the same even for cases with different selected characteristic angles, as can be seen from the comparison of lines 1-5 for the characteristic angle of 30° and line 7 to 45°;
- at large angles of incidence (70°-90°) the degree of regulation is reduced lines 1-3 horizontal (regulation depending on the angle of incidence is absent), and lines 4-7 gentle (regulation weaker than at smaller angles, which explains known from trigonometry weak changes of the sinuses large angles, for which the absolute difference between the calculated displacements of the lievery 10° at angles of 70°-90° is much smaller than in the range of 0°-60°, and it is this difference determines the degree of change in transmittance within each range 10°), but for the vast majority of glazed structures, such as window, control at high angles of incidence (70°-90°) and less in demand;
- at sufficiently large angles of incidence of 60°-90° all lines, except for the horizontal sections, begin to bend significantly, because, despite the reduction of its absolute value, the difference between the offsets of the lievery neighboring 10° in this range is distinguished by the I from each other to a greater extent than at angles up to 60°;
- when the angles of incidence from 0° to about 60° dependence regulation symmetric with respect to the selected characteristic shift angle steps (lines 1-6 for angle 30°, line 7 to 45°angle), as the difference of the displacements of the lialmost the same every 10° in this range, and the refracted beam with a characteristic angle of incidence passes through the center of the scattering or transmission bandwidth on the output surface and on both sides of it are respectively transmitting or scattering bands are the same for each case width.
The above method of the invention allows to obtain his first technical result - selective regulation by a predetermined law of the number of rays passing through the structure is directed, depending on the angle of incidence. For simultaneously receiving a second technical result - selective regulation of directions passing through the design of beams depending on the angle of fall - skipping strip on the input and/or output surface is produced with the desired thickness of glass with different refractive index (see Fig.7 and explanatory notes thereto), the thickness and the refractive index is chosen based on the graph-analytical calculations in accordance with the rules of geometrical optics. If these bands are used is as an input surface, then consider changing the angles of refraction and the effect on the calculation of shift steps alternating bands on the two surfaces.
When carrying out the invention in cases different from the above simple cases (11 and 12), apply the described technique of calculations based on the rules of geometrical optics as follows:
- if you need to effortlessly place a call regulation transmission calculate the parameters of alternating bands separately for each zone with the required uniform intraband regulation (Fig.2-4), and the dimensions and configuration of the zones depending on the shape of the glazed construction M.B. any number of zones with different settings of light transmission M.B. unlimited, namely: if necessary, uneven regulation on the surface of the glazed structure, or any area in any direction chosen by changing the width and/or other geometrical and optical parameters of alternating strips (for example, a gradient change of parameters, where each subsequent strip differs from the previous one by some parameters, and alternate can not only two kinds of bands, such as transmission and scattering figure 11, but a few in any order), including use of such parameter changes along the actual bands (e.g. bands of the M.B. with variable-width, intermittent, variable refractive index, etc.);
the number of surfaces with alternating bands choose more than two, for example, in the bilateral regulation, as in figure 2-4, thus take into account the mutual influence of the parameters of these surfaces to each other - in this case (figure 4) scattering strips on both surfaces of the second layer of glazing in the upper area of the window should be able to skip the long-wave radiation, in turn, reflects long-wave radiation strips on the first and third layers to pass solar radiation;
- for protection from the influence of external factors (for example, atmospheric phenomena on window design) surface with alternating bands choose on different layers of glazing inside the structure and, consequently, in the calculations take into account the distance between glazing layers and the nature of the substance filling the space between the glazing layers (its influence on the refractive indices), in structures with corrugated glass corrugated surface with alternating stripes feature on the inner surface (in contrast to 6);
for structures with curved forms glazing angles of incidence, reflection and refraction is determined relative to the normal to the curved surfaces, and forms of Polo is Mikhail. as rectilinear (figure 5 and 6)and the ring (Fig.7 and 8);
- when complex curvilinear motion of the light source and/or glazed structures relative to each other (for example, when the sun moves relative to the window) take into account that the angles of incidence of rays vary from 0° to 90°, not only in one coordinate plane (figure 11 the angles of incidence vary only in the vertical plane), but in another, therefore, for each specific angle of incidence of the beam carry out the scheme of its passage through the incision glazed construction plane passing through the beam and perpendicular to the flat receiving surface (curved receiving surface is a plane tangent to it at the point the fall of the beam), which will complicate the calculations and lead to curved shapes alternating bands, however, will allow to achieve optimal control of light transmission, as would be "tracking" the path of motion of the source relative to the design (for calculation of the control light transmission window designs for the light of day for a particular time of year, take into account the corresponding trajectory of the sun relative to the window, i.e. the change of azimuth and height of the sun at this latitude the Northern or southern hemisphere, and for a given azimuth orientation of the window and a vertical, inclined or g the horizontal location and its flat or curved calculate the optimal parameters of all alternating bands);
in appropriate cases, the calculations take into account the non-parallelism of the incident beams (for example, when close to the source location to the glazed construction rays are radial);
depending on the tasks use the following types of alternating strips with the desired characteristics in the whole considered for this application spectral range or in any part of the spectrum: skipping possible with a large transmittance (surface glazed design, not subjected to additional processing, or transmitting band with a different refractive index than the glass itself, as figure 7, i.e. proposalsa-refractive stripes, including multilayer slowly varying refractive index), reflecting different reflectance (6 and 10, part of the light and reflect any other band), absorbing with different absorption coefficient (Fig.9, and Fig instead of scattering bands can be applied absorbing, the glass itself and any band also absorb part of the light flux and scattering with different degree of dispersion (figure 5, 8 and 11, the glass itself and any band also scatter part of the light).
PR is the application of the invention together with additional devices redistribution of light fluxes calculations do not basically differ from the above, however the contribution of these devices in total (combined) regulation, as well as the changes they make in the calculations, such as blinds at their outer position depending on the position of the lamellas change as the intensity incident on the surface of the light window and the direction of the incident rays, all this into account when calculating control the light transmission of the glass structure.
To facilitate calculations vysheizlozhennomu the technique used by existing computer programs calculate or make up new programs with specific calculations and diversity of variables that in various applications depend on the parameters of the light and teploproduktia glazed structures.
The above method of carrying out the invention is based on the graphic-analytical calculations for different angles of incidence of rays total percentage of directional transmission in relation to the total area of the output surface through which are directed (unscattered) light to the entire area of the receiving surface (the same holds for cases when the number of surfaces with alternating stripes of two or more). For example, for the case considered in figure 11, the percentage transmittance determined by the ratios of the widths of the bands, however, this simplification is only suitable for a rectangular design, and the capabilities of, when, as in this case, the width of the structure unchanged. In the General case, the percentage bandwidth is determined by the ratio of areas, including curved surfaces and forms themselves alternating bands. For the final practical application of the invention when determining directional light transmission glazed structure at different angles of incidence in addition to the overall percentage transmittance take into account the following physical factors that do not depend on the invention, but affecting its use and total control light transmission:
- increasing the angle of incidence of the rays increases the reflection coefficient and, consequently, the reflected part of the light flux;
- increasing the angle of incidence of the rays at a constant intensity of the incident light (the ratio of luminous flux to the area of the receiving plane perpendicular to the direction of the rays, i.e. at an angle of incidence 0°) decreases the number of actually falling on the area of the receiving surface of the light flux;
in some cases, changes the intensity of the light source (for example, intensity of solar radiation depends on the time of day);
- at constant thickness with increasing angle of incidence and, therefore, the length of the path of the refracted rays through the glass increases the amount of absorbed gotovogo stream;
- decreasing widths of alternating bands increases the degree of influence of dispersion, diffraction, interference, various types of aberration, etc. and multiple reflection inside the glass from its external surfaces, which is especially important for high-precision optical systems.
In cases when the preliminary calculations of the characteristics of regulation M.B. not sufficiently accurate because of the impossibility of a complete accounting of all influencing factors, they are set using the prototype glazed construction with data geometrical and optical parameters of alternating bands on the basis of measurements, for example, a light meter, falling and last light at different angles of incidence, thus take into account that in the presence of scattering bands of the light meter will measure and diffuse radiation, i.e. to define the parameters of the regulation it is directional transmission is used only absorbing and reflecting strip at predetermined widths of all passing lanes.
Thus, when the implementation of the second characteristic of the invention solve the problems of improvement of certain characteristics specified glazed design without changing its primary purpose, if possible, expand the existing limits of regulation and give the construction of a new additional functions and properties.
The third is the element of the invention is known technological methods, listed above or any other, on the selected surfaces are made of alternating strips with the necessary geometrical and optical parameters or paste film with a pre-printed on them alternating stripes. To facilitate the manufacture of alternating bands used masks with the appropriate bandwidth for additional processing of the surface of the glass, so if there is any way of making strips the rest of the surface was protected from the manufacturing impact. When using films with alternating stripes, for example, in window constructions film with the same parameters in some cases to simplify use on different surfaces of the same window with the necessary shift of the bands.
1. The method of selective directional control of light transmission glazed designs depending on angles of incidence of rays while maintaining existing shapes, sizes, primary purpose, number of glazing layers and kinds of the glass used, characterized in that depending on the desired throttling settings on one or both of the directional characteristics of light transmission determine how many and which surface glazed designs should be made in the form of alternating parallel and/or curvilinear the strips,
this determines the coefficients of reflection, transmission and absorption spectra, refractive indices, geometric shapes, the sizes of the bands and the necessary changes in these parameters as along the lanes and across them, and the necessity of allocating the bands in zones with different characteristics of light transmission so that when these angles or ranges of angles of incidence of rays on the glazed structure over the entire glass area directionally were only rated it at these angles of incidence of the rays of the desired wavelength range, and for each angle of incidence in the range 0÷90° determine the total percentage of directional light transmission as the ratio of the total area of the output the surface through which rays directed to the entire area of the first receiving surface and izgotovlivajut stripes on the glazed surfaces of a structure by additional processing of the outer surface of the glass, and/or gluing on her film with a pre-applied strips, and/or placement in laminated glass between layers:
- two surfaces, each of which transmits the stripes are interleaved with the scattering, absorbing or reflecting strips,
- or four surfaces when two boundary surface glazed construction with different sides radiation falls is a group of different wavelength ranges and for each radiation using two surfaces with alternating stripes, each of which transmits the stripes are interleaved with the scattering, absorbing or reflecting strips,
or on one surface, on which alternating passing lanes have different refractive indices or different thickness, providing additional change directions after passing the refraction of the rays and their intensity
- or corrugated curved surfaces, on which alternating transmissive and reflective strips provide additional regulation of the passing light flux and directions as passing and reflected rays depending on the angle of incidence of the rays.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the required number of surfaces with alternating stripes in the glass-fronted design in the case neordinarnogo glazing made on different layers of glazing to regulate one or both of the characteristics of light transmission throughout the glazed structure.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the glazed structure in at least one layer of glazing used plane-parallel glass sheet and its both surfaces are made in the form of alternating parallel and/or curved lines.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the glazed structure in at least one layer of glass applied to the glass surface the values in the form of non-parallel planes, and both surfaces of the glass made in the form of alternating parallel and/or curved lines.
5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the glazed structure in at least one layer of glazing used glass with a curvature of one or both surfaces and both surfaces of the glass made in the form of alternating parallel and/or curved lines.
6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the glazed structure in at least one layer of glazing used laminated glass, and alternating stripes are made inside the laminated glass between its layers and/or on one or both exterior surfaces.
7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the glazed structure in at least one layer of glazing used corrugated glass with one or two corrugated surfaces and alternating stripes are made on one or both surfaces of the glass.
8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that in the case of "heat mirror" in glazed construction membrane "heat mirror" is made as one of surfaces with alternating stripes.
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: shutter has a metal film which is evaporated by focused radiation, the metal film being disposed on a transparent substrate which is mechanically mounted in the optical system of a radiation receiver in the plane of the intermediate real image of the lens. The film is placed on the transparent substrate with spacing around its perimetre, which is greater than the depth of resolution of forming the intermediate image by the lens.
EFFECT: nanosecond response delay of operation in a wide spectral range, low triggering threshold.
SUBSTANCE: method involves layer-by-layer sputtering of metals on lenses. Successive magnetron sputtering of Ti and Cu metal is carried without temperature action, wherein composition of said metals enables to obtain an effect of colour change under the action of UV radiation from transparent to orange in order to protect the eyeball from burns.
EFFECT: combining the functions of protection from mechanical damages and UV radiation during treatment, which increases efficiency of the dentist.
SUBSTANCE: present colour filter substrate has a structure wherein adjacent colour filters have corresponding protrusions which protrude towards each other and are in contact with each other on a light-protective element, a structure wherein regions of the colour filter for adjacent points of the same colour are partially joined on a protective element, or a structure wherein said structures are joined.
EFFECT: simple colour scheme for a liquid crystal display panel, both the transition region and the disclination region can be prevented, and aperture reduction can be prevented.
17 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: colour filter substrate has a first coloured layer of a display element, a light-screening layer and a second coloured layer of a display element, lying side by side on the substrate. The light-screening layer includes a first wide part and lies such that it partially overlaps the edge of the first coloured layer of the raster element and the second coloured layer of the raster element. The first wide part includes a protrusion which protrudes to the first coloured layer of the image element. The colour filter substrate includes a first multilayer cross-piece having a first wide part and a second coloured layer. The first coloured layer of the cross-piece has a colour similar to that of the first coloured layer of the image element, and is connected to the first coloured layer of the raster element only at the base of the protruding part.
EFFECT: providing a colour filter substrate and a liquid crystal display device which, even when a coloured layer is used as the main part of the multilayer cross-piece, enable to prevent orientation vibrations of the liquid crystal near the multilayer cross-piece without increasing the number of process steps.
14 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: protective light filter has a component which absorbs laser radiation and a reflecting narrow-band dielectric coating. In order to operate in the visible spectral region, the absorbing component of the light filter is made from material which resonantly absorbs at laser wavelengths, having high optical density in the region of laser radiation spectral lines. The reflecting narrow-band dielectric coating of the disclosed device with reflection coefficient on laser wavelengths R≥0.95 is deposited on the surface of the absorbing component on the side where laser radiation falls on the light filter.
EFFECT: simple design, smaller size and weight, high visual performance of the viewer using the light filter.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: described is a black matrix formed by depositing a curable coating composition on a substrate, followed by curing, development and drying of the coating. The curable coating composition contains binder and at least one modified pigment which contains at least one organic group bonded to the pigment and having formula -X-I, where X is directly bonded to the pigment and denotes an arylene or heteroarylene or alkylene group, I is a non-polymer group containing at least one ion group or at least one ionisable group. The cured coating contains approximately 30 wt % or more of the modified pigment in terms of the weight of the cured coating. The invention also describes a curable coating composition, a cured coating, a method of increasing resistivity of the coating and regulation method thereof.
EFFECT: high resistivity an optical density.
85 cl, 4 dwg, 7 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: composition which absorbs UV-radiation at 390 nm contains a matrix based on one or more polyesters selected from a group consisting of polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene isophthalate, polypropylene terephthalate, polybutylene terephthalate, poly(1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate) and polyethylene-2,6-napthylene dicarboxylate and mixtures thereof, where polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) is present in an amount of approximately 0.2 wt % in terms of total weight of the composition, and polyoxyalkylene UV-absorber is present in amount of approximately 0.1 wt % in terms of total weight of the composition, methods of preparing said composition (versions) and a product which prevents passage of UV light at 390 nm.
EFFECT: higher resistance of products to UV radiation, improved yellowness index after SSP.
31 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: neutral light filters are used in optical devices, particularly as attenuators which reduce radiation intensity. The neutral light filter consists of alternating layers of crystalline gallium monoselenide GaSe and gallium nanoparticles. Said light filter has a holder which has a heat carrier channel.
EFFECT: uniform attenuation of light with wavelength of 2,5-15 mcm.
4 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: physics; optics.
SUBSTANCE: hologram filter relates to devices for filtering optical radiation. The filter consists of a transparent substrate, coated with a transparent polymer film which contains a reflection hologram, and a protective layer adjacent to the polymer film. In the first version, the protective layer is in form of an optical wedge, the working surface of which, except the radiation inlet window in the thin part of the wedge, is coated with a reflecting layer. In the second version the filter additionally contains a mirror, placed opposite the reflecting hologram with possibility of varying the angle between the mirror and the hologram. Upon double passage of radiation through the reflecting hologram at different angles of incidence, a narrow spectral peak of the passing radiation is obtained at the output.
EFFECT: obtaining half bandwidth of the order of several nanometres, high transmission coefficient in the bandwidth, high attenuation coefficient in the reject region, high beam strength.
2 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: optic device includes objective lens and case, and at least one device with electrically adjustable light absorption or light reflection, including at least two parts, where each part can change light flux pass rate depending on electric signal magnitude fed to the part, and at least one correction matrix consisting of at least two elements, each element connected electrically to respective part of device with electrically adjustable light absorption or light reflection, and can produce electric signal, depending on intensity of incident light flux.
EFFECT: expanded dynamic range.
9 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: composition consists of 90-96 wt % of a base - mixture of polydimethylsiloxane (40-60 wt %) and polymethylphenylsiloxane (60-40 wt %) liquid with viscosity of 3000-40000 mm2/s at temperature of 20°C and 4-10 wt % thickener - silicon dioxide. The composition has a refraction index of 1.4100-1.4300, penetration value of 160-280 units, and operates in the temperature range from (-70°C) to (+300°C).
EFFECT: improved properties of the composition.
2 tbl, 12 ex
SUBSTANCE: radiation diffracting film has a viewing surface and an ordered periodic array of particles embedded in the material of the array. The array of particles has a crystalline structure, having (i) a plurality of first crystal planes of said particles that diffract infrared radiation, where said first crystal planes are parallel to said viewing plane; and (ii) a plurality of second crystal planes of said particles that diffract visible radiation. When the film is turned about an axis perpendicular to the viewing surface and at a constant viewing angle of said film, visible radiation with the same wavelength is reflected from the second crystal planes with intervals equal to about 60°.
EFFECT: designing a film for authenticating or identifying an object.
23 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: optical film has a moth-eye relief structure, having multiple protrusions which include multiple slanting protrusions that are inclined relative the primary surface of the film in essentially the same direction when viewing the primary surface of the film from above. The slanting protrusions lie on the periphery of the optical film and are inclined into the film when viewing the primary surface of the optical film from above. The method of making the film includes a step of applying a physical force to the moth-eye structure so as to slant said multiple protrusions. Said step includes a polishing sub-step which involves polishing the moth-eye structure in a predetermined direction.
EFFECT: providing directivity of optical properties of the optical film.
19 cl, 26 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method according to the invention includes the following steps: providing a mould for making a soft contact lens, the mould having a first mould half which forms a first moulding surface, which forms the front surface of the contact lens, and a second mould half which forms a second moulding surface, which forms the rear surface of the contact lens, said first and second mould halves configured to be connected to each other such that a cavity forms between said first and second moulding surfaces; feeding a mixture of monomers of lens forming materials into the cavity, where said mixture of monomers includes at least one hydrophilic amide-type vinyl monomer, at least one siloxane-containing (meth)acryalide monomer, at least one polysiloxane vinyl monomer or macromer and about 0.05 to about 1.5 wt % photoinitiator, where the lens forming material is characterised by the capacity to be cured by UV radiation having intensity of about 4.1 mW/cm2, in about 100 s; and irradiating the lens forming material in the mould for 120 s or less with spatially confined actinic radiation in order to cross-link the lens forming material to form a silicone hydrogel contact lens, where the contact lens made has a front surface, formed by the first moulding surface, opposite the rear surface formed by the second moulding surface, and a lens edge formed in accordance with spatial confinement of the actinic radiation.
EFFECT: making silicon hydrogel contact lenses whose edges are defined not by touching moulding surfaces, but by spatial confinement of radiation, which enables to reuse the mould to make high-quality contact lenses with good reproducibility.
SUBSTANCE: method involves local laser deposition of a layer of transparent or opaque material on the surface. Laser deposition is carried out on mirror reflecting adjacent surfaces or coatings of plates already mounted in an interferometer in the gap between surfaces. The gap is filled with a medium which forms a film upon laser irradiation, and the surface is locally irradiated with laser radiation. Thickness of the deposited layer of material can be controlled during deposition by interference measurement of deviation of the length of the optical path of the light beam between the mirror reflecting surfaces of the interferometer plates from the resonance length for the interferometer. The laser beam can scan the surface, wherein its intensity can be modulated with the length of the optical path between the mirror reflecting surfaces.
EFFECT: correcting the shape of surfaces of optical components already mounted in an optical device.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: laser radiation focused on the surface of a photosensitive layer is modified on depth in proportion to the power density of the radiation propagating in the photosensitive layer. Before entering a focusing lens, the laser radiation is collimated into a parallel beam whose diameter is smaller than the entrance aperture of said lens and is shifted in parallel to the optical axis by a value where one of the edges of the longitudinal section of the exposing radiation cone in the photoresist layer becomes parallel to the optical axis of the focusing lens. In the second version, an immersion liquid is further placed in the interval between the output lens of the focusing lens and the surface of the photosensitive layer.
EFFECT: high diffraction efficiency of kinoform lenses by reducing loss on counter slopes of zones by increasing the gradient of the slopes formed directly during direct laser writing.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method according to the invention involves adding to a reaction mixture an effective amount of a compound which reduces protein absorption, hardening said mixture in a mould to form a contact lens and removing the lens from the mould with at least one aqueous solution.
EFFECT: making silicone-hydrogel contact lenses with low protein adsorption, which are comfortable and safe to use, and do not require high production expenses.
SUBSTANCE: monocrystals are designed for infrared equipment and for making, by extrusion, single- and multi-mode infrared light guides for the spectral range from 2 mcm to 50 mcm, wherein a nanocrystalline structure of infrared light guides with grain size from 30 nm to 100 nm is formed, which determines their functional properties. The monocrystal is made from silver bromide and a solid solution of a bromide and iodide of univalent thallium (TIBr0.46I0.54), with the following ratio of components in wt %: silver bromide 99.5-65.0; solid solution TIBr0.46I0.54 0.5-35.0.
EFFECT: reproducibility and predictability of properties, avoiding cleavage effect, resistance to radioactive, ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method involves shaping of a reflector based on organic plastic material and non-organic substance with reflection coefficient of not less than 0.9 by preparing a mixture of initial components under pressure. As organic plastic material there used is a mixture of fluorine and polycarbonate; as non-organic substance - titanium dioxide, at the following component ratio, wt %: polycarbonate 100; fluorine 3.5-5.0; titanium dioxide 0.5-1.0. Forming can be performed by pressing at pressure of 800 to 1500 atm and at temperature of 240-270°C to thickness of not less than 2 mm or by casting at pressure of 750 to 1500 atm and at temperature of 280-290°C to thickness of at least 2 mm. Polycarbonate with melt flow-behaviour index of 2-60 g/10 min can be used as polymer material.
EFFECT: enlarging processing methods, temperature interval of processing, reducing cost and material consumption.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: antireflection film has on its surface a moth eye structure which includes a plurality of convex portions, wherein the width between the peaks of adjacent convex portions does not exceed the wavelength of visible light. The moth eye structure includes a sticky structure formed by connecting top ends of the convex portions to each other and the diameter of the sticky structure is smaller than 0.3 mcm. The aspect ratio of each of the plurality of convex portions is less than 1.0, and the height of each of the plurality of convex portions is shorter than 200 nm.
EFFECT: reduced light scattering.
29 cl, 69 dwg
SUBSTANCE: glass unit contains at least two window glasses: The optical element has multiple perforations and a non-perforated section. The non-perforated section prevents penetration of light into a building, where the insulated glass unit is installed. Perforations have the depth/width ratio, which makes it possible for the light to pass with the specified fall angles, while the light with other fall angles is unable to pass through perforations, which provides for shadowing effect. The optical element is arranged between two window glasses with the help of an adhesive, and the adhesive is not substantially present in perforations of the optical element.
EFFECT: increased protection of a building against solar energy.
26 cl, 19 dwg