# Method to determine two angular coordinates of glowing reference point and multiple-element photodetector for its realisation

FIELD: instrument making.

SUBSTANCE: result is achieved due to arrangement of elementary photosensitive elements in the space, forming a multi-element photodetector and extraction of information on two angular coordinates of the glowing reference points from their signal values and serial numbers, the value of angular pitch and the angle of inclination of axes of directivity patterns. At the same time the device of the multiple-element photodetector comprises elementary photodetectors arranged with the specified angular pitch relative to a certain axis. The number of elementary photodetectors is at least seven, axes of directivity patterns of elementary photodetectors are arranged at a certain angle different to the straight one and zero one to the axis, relative to which the elementary photodetectors are arranged.

EFFECT: expanded field of view and higher reliability.

3 cl, 7 dwg

The invention relates to instruments navigation of spacecraft, in particular to devices for determining the angular coordinates of the direction to the Sun or other luminous reference point.

Known solar sensor [1], containing the mask with holes, matrix photodetector, the signal processing unit and the device information exchange.

The principle of the sensor is based on determining the position of the light spot through the openings in the opaque mask on the surface of the photodetector consisting of elementary photodetectors located on a plane in a matrix. Two angular coordinates of the direction of the Sun are calculated as follows:

where X_{With}and Y_{With}the coordinates of the centroid of the light spot on the surface of the photodetector matrix, F is the distance from the mask with a hole to the surface of the photodetector matrix.

Theoretically, the angles α and β can take values in d is apatone from -90° to +90° relative to the perpendicular to the surface of the photodetector matrix. However, practically, since the photosensitive surface of the photodetector matrix has a limited size, a mask with a hole has some thickness and is located at a certain distance from a matrix of a sensor, the measurement range of angles less. In other words, the field of view of sensors that implement this method of measurement is less than a hemisphere and usually [1], [2] limited quantities±(60...64)°.

In addition, taking into account the operating conditions of the sensor, it can be noted that the hole in the screen is a vulnerable place, as the hit of cosmic dust on the screen may cause the closing holes or change its size and, consequently, to malfunction of the sensor. It can also be noted that the loss of operability of any elementary photodetectors constituting the matrix, leading to errors in determining the angular coordinates. Thus, the reliability of the sensor in some cases may not be sufficient.

Famous panoramic sensor of angular coordinates glowing reference [2], consisting of a multi-element receiver of optical radiation and signal processing equipment. Multi-element receiver of optical radiation consists of elementary photodetectors arranged with a given pitch on the circumference.

On multielement receiver) the ski radiation solar radiation, thus one part of the elementary photodetectors is lit, and the other part is in shadow. The angular coordinate of the Sun is determined by the ordinal elementary photodetectors, which start and finish group illuminated photodetectors, or the angular coordinate of the reference point is defined as the ratio of signals of any two elementary photodetectors in the group lit. The angular coordinate of the Sun is measured in the range of angles from 0° to 360°. However, measured only in one angular coordinate, which is a disadvantage of this sensor.

The aim of the invention is the extension of the field of view of device that implements the measurement of two angular coordinates of the glowing guideline, increase its reliability.

This goal is achieved by the fact that for determining the angular coordinates used by the photodetector consisting of elementary photodetectors. Elementary photodetectors are arranged with a given angular pitch relative to some axis so that relative to the plane perpendicular to this axis, the axis of the radiation patterns were directed at some angle other than straight and zero (hereinafter, it is assumed that the chart axis direction coincides with the direction of the radiation source, wherein the photosensitive signal e is of amenta has a maximum value).

These conditions are satisfied, for example, the photodetector in the form of a truncated cone or a truncated cone of a polyhedron. The photosensitive surface of the elementary photodetectors form a conical surface or a conical surface of a polyhedron.

The device of the photodetector illustrated in figure 1. Positions are marked: 1 - the axis about which are the elementary photodetectors; 2 - plane orthogonal to the axis about which are the elementary photodetectors; 3 - axis about which the measured azimuth, and number of elementary photodetectors; 4 - n-th elementary photodetector; 5 - (n±1)-th elementary photodetector; 6 - angular spacing of elementary photodetectors; 7 - axis pattern (n±k)-th elementary photodetector; 8 is the angle of inclination of the axis of the beam to the plane orthogonal to the axis about which are the elementary photodetectors; 9 - direction on a light guide; 10 - azimuth direction on a light guide; 11 - elevation areas on a glowing reference.

The plane orthogonal to the axis about which are the elementary photodetectors introduced for clarity. Obviously, the elevation and angle of the axes of the directional diagrams it is possible to measure neposredno is but relative to the axis, around which are elementary photodetectors, fundamentally it changes nothing.

Figure 2. presents the receiver, in which the photosensitive surface of the elementary photodetectors forming the surface of the tapered or conical polyhedral holes. Positions are marked: 1 - the n-th elementary photodetector; 2 - (n±1)-th elementary photodetector.

Upon irradiation of the multi-element photodetector Sun can be distinguished group lit elementary photodetectors. The number of elementary photodetectors in the group lit depends on the mutual position of the photodetector and the Sun. The signal value of the n-th elementary sensor - I{n) in the group lit is defined as follows:

I(n)=AF(n), F(n)>0

I(n)=0, F(n)≤0 (2)

F(n)=[cos(Ω)cos(Θ)cos(ω)cos(nϑ)+cos(Ω)sin(Θ)cos(ω)sin(ϑ)+sin(Ω)sin(ω)]

where A is the maximum value of the signal takes place when the coincidence of the axis of the directivity diagram of the elementary sensor with the direction to the Sun), Θ is the azimuth direction of the Sun, Ω - elevation areas on the Sun, ω is the angle of inclination of the axis of the directivity diagram of the elementary of the photodetector with respect to a plane perpendicular to the axis about which are the elementary photodetectors, angle nϑ - angular coordinate of the n-th elementary sensor in the plane of perpen icularly to the axis about which are the elementary photodetectors, n is the number of elementary sensor, ϑ is the angular spacing of elementary photodetectors.

From the expression (2) must:

Expressions (3) and (4) allow us to conclude that for determining the angular coordinates of the direction to the Sun is enough to have a group of lighting is the R only 3 elementary sensor. For a hemispherical field of view, this condition is satisfied for any areas on the Sun, if the photodetector has at least 7 elementary photodetectors. However, the interest of the receiver, containing a greater number of elementary photodetectors, such as 1000, as in this case, redundancy can be used:

- to improve the measurement accuracy of the coordinates by averaging the results;

- to improve the reliability and survivability of the photodetector, as a single or group failures elementary photodetectors can not prevent the calculation of angular coordinates.

The azimuth Θ of the direction of the Sun can be determined by finding the centroid, which allows to simplify the computational procedure:

The elevation angle Ω in the direction of the Sun is calculated as of the time:

where ϑ is the angular spacing of photosensitive elements; I(n) and I(n+l) - value signals of the n-th and (n+l)-th lit photosensitive elements, respectively, n and (n+l) are chosen on the interval for the Les from k1 to k2; k1 is the sequence number of the first and k2 is the sequence number of the last of the photosensitive element in the group lit, signals which exceed a specified threshold.

In order to facilitate the adaptation of the device of the multi-element photodetector to existing technologies, the expression (2) can be represented as follows:

I(n)=I_{1}(n)+I_{2}(n),

I_{1}(n)=B[cos(Ω)cos(Θ)cos(nϑ)+cos(Ω)sin(Θ)sin(nϑ)],

In=Acos(ω)=Asin(ω)

Expression (7) means that the elementary photodetector consists conventionally of two parts. One part generates a signal I_{2}(n) and its projection (projection photosensitive surface), for example, on the base of the cylinder, while the other part generates a signal I_{1}(n) is the projection on the cylindrical surface. With and In the maximum possible value of the signal values of these parts, respectively.

Figure 3 shows the cross section of the n-th elementary sensor. Positions are marked: 1 - sensitive surface of the n-th elementary sensor; 2 - axis pattern of the n-th element is REGO of the photodetector (perpendicular to the sensitive surface); 3 - the angle of the axis of the directivity diagram of the n-th elementary photodetector with respect to a plane perpendicular to the axis about which are the elementary photodetectors; 4 - axis about which are the elementary photodetectors; 5 - sensitive surface of the first part of the n-th elementary photodetectors (projection on the base of the cylinder); 6 - axis beam of the first part of the elementary sensor, parallel to the axis about which are the elementary photodetectors; 7 - sensitive surface of the second part of the n-th elementary photodetectors (projection on the cylindrical surface); 8 - axis beam of the second part of the elementary sensor, perpendicular to the axis about which are the elementary photodetectors.

The projection may also be considered on the basis of polyhedra and polyhedral surfaces, respectively.

From expressions (7) and Figure 3, it follows that the directional pattern of each elementary sensor is a superposition of the radiation patterns of the first and second parts, and the angle of inclination of the axis of the beam is determined by the ratio of the maximum signal values of those parts.

The practical implementation of a sensor based on this division, shown n the Figure 4. Positions are marked: 1 - the first sensitive surface of the n-th elementary photodetectors (projection on the base of the cylinder); 2 - the second sensitive surface of the n-th elementary photodetectors (projection on the cylindrical surface).

Another option is the implementation of a sensor in accordance with Figure 5. Positions are marked: 1 - the first sensitive surface of the n-th elementary photodetectors (projection on the base of the cylinder); 2 - the second sensitive surface of the n-th elementary photodetectors (projection on the cylindrical surface); 3 and 4 - a blend that limit the field of view and cylindrical parts respectively and allow you to get the pattern composite elementary sensor, similar to the pattern of the elementary sensor figure 1.

The use of optical elements that change the direction of light rays (prisms or mirrors), allows you to have both the elementary part of a sensor on one surface, in particular on the plane. The cross-section of such elementary things of the photodetector shown in Fig.6. Positions are marked: 1 - the n-th elementary photodetector; 2 - first sensitive surface of the n-th elementary sensor, chart axis direction which is parallel to the axis about which place is are stated elementary photodetectors; 3 - second sensitive surface of the n-th elementary sensor, chart axis direction which is perpendicular to the axis about which are the elementary photodetectors; 4 - axis pattern of the first sensitive surface; 5 - axis beam of the second sensitive surface; 6 - axis about which are the elementary photodetectors; 7 - prism; 8 - opaque coating.

The approach based on the decomposition of the photosensitive surface of the elementary sensor on orthogonal projection and the superposition of their directional diagram applies to the case when the axis of the directional diagrams of the two parts of the elementary directed at the photodetector, which is different from the direct and zero angles to the axis about which are the elementary photodetectors. 7. shows the cross section of this element. Positions are marked: 1 - the n-th elementary photodetector; 2 - first sensitive surface of the n-th elementary sensor; 3 - second sensitive surface of the n-th elementary sensor; 4 - axis pattern of the first sensitive surface; 5 - axis beam of the second sensitive surface; 6 - axis about which are the elementary photodetectors.

The first hour is ü can be represented as two orthogonal projections. Similarly in the form of two orthogonal projections is also presented and the second part. Get four pieces, two of which have the axis of the directional diagrams of the parallel and the other two have a chart axes perpendicular to the axis about which are the elementary photodetectors. Two parts that have the chart axes oriented parallel to the axis about which are the elementary photodetectors, can be seen as one part of the signal which is equal to the sum of the signals of its constituent parts. Two parts that have the chart axes oriented perpendicular to the axis about which are the elementary photodetectors, similarly you can replace one. The resulting two new parts are orthogonal projections of some elementary photodetector, for which, as already noted in the legend to Figure 3, the angle of inclination of the axis of the resulting pattern is determined by the ratio of the maximum signal values of its orthogonal projections.

Therefore, the proposed method of identifying the two angular coordinates of the light guide can be implemented with the help of a sensor containing elementary photodetectors, the axis of the directional diagrams are inclined at some angle other than straight and zero is the first, to the axis about which they are situated, and containing elementary photodetectors, each of which consists of two parts, with the axis of the directional diagrams of these parts inclined at some angle to the axis about which are the elementary photodetectors.

From the above formulas and devices of the multi-element photodetector figure 1 it follows that the angular coordinate is Θ can be calculated in the range from 0° to 360°, and the angular coordinate of Ω can be computed in the range from +90°- (90°-ω). Thus, the proposed sensor in contrast to the prototype [1] allows to define two angular coordinates of the Sun, in any point of the sphere about its center with the exception of a spherical segment, cut off the cone angle at the vertex of ω, the axis of which coincides with the axis about which are the elementary photodetectors.

It should also be noted that in the inventive multi-element photodetector elementary photodetectors directly perceive solar radiation, so any mask, forming and guiding the luminous flux to be missing. As a result, decrease the weight and dimensions of the device, increases the reliability. In addition, due to eliminating the need for job specific spatial position of the mask and fo is priemnikov improves the manufacturability of the sensor of angular coordinates and improves the stability of its metrological characteristics.

The device of the inventive sensor allows to produce it in the form of an integrated circuit. As elementary photodetectors can be used photodiodes that are formed using the technology APS (Active Pixel Sensor), laser microreserve and etching. Thus, for example, in the case of Figure 5 the first sensitive surface corresponds to the surface of the crystal parallel to the p-n junction, and the second sensitive surface corresponds to a surface perpendicular to the p-n junction photodiode.

In addition, since elementary photodetectors, for example, in accordance with Figure 4 and Figure 5 occupy a peripheral part of the crystal, the inner part can be used for placement of the analog-to-digital Converter, computing device, the device control and device information exchange. Thus, it is not just the sensor, but the finished sensor angular coordinates. The electrical connection of such a sensor is carried out through one or more holes, obtained with a laser on the inside of the crystal.

Sources of information

1. Patent USA No. 7552026, IPC G06F 3/00, 2009.

2. The Officine Galileo Digital Sun Sensor, F.Boldrini, E.Monini, IAA-B3-1308P, 3rd IAA Symposium on Small Sattelite for Earth Observation, Berlin, 2001.

3. Patent of the Russian Federation No. 2327952, IPC G01 11/26, 2006.

1. The method of the determining the two angular coordinates of the light guide using a multi-element photodetector, which is that elementary photodetectors are arranged in the radiation flux of the light guide with a given angular increments with respect to some axis, with the axis of the directional diagrams of elementary photodetectors inclined at some angle to the axis about which are the elementary photodetectors, are determined by the values of the elementary signals of the photodetectors, is caused by radiation of the light guide, signal values, ordinal, the angular step of the location and the angle of inclination of the axes of the diagrams of elementary photodetectors are calculated angular coordinates of the light guide.

2. Use to define two angular coordinates of the luminous reference point of the multi-element photodetector, which consists of not less than seven elementary photodetectors located with a given angular increments with respect to some axis, the angle which the axes of the diagrams of elementary photodetectors is different from the direct and zero.

3. Multi-element photodetector consisting of elementary photodetectors located with a given angular increments with respect to some axis, characterized in that the number of elementary photodetectors not less than seven, the axis of the directional diagrams of elementary photobeams the Cove is located at some angle, other than the direct and zero to the axis about which elementary photodetectors are located.

4. Multi-element photodetector consisting of elementary photodetectors located with a given angular increments with respect to some axis, characterized in that the number of elementary photodetectors at least seven, each elementary sensor consists of two parts, the axis of the directional diagrams of these parts are located at some angles to the axis about which elementary photodetectors are located.

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EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

FIELD: instrument industry.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises two spheres mounted with a spaced relation one to the other. The outer sphere is made of a superconducting material, and the inner sphere is made of a magnetic material. The outer sphere is secured to the spacecraft, and the inner sphere is shifted with respect to the center of gravity and has the radiation source. The output of the radiation receiving unit is connected with the information input of the recording unit whose control input is connected with the output of the board control unit.

EFFECT: simplified structure.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: method can be used in moving objects' spatial orientation systems. Before beginning of movement of object, the coordinate system is chosen being comfortable for observer. Three stars are selected, along directions of which stars the speeds have to be measured and their angular coordinates are measured. After movement starts, current values of linear velocity are measured on the base of directions of navigating stars. Changes in linear velocity are calculated from directions of navigating stars, which are changes are caused by rotation of object, and basic components of angular speed vector are determined from directions of navigating stars.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.

FIELD: measuring equipment, applicable for determination of the Sun angular coordinates in the spacecraft coordinate system.

SUBSTANCE: the Sun attitude pickup has an optical system made in the form of a wide-angle lens including an inlet and outlet plano-convex lenses with a diaphragm placed between them, an optical element is positioned in its holes, matrix photodetector, and a unit for processing of information and computation of coordinates. The refractive indices of the optical components are selected proceeding from the relation: n_{1}≥n_{2}<n_{3}, where n_{1} - the refractive index of the inlet plano-convex lens; n_{2} - the refractive index of the optical element; n_{3} - the refractive index of the outlet plano-convex lens.

EFFECT: obtained information in a wide angular field with a high precision.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: onboard system for controlling spacecrafts for autonomous estimation of orbit and orientation of spacecraft body.

SUBSTANCE: method for autonomous navigation and orientation of spacecrafts includes computer calculation of position in three-dimensional space of ort of radius-vector of support (calculated, a priori assumed) orbit, rigid attachment of optical-electronic device on the body of spacecraft and measurement of coordinates and brightness of stars, which are in the field of view during navigational sessions, in it.

EFFECT: increased number of performed tasks, expanded capabilities of method application environment for any orbits, reduced number of measuring devices and mass and size characteristics of onboard system for controlling a spacecraft.

2 dwg

FIELD: invention refers to the field of astronomical and astrophysical explorations.

SUBSTANCE: coherent transponder of phase synchronization has a radio receiving set, a radio transmitting set, an airborne standard of frequency (H-maser) and also a logic and commutation block. The radio transmitting so as the radio receiving set consists of two half-sets. The radio receiving set has a radio receiver module of the amplifier of a very high frequency, a preliminary amplifier of intermediate frequencies, a block of phase automatic adjustment of the frequency, the amplifier of the reference signal 2▾ and the secondary source of feeding.▾- nominal frequency. The coherent transponder of the phase synchronization provides transformation of the input signal in diapason 961▾ into an answer signal in the diapason 1120▾ used for synchronization of the airborne thermostating controlled generator. For reducing the drift of the phase of the answer signal the system of transformations of frequencies is built on the principle of complete matching of tracts of multiplying of the radio transmitting set and the heterodynes of the radio receiving set.

EFFECT: phase synchronization of the airborne scientific cosmic apparatus on a weak signal on the whole extension of the high-apogeal orbit of the flight.

1 dwg