Hydraulic machine francis-type wheel, hydraulic machine with such wheel and method of its assembly

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: hydraulic machine Francis-type wheel 1 has outer rim with symmetrical rotation about wheel central axis, inner rim 4 with symmetrical rotation about said axis and multiple vanes arranged between said rims. Wheel 1 comprises at least two elements to define, at least partially, outer rim 6 and/or two elements to define, at least partially, said inner rim 4. At least one edge of vane 2 is fitted between two said elements.

EFFECT: improved manufacturability, sufficient quality.

9 cl, 7 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a wheel type Francis for hydraulic machines, hydraulic machine containing such a wheel, and also to a method of Assembly of such a wheel.

In accordance with the invention, the hydraulic machine can be a turbine, pump or turbo pump, used, for example, at the enterprise for the production of hydroelectric energy.

The present invention relates, in particular, to a wheel type Francis for hydraulic machines, intended for the passage through it of the forced flow of water. Such rapid flow brings the said wheel in a rotational movement in the case when the hydraulic machine is a turbine. And this forced flow is a consequence of rotational motion in the case when the hydraulic machine is a pump.

Within the structure of the hydraulic machine is known the use of impellers type Francis, having an outer rim, inner rim, and the blade passing between the outer rim and inner rim (see, for example, FR 1267669).

Such a wheel may be cased, often made by means of casting or by means of mechanical Assembly by welding. Since this wheel has an impressive total RA the measures its production is characterized by a rather

the high cost. At the same time, the manufacture of such wheels, on the one hand, requires less frequent technical skills, and on the other hand, poses problems of hygienic nature and security problems due to the need for staff to go in the hydraulic channels wheels, in particular, to perform welding and grinding.

The technical problem of this invention is to provide a wheel, the production of which is amenable to industrial development, while ensuring a satisfactory level of quality.

To solve this technical problem the object of the invention is a wheel type Francis for hydraulic machines, having in its composition:

- the outer rim, with symmetry of rotation relative to the Central axis of the wheel;

- the inner rim, with symmetry of rotation relative to said axis; and

- a lot of blades passing between the inner rim and outer rim, characterized in that it contains at least two elements that define, at least partially, the outer ring and/or two elements that define, at least partially, the inner rim, and also that at least one edge of the blade is inserted between these two elements, the backside of the sponding outer rim and/or the inner rim.

Thanks to the wheel made in accordance with the invention, the manufacturer is able to resolve problems at the same time with the quality, timing, and

the cost of implementing such awheels.

In accordance with other preferred characteristics of the wheel in accordance with the invention, taken separately or in any technically possible combinations:

the lower edge and/or upper edge of the at least one blade is flush with the outer surface of the outer wheel rim and/or the inner wheel rim;

the wheel contains at least two elements of the outer rim and two elements of the inner rim, and each of these elements is fixed a stationary manner between two adjacent blades by welding;

the wheel contains at least one first subsystem, asked the first part of the outer rim and the first part of the inner rim, and these two parts are connected with the first blade and the first subsystem is performed by means of casting, and a second subsystem, asked the second part of the outer rim and the second part of the inner rim, and these two parts are connected with the second blade, and the second subsystem is performed by means of wheels and is attached by welding to the first subsystem;

at least one of the blades includes two lateral groove, placed against each other and located in close proximity to at least one edge of its connection by welding to the outer rim and/or the inner rim;

- mentioned lateral grooves are made in the shoulder by mechanical processing;

these lateral grooves specify a local narrowing.

The object of the invention is a hydraulic machine, having in its composition a wheel of the type indicated above.

In addition, the object of the invention is a method of the wheel Assembly of the type indicated above. In accordance with this method:

- made elements of the outer wheel rim and/or the inner rim;

- connect the elements of the outside of the rim and/or the interior of the rim by welding and/or by casting with the insertion of at least one of the edges of the blades between the two elements of the outside of the rim and/or the inner rim.

The invention will be better understood from the following non-restrictive description of an example implementation in which references are given in Appendix drawings, on which:

- Figure 1 is a view in axial section of a wheel in accordance with the invention;

- Figure 2 is a top view of the wheel shown in Fi is .1;

- Figure 3 is a view in partial section along the line III-III shown in figure 2 and on an enlarged scale of the wheel shown in Fig. 1 and 2, in the case when the wheel is in the process of production;

- Figure 4 is a view on an enlarged scale, corresponding parts IV, shown in figure 3, for a wheel in accordance with the second method of implementation;

- Figure 5 is a view similar to the view shown in figure 4, for a wheel in accordance with a third method of implementing the present invention;

- 6 represents a top view of the wheel, which is not included in the present invention; and

- Fig.7 is a view in partial cross-section along the line VII-VII shown in figure 4, and on an enlarged scale of the wheel, shown in Fig.6, in the case when the wheel is in the manufacturing process.

In Fig. 1 and 2 show a wheel 1 turbine type Francis, which rotates about a vertical axis x-X, representing the Central axis of the wheel 1. The flow F of the fluid coming from the pipe, not shown in the Appendix figures, is designed to pass through the wheel 1 in the direction of the suction channel, also not shown in the Appendix figures. The wheel 1 has blades 2, which are held between the inner and the him rim 4 and the outer rim 6. These two rim 4 and 6 have rotational symmetry about the axis X-X. the Blades 2 are distributed evenly around the axis X-X.

As more detail can be seen in figure 2, nine blades 2, rigidly connected with the inner rim 4 and the outer rim 6 are curved. Each of the blades 2 sets front edge 21, is directed towards the outer part of the wheel 1, and the rear edge 22 facing in the direction of the axis X-X.

Wheel 1 also contains a plate 8, intended to connect the wheel 1 to the shaft of the turbine, not shown

shown in the Appendix figures. This plate 8 may be made either of sheet metal or by casting. Plate 8 can then be attached by welding to the other elements forming the wheel.

As can be seen in figure 2, the inner rim 4 contains nine different elements, each of which is separated from an adjacent element by means of the vanes 2. On the form in section, shown in figure 3, the first element 41 is partially defines the inner rim 4. The second and third elements 42 and 43 of the inner rim 4 are located on either side of said element 41. This element 41 is separated from the two elements 42 and 43 respectively through the upper and inner edges 231or 232the first blade 21and second blades 22.

Say what I in other words, the inner rim 4 is formed of nine elements 41, 42, 43..., each of which is located between the upper and inner edges 231, 232,... of adjacent blades21,22.... As for the edges 231, 232,... blades 21, 22,..., they are inserted between the elements 41, 42, 43,..., forming an inner rim 4.

By analogy with the inner rim 4 of the outer rim 6 contains nine elements. As can be seen in figure 3, the first element 61 is located between the other two elements 62 and 63 of the outer rim. This element 61 is separated from the elements 62 and 63, respectively, using the lower and outer edges 241and 242the first blade 21and second blades 22.

Here it may be noted that the upper and inner edge 231or 232each of the two blades 21and 22is located at the level of

the outer surface of the inner rim 4, formed respectively by the upper surfaces 411,422,431,... of elements 41, 42, 43 and equivalent elements. In addition, the lower and outer edge 241or 242each of these two blades held at the level of the outer surface of the outer rim 6, formed respectively by the outer surfaces 611, 621, 631,... items 61, 62, 63 or equivalent elements.

p> The elements 41, 42 and 43 of the inner rim and the elements 61, 62 and 63 of the outer rim is rigidly connected with the adjacent blades by welding. This method is the preferred way is implemented by external at the zone level location on one level, defined between the edge of the blade and the outer surface of the internal element of the rim or outer rim. Thus, excluded welded joint between the rim from the inner part of the wheel and, more specifically, in the hydraulic channels defined between the two blades.

In order to do this, and as shown in figure 3, which represents a view in section, during the welding, the edges 41241Celement 41, which are located respectively near with blades 21and 22have beveled faces in such a way as to create, together with the edges 231and 232, dihedral angles, designed for placement of welds. These edges, thus, set the bevel. Weld, indicated by 9, can be seen in figure 3 in the connection between the element 41 and the blade 21.

In accordance with the second, third and fourth methods

the implementation of the invention shown in figures 4 through 7, the elements similar to those elements that were presented in the PE the first method of implementation, are denoted by the same digital items.

In Fig. 4 and 5 shows enlarged views of the welded zone levelthe connection between the scapula21and the two elements 61 and 63 of the outer rim. It should be noted that the area of the welded connection is similar to the connection between the blade element, and the inner rim.

In order to reduce mechanical stresses in this type of connection eliminates the implementation of the connection at a right angle between the blade and adjacent the outer rim of the wheel. For this purpose it is planned to perform the connecting grooves in each blade.

Figure 4 presents the two connecting groove 25, which are in the lower part of the blade 21at the site, located on two elements of the outer rim 61 and 63. The Central part of the blade has a first thickness el, the value of which is substantially less than the thickness E2 of the lower and outer edges 241blades 21that is inserted between the elements 61 and 63 thus, to take place at the level of outer surfaces 611and 632. These connecting grooves 25 are essentially symmetric with respect to the Central axis Y-Y of the blades 21.

For the manufacture of blades 21the operator carries out the formation of the connecting grooves 25 in the sheet metal, with which the thickness E2, by means of mechanical processing of this sheet metal. However, the implementation of such connection

attachment requires the use of significant amounts of material intended to be removed using this method of mechanical processing.

Thus, as an alternative implementation, presented in figure 5, it is proposed to use the spade 21having a thickness E3, is essentially identical to the thickness e1 of the blades in accordance with the second method of implementation. In this spatula 21using the direct machining are formed with two connecting groove 26 running in the lower part of the scapula and in the immediate vicinity of its lower and outer edges 241inserted between the two elements 61 and 63 of the outer rim. These grooves 26 are essentially symmetrical manner with respect to the Central axis Y-Y cross-section blades21.These grooves correspond to the lateral grooves made in the blade 21thus, to ask a localized narrowing in the immediate vicinity of the weld joint area. Thus, we can restrict delivery only sheet metal with limited nominal thickness E3.

In Fig. 6 and 7, which are not included in the present invention, is redstavlena wheel 1, containing nine subsystems, three of which are indicated by the positions 11, 12 and 13, we can see in Fig.7. The first subsystem 11 includes the first part of the inner rim 114 and the first part of the outer rim 116, which are connected between themselves by means of blades 112. Three parts 112, 114 and 116 may be molded together or attached to each other by welding so as to form a monoblock

element that can be secured to other elements of the same type by welding.

Similarly subsystem 12 and 13 contain, respectively, the second part of the inner rim 124 and the third part of the inner rim 134, and the second part of the outer rim 126 and the third part of the outer rim 136. Each of the parts 124 and 126 and each of the parts 134 and 136 are connected respectively by means of a shovel blades 122 and 132 by molding or by means of a connection by welding.

Each of these subsystems 11, 12 and 13 has a cross-section in the shape of a tilted letter U.

Each of the parts 114 and 116 includes a flange 1141and 1161located respectively opposite the upper and inner edges 1321and across the bottom and outer edges 1322the blades 132.

Similarly, each of the parts 124 and 126 includes a flange 1241and 1261located respectively opposite the upper and EXT is nna edges 112 1and across the bottom and outer edges 1122blades 112.

It may also be noted that the blade 122 includes upper and inner edge 1221and the lower and outer edge 1222.

Two parts of the inner rim and outer rim of each of the subsystems 11, 12 and 13 respectively provided with upper surface 1142, 1162, 1242, 1262, 1342and 1362.

Thus, edges of the blades 112, 122 and 132 are inserted between the two elements of the inner rim or outer rim. In other words, each of the lower and upper edges of the respective blades is held flush with the adjacent

the top surface of the inner rim and outer rim.

Edges 1141, 1241, 1161and 1261made beveled in such a way as to create, respectively, together with edges 1321, 1121, 1322and 1122, dihedral angles, designed for placement of welds, not shown in the Appendix figures. In other words, these edges are made with inclined facets.

This modular approach allows you to implement a connection subsystem 11 simultaneously with the subsystem 12 and subsystem 13 using qualified welding from the outside. In other words, there is no need to penetrate into the inner is alost wheel 1, namely, in the space between the inner rim and outer rim, to perform welding with the aim rigid connection between the parts of the inner rim and outer rim of the first subsystem with the corresponding parts of the second connecting subsystem.

At the same time promoting elements 21, 22, 41, 42, 43, 61, 62, 63,... or subsystems 11, 12, 13 and equivalent subsystems that make up the wheel, in place of its use improved, in particular, from the point of view of time, which allows to optimize financial expenses.

It should be noted that the implementation of the connecting grooves shown in Fig. 4 and 5, may also be implemented manufactured by means of casting the blades 112, 122 and 132.

As a non-limiting example implementation of a method of welding used in conjunction with the proposed

the invention may be an electron beam welding or laser welding.

In addition, it is possible to provide a wheel containing the number of elements of the inner rim and/or the outer rim than nine.

1. Wheel (1) type Francis for hydraulic machines, having in its composition: outer rim (6), which has a symmetry of rotation relative to the Central axis (x-X) of the drive wheel; inner rim (4), which has a symmetry of rotation relative to said axis and a variety of blades (2, 21, 22held between the inner rim and outer rim, wherein the wheel (1) contains at least two elements (61, 62, 63)that defines, at least partially, the outer rim (6) and/or two elements (41, 42, 43)that defines, at least partially, the inner rim (4), and at least one edge (231, 232, 241, 242) blades (2, 21, 22) inserted between the two elements that define the outer rim (6) and/or inner rim (4).

2. Wheel according to claim 1, characterized in that the lower edge (241, 242and/or the upper edge (231, 232at least one of the blades (2, 21, 22) is located flush with the outer surface (411, 421, 431, 611, 621, 631) outer rim (6) and/or inner rim (4).

3. Wheel according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the wheel (1) contains at least two elements of the outer rim (61, 62, 63) and two elements of the inner rim (41, 42, 43), each of these elements is assigned a fixed manner between two adjacent blades (21, 22) by welding.

4. Wheel according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the wheel (1) contains at least one first subsystem (11, 12, 13), asked the first part of the outer rim (116, 126, 136) and the first part of the inner rim (114, 124, 134) and these two parts are connected with the first blade (112, 122, 132), and this is the first subsystem is performed by casting, and the second subsystem (11, 12, 13) is the second part of the outer rim (116, 126, 136) and the second part of the inner rim (114, 124, 134), and these two parts are connected with the second blade (112, 122, 132), and the above-mentioned second subsystem is performed by casting and is attached by welding to the first subsystem.

5. Wheel according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one of the blades (21contains two side grooves (25, 26), which are located against each other and placed in close proximity to at least one edge (241)intended for connection by welding to the outer rim (6) and/or with the inner rim (4).

6. Wheel according to claim 5, characterized in that the said side grooves (25, 26) are provided in the blade (21) by means of mechanical processing.

7. Wheel according to claim 5 or 6, characterized in that the said side grooves (26) specify a local narrowing.

8. Hydraulic machine, characterized in that it comprises a wheel (1) according to any of the preceding paragraphs.

9. The way of the wheel Assembly (1) type Francis for a hydraulic machine, comprising the following steps in which: manufacture elements of the outer rim (61, 62, 63) and/or inner rim (41, 42, 43); to connect the elements of the outside of the rim and/or internal of the and with at least one blade (2, 21, 22) by welding and/or by casting with the inserted at least one edge (231, 232, 241, 242) blade between the two elements of the outside of the rim and/or between two elements of the inner rim.



 

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