Method of navigation of agricultural vehicle, and agricultural vehicle

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to agricultural vehicles. The method of navigation of an agricultural vehicle, equipped with a device of creation of three-dimensional images and an image processing device comprises the steps when from the device of creation of images the shots of area surrounding the vehicle at different moments in time are received, providing a chronological sequence of shots. Further, according to the analysis of two different shots the position change of the vehicle is determined. By comparing the position change of the vehicle and the steering angle the drift angle of steer wheels is determined. The agricultural vehicle comprises a device of creation of three-dimensional images, a computer system with an image processing device, a GPS system sensor, an inertial measuring unit, a unit of measuring the angle of steering control, and a detecting device of the rotary speed of the wheels. There is also a computer-readable medium with a set of instructions for implementation of the method of navigation.

EFFECT: improved accuracy of navigation.

16 cl, 5 dwg

 

The technical field

The invention relates to a method of navigating an agricultural vehicle equipped with a device for creating three-dimensional images for the image of the surroundings of a vehicle and device for image processing.

The level of technology

In agriculture there is a need for measuring or adjusting the speed, position, course, and other parameters of the vehicle, to allow navigation of the vehicle and any attached equipment in the agricultural field.

Methods and devices that are currently in use in navigation, agricultural vehicles, contain:

wheel odometry in which encoders are used to measure the number of revolutions made by the wheel. Wheel odometry sensitive to tire pressure and wheel is slipping. It does not reflect the absolute position and gives the accumulation of errors over time. The rotation angles of the wheels are difficult to measure accurately due to the slipping of the driven wheels;

the radar, which can be used to assess the rates and which do not impact the problem of slippage of the wheels. However, it is less accurate due to the physical paths of the measurement signals. Accordingly what about, radar is not particularly suitable for precise positioning;

global navigation and positioning (Global Positioning System, the GPS system), which, depending on the type of sensor used (ranging from cheap systems low precision to high-end systems high precision) can provide a complete assessment of the three-dimensional position. One drawback of GPS is that it requires an unobstructed line of communication with GPS satellites. In a typical case, it may not always be provided, so that the system tends to temporary failures. In the GPS system, there are many sources of error, including multi-channel errors and atmospheric effects. During the agricultural use of typical situations when the GPS is not satisfactory, are the proximity of buildings or trees (e.g., on the edge of the field) and hilly terrain;

inertial navigation system (ins), containing an inertial measurement unit with three accelerometers and three gyroscopes, which measure acceleration and angular velocity in all three spatial axes (six degrees of freedom).

The most accurate system available for commercial use, contain GPS and inertial sensors measuring unit for determining the position. These systems are usually referred to the system of the AMI GPS with support for inertial navigation systems (ins). In this type of system, the problem is that assessing the situation quickly loses credibility when you lose GPS signal. In addition, it has a long settling time of the signal before going to work consistently.

In the patent document US 2004/0221790 A1 describes a method and device for optical odometry, which can be carried out, for example, in the farm machinery such as a tractor, in the shopping cart or in the automotive antilock brake system. The device contains an electronic imager such as a monocular camera, which is directed vertically downwards to create images of the earth under the machine, i.e. it works the same way as an optical computer mouse. It is also proposed combination with a GPS system.

In the patent document US 2007/0288141 A1 describes how visual odometry using cameras in one example implementation. It is expected the implementation of the method requires navigation object, such as a stand-alone (i.e. not controlled by the person) a vehicle or robot. In the text mentioned navigation in difficult or dangerous terrain without having to compromise operators. Thus, the intended scope distant from agriculture. Features providing visual way of odometry Dunn is mi from other sensors, such as sensors, GPS, inertial or mechanical sensors. According to the method of the sequence of frames of images taken and analyzed to establish the position changes and, accordingly, the new position of the camera, providing frames of images. According to the method of characteristic points found in the first frame and then tracked in subsequent frames, for example, during the period while they are in the field of view. On the basis of the sequence of image frames repeatedly set incremental position estimation. When the criterion is reached, multiple operations cease and enter the firewall, so that further triangulation of points in three-dimensional space are not produced and used observations prior to the last network screen. Thus, this method is as if it starts from the network screen, and change the position of the calculated to the new firewall. With this valuable information about the changes in the position immediately before the last firewall is lost for subsequent evaluations. This adversely affects the accuracy of the method and the reliability of its results.

In the patent document WO 2007/031093 A1 describes an agricultural vehicle equipped with a device to generate three-dimensional images, which creates an image of the land around the Tr is Sportage tools in front of him. Device for creating three-dimensional images used to track swath of vegetation on the earth with the purpose of selection felling machine for forming bales.

Disclosure of inventions

The objective of the invention is to provide a method of navigating an agricultural vehicle, providing increased accuracy in navigation.

According to the invention the method comprises the following steps: from a device to generate three-dimensional images get footage depicting at least the area surrounding the vehicle at different points in time during movement of the vehicle, thus providing a chronological sequence of frames, parsed frames, and set the change of position of the vehicle, using the results of the analysis of at least two chronologically different frames. The use of frames (or images, or pictures)that are received from devices generate three-dimensional images, which provides high accuracy and, accordingly, accurate navigation.

Establishing change the position of the vehicle on the basis of frames depicting the surroundings of the vehicle at different points in time, usually referred to as "visual odometry".

In this context, the term "position" means the position and orientation. Thus, the floor is laid on the body is changed by means of a translational movement, and the orientation of the body is changed by turning.

Device for creating three-dimensional images can be one of many known devices, including stereo cameras or devices operating on the principle of time-of-flight, etc. In the case of cameras that has a left lens and right lens, it should be understood that one frame includes a left frame and the right frame, remove, respectively, the left and right lenses.

Preferably the vehicle is equipped with at least one additional navigation sensor, and the signal from this at least one navigation sensor is used when establishing the position changes. The combination of sensors enhances accuracy of the method.

Preferably, this at least one navigation sensor is chosen from the group consisting of: sensor, GPS, inertial measurement unit, the meter steering angle indicating the rotation angle of the steering wheel of an agricultural vehicle, and the indicator of the number of revolutions of the wheels.

Visual odometry this invention provides data on the three-dimensional increment the position and rotation (six degrees of freedom) with high accuracy. In some ways this is similar to the equipment inertial measurement unit. In fact BP is me as an inertial measuring unit measures the acceleration, visual odometry provides a measure of the change in position. Therefore, the inertial measuring unit gives an error with increasing time, while visual odometry provides the result, giving the error with increasing distance. Thus, inertial measurement units better at high speeds, and visual odometry better at low speeds, typical for agriculture. Visual odometry cannot measure gravity, therefore, is not subject to perturbations from it but also cannot use it to specify the direction of "down" (defined by the direction of gravity).

Through the use of visual odometry in combination with ins (inertial navigation system) using GPS, inertial measurement unit and/or odometry wheels can be achieved best positioning. If the GPS system becomes unstable or if the signal is lost for a short or longer periods of time, the navigation system based on inertial measurement unit quickly loses trajectory position of the machines. Detailed the same way it is difficult to rely on odometry wheels to help determine the position, because it is subject to problems of slippage of the wheels (this is especially true for agricultural vehicles). Due on the of visual odometry in such a navigation system for precise positioning can be achieved over longer periods of time. The advantage is that this system has a shorter setup time before work in the stable regime. Modern ins require a certain time to establish a stable regime. The overall accuracy is also improved because the visual odometry may provide a faster update of the situation in comparison with the GPS system. And, finally, at low speeds containing visual odometry navigation system will be more accurate because the navigation system based on GPS and inertial measurement unit tend to work poorly at low speeds.

According to the invention preferably the analysis frame contains the establishment of the distinctive features in the frames, the establishment of three-dimensional information about the distinctive characteristics found in frames, selection in a pair of distinctive features found in one frame, with distinctive features found in the second, an earlier frame, and the establishment of the position changes between one frame and the second frame based on the relative positions selected pair of the distinctive features in two frames. Due to the fact that, since one frame, determine the distinctive features and then see them in an earlier frame (to the extent they are present in the second frame), provided zlecenie from an earlier frame as possible information.

In the case when the device generate three-dimensional images is a stereocamera, the establishment of three-dimensional information includes, for example, the identification and selection in a pair of distinctive features of the left and right frames and performing triangulation for more information about the third dimension. In the case when the device generate three-dimensional images based on the principle of time-of-flight three-dimensional information is available immediately.

Preferably the position change between one frame and the second frame is compared with a predefined change of position, and the first frame reject, if the position change is less than a specified predetermined position changes. Preferably this step exception execute only if the method used for estimating the change in position, provides a relatively high percentage of posted signs in the selected pair of distinctive signs. Thanks to the exception frame, showing only small changes position relative to the previous frame, increases the accuracy of the method.

Preferably, selection in a couple of distinctive features, found in the second frame, with the hallmark found in the specified one shot, which contains establishing the search area in the second frame, within to the Torah assumes the presence of a distinction on the basis of knowledge about the current movement of the vehicle. Due to this minimized the risk of incorrect selection, which increases the reliability of the method.

In that case, when the vehicle equipped with the optional navigation sensors, such as inertial measurement unit, is knowledge about the current movement of the vehicle is preferably set on the basis of information from the at least one additional navigation sensor. Thus, the search area may be set, even if the visual odometry at some point gives a poor estimate of change in position of the vehicle. Thus, for example, inertial measurement unit, possibly in combination with odometry wheels can evaluate the change of position in the interval between the receipt of two frames.

According to a preferred embodiment, information about the distinctive characteristics not rejected in the frame recorded in the memory of the distinctive features found in one frame and matched in pairs with distinctive features in the second frame, trace back in chronological sequence, and position changes between different, especially chronologically adjacent frames, which traced such distinctive signs, take into account to establish the position changes during chronological serial is a major. Tracking was found in one frame of the distinctive features farther back than only in the nearest previous frame, gives more information and increases the reliability of the method.

Preferably the distinctive features found in one frame and matched in pairs with distinctive features in the second frame, trace back as far as possible in chronological sequence. Thus, the method provides maximal information that further enhances its effectiveness.

In one example implementation, the frames in chronological order, in which the distinctive features of the specified one frame is not traced, exclude from chronological order. When the distinctive features found in the current frame, not seen in the older frame, this older frame is no longer needed and therefore is excluded from the sequence for writing to the memory. After this assessment of the current position of the vehicle is preferably set based on the position of the vehicle at the time most of the old frame in chronological order, which traced the hallmarks of a specified one frame, and position changes between the older frame and the specified one frame. So the m way the current position is set on the basis of the maximum possible amount of information, thereby providing the most accurate assessment of the position.

In the exemplary embodiment, when the vehicle includes measuring steering angle, measuring the rotation angle of the steering wheel of an agricultural vehicle, the method further comprises comparing changes in the position of the vehicle and the rotation angle of the steered wheels. This ensures the possibility of determining the angle of slip of the driven wheels.

In the exemplary embodiment, when the vehicle includes a sensor global directions for determining the global motion direction of the vehicle, the method further comprises comparing changes in the position of the vehicle with the global direction of motion of the vehicle. Due to this it is possible to determine the actual orientation of the vehicle in earth coordinates.

In the exemplary embodiment, when the vehicle has an indicator of the number of turns connected to the driving wheels of the vehicle, the method further comprises comparing the vehicle speed indicated by the indicator of the speed with changes in the position of the vehicle. Uh what about the gives the possibility to determine the slip of driving wheels of the vehicle.

Preferably continuously set the change of position of the specific area on the vehicle. Due to this, it is possible to continuously determine, for example, the position of the attachment point between the tractor and attached equipment for more precise control of this equipment.

This invention relates to an agricultural vehicle, in particular a tractor or self-propelled agricultural implement, such as a processor or machine for forming bales containing the device generate three-dimensional images, the computer system containing the imaging device, at least one navigation sensor, preferably selected from the group consisting of: sensor, GPS, inertial measurement unit, the meter steering angle for measuring the rotation angle of the steered wheels of agricultural vehicles and light-speed of the wheels, and computer readable medium in which a recorded set of instructions providing, when run by a computer system perform this computer a system method in accordance with the invention.

A short list of drawings

Next, with reference to the accompanying drawings will be described in detail embodiments of the invention. In the drawings:

figure 1 depicts the Navi is the situation of a tractor in accordance with the invention, figure 2 depicts a block diagram illustrating the method according to the invention, figure 3 depicts the tractor, following along a curved section of track, figure 4 depicts the tractor, the next slope, figure 5 illustrates the evaluation of the actual orientation of the vehicle.

The implementation of the invention

Figure 1 shows a tractor 1 with the driving wheels 3 and driven wheels 5. The front of the tractor 1 is equipped with stereo cameras 7 with two lenses 9a and 9b. The tractor also has a point 11 hitch for attaching equipment. Following in the forward direction, the stereocamera 7 removes image areas 131, 132,...13nthe land around the tractor 1 in front of him. For illustrative purposes shows a limited number of removable sections. The tractor is also equipped with a computer 15 for image processing provided by the stereo cameras 7. The computer includes a storage device.

Next, the tractor 1 is equipped with navigation sensors, namely: GPS antenna, a GPS sensor 17, the sensor 19 of the inertial measuring unit and the sensor odometry wheels containing the encoder 21 of the drive wheel, and the meter 23 of the steering angle. The computer 15 forming apparatus providing the navigation system 25 of the prior art (figure 2), receiving the input signals from these navigation sensors, as shown in figures 1 and 2. The navigation system contains Phil is Tr Kalman.

Stereo cameras 7 outputs image areas 131, 132,...13nor fields of view in machine-readable form, which in General are called frames & Frame cameras 7 includes a left frame and right frame provided respectively by the left lens 9a and the right lens 9b.

On the basis of frames in accordance with the invention perform a visual odometry as follows:

Initial step:

Receive a first frame containing the left and right frames from the cameras 7.

Identify and select a pair of distinctive signs in the first left and right frame.

Project selected in a pair of distinctive features in the three-dimensional coordinate system, using the information obtained from the left and right frame.

Record the frame and the received information as a "key frame". In accordance with figure 2, after this method executes as follows:

Step 31: Receive from cameras new frame containing the left and right frames.

Step 33: Identify distinctive features in the left and right frame.

Step 35: Select the pair found distinctive features in the left and right frame.

Step 37: the Project selected in a pair of distinctive features in three-dimensional space.

Step 39: Select a pair of distinctive features of the new frame to the distinctive features after which it stored key frame.

Step 41: Assess the movement, that is, the change of position of the tractor 1 (i.e. cameras 7) between the new frame and the last key frame.

Step 43: If the position change is small: export as evidence of visual odometry estimated change in position or estimated current position in the navigation system 25, reject new frame, and returns to step 31.

If no: record a new frame in the memory as a new keyframe for the formation of a chronological sequence of key frames.

Step 45: Build the hallmarks of the new keyframe selected in pairs to the distinctive features of the last stored key frame in each of the previous keyframe in chronological sequence.

Step 47: Cast from chronological sequence of key frames any previous key frame, which is not found distinctive characteristics that match with the distinctive features of the new keyframe.

Step 49: Assess the movement, that is, the change of position of the tractor 1 (i.e. cameras 7) between the new frame and most of the old keyframe in the chronological sequence of key frames.

The current position can be set from the position in the most old keyframe in chronological consistent is Telenesti keyframes and set the conversion.

Export as evidence of visual odometry estimated change in position or estimated current position in the navigation system 25.

Return to step 31.

In the navigation system, the sensors 17, 19, 21, 23 and indications of visual odometry from step 43 or step 49 is processed to assess the situation.

If instead of cameras used the device for creating three-dimensional images, working on the principle of time-of-flight, alternative initial step performed in the following way:

Receive a first frame from the sensor of the three-dimensional image. Identify distinctive features in the first frame. Record the frame and the received information as a key frame. Accordingly, in steps 31-37 alternative way to perform: Step 31: Get a new frame from the sensor of the three-dimensional image. Step 33: Identify distinctive features in the new frame (continue to step 39).

Identify the distinguishing characteristics at step 33 and at the initial step may be carried out by any known method, such as by any known method, the so-called "detection spots" or by any known method, the so-called "detect edges". These methods provide a response to the pixel or small group of pixels centered around the pixel. The pixel, which has a reaction, but for which in the local vicinity n is iden another pixel with a more pronounced reaction, rejected, because the weak reactions can create noise.

Selection in a pair of distinctive features in step 35, the step 39 and the initial step performed on the basis of structural analysis of the proximity of the relevant characteristics. This analysis is performed using the so-called "descriptor attributes", with several of these descriptors is known in this field, such as the handle system is a Zero-mean Normal Cross Correlation (normal cross-correlation zero-mean value"), the descriptor system SURF (Speeded-Up Robust Features - accelerated robust signs) and the descriptor SIFT (Scale-Invariant feature transform - scale-invariant transformation of the feature).

When selecting a pair found in the new frame the distinguishing characteristic hallmark in recent memory keyframe search of possible pairs is limited to the region last recorded in the memory of the key frame, where the expected finding an appropriate pair. This waiting area is defined on the basis of knowledge about the movement of the vehicle during the time between the new frame and the last stored key frame. This information is received from the navigation system, based on input signals from other navigation sensors, as this shows the position 51 in figure 2.

Projecting a three-dimensional coordinate system is chosen in a couple otlicials the x signs left and right frames at step 37 and the initial step is preferably performed by a triangulation method.

Determination of position changes:

Change the position of the cameras 7, and hence the tractor 1 in the time interval from one key frame to another (key) frame is described by the matrix M conversion:

M=(RT0001)

where R is a 33 matrix (3 rows and 3 columns)describing the rotation around the three spatial axes, and

T - matrix of 31, which determines the translational motion in three spatial directions.

Thus, the matrix M is a matrix of 44.

If Raindicates a keyframe time and Rbindicates a keyframe later point in time b, then there is a<b, then

Pb=Mab*Pawhere Mabmatrix representing the transformation from a to b.

In this example embodiment of the invention at the respective above-mentioned step 41, the matrix M is determined using RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus - method analysis of a random sample):

If fasis the hallmark of # s in Pathat was picked up in a couple with fbs, which is the hallmark of # s in Pband, respectively, fatis the hallmark of the t in P athat was picked up in a couple with fbt, which is the hallmark # t in Pb, a fauis the hallmark of a no u Rathat was picked up in a couple with fbudistinguishes No. u in Pband if fsftand funot collinear, then

fbs=Mab*fasfbt=Mab*fat,f=(xyz)fbu=Mab*fau,gdex,y,z-ppaboutwith atpandnwith atinennseKaboutaboutpdandnandtsf

Brazul system of equations, of which can be calculated Mab.

According to the method RANSAC Mabis calculated as a multiple evaluation of randomly selected three selected pairs of distinctive features of the faand fb. After this calculation Mabit is checked in relation to other selected characteristic pairs in Paand Rb. This results in a best estimate Mab. Picked up a pair of distinctive signs that appear inappropriate in light of the best estimate of Mabdropped as sharply distinct values or explicit emissions.

The above-mentioned step 43, if so established Mabindicates that the corresponding movement of the camera/vehicle is small, and the percentage of reported symptoms (i.e. selected pairs of distinctive features, not discarded as outliers) is high enough, the frame Rbrejected because small displacements between frames would cause the increase of errors in subsequent calculations.

The above-mentioned step 49 to reduce errors to a minimum M is determined continuously for a longer period of time. At the moment n time for which the frame Rnnot rejected, the hallmarks of fnthat are selected in pairs with distinctive recognized the AMI f n-1that can be traced back as far as possible to match pairs with the corresponding features fn-2fn-3, ...fn-min earlier frames. Determined by the evaluation of Mn-1n, Mn-2n, Mn-mn. In this regard, if a<b<C, MAC=MabMbc.

Evaluation of Mn-1n, Mn-2n, Mn-mnspecified by the adjustment method of stratification, for example, using the algorithm of Levenberg-Marquardt to obtain the best estimate of Mn-mn.

Thus, M is continuously updated using the maximum possible amount of information from the past and the current position of the camera/vehicle at the time n time is determined or estimated from the position in the most old time n-m time information which is included in the definition of the current M (i.e. Mn-mn).

Examples of use

According to figure 1, the tractor should be along the row of plants 27. Not shown equipment can be hooked up to the point 11 of the hitch to handle a variety of plants 27. Thanks to visual odometry, which with high precision gives the position and orientation of the cameras 7, in accordance with the invention, to calculate the corresponding high accuracy the position of the point 11 of the coupling, so that it is possible with high accuracy to install equipment in relation to a number of plants 27. Visual odometry about what specic best accuracy, than inertial odometry using inertial measurement unit, as visual odometry generally works better at a relatively low speed, which in agriculture are field work, and visual odometry not subject to girepository as inertial measurement unit.

When pulling, for example, tillage equipment, such as a cultivator, plow or harrow, slippage of drive wheels may indicate that the equipment is too buried in the soil. Due to the fact that visual odometry provides quick update, early warning of such slippage of the wheels may be provided if the encoder 21 wheels shows a higher velocity than visual odometry.

Regarding 3 and 4, visual odometry can be used to solve problems slipping driven wheel 5 or tires. Figure 3 and 4 shows the tractor, respectively, 1A and 1b, the exposed lateral forces respectively 55A and 55b, which causes the slide. Figure 3 lateral force 55A is the centrifugal force due to the movement of the tractor along the curved section 53, and figure 4 lateral force 55b is created by gravity, because the tractor 1b moves along the slope 54.

Slippage of the tires is a common problem on the I automatic steering systems. It depends on many factors, and the underlying forces cannot be measured directly. Research (prior art) showed that the appropriate solution is to define the slippage of the tire on the basis of the actual speed of movement (with the possible noise interference). In modern solutions attempts to do this by using sensors, GPS and/or ins. If the slip angles can be defined, they can be provided with compensation in the control device (this gives higher accuracy). Assessment of changes in position, provide visual odometry reflects the actual rate of 57 on earth in relation to the vehicle (tractor 1). In this case, the angle 59 slippage is the difference between the actual rate of 57 and the current angle 61 of the steering, which is measured using a meter 23 angle of steering control.

In relation to figure 5 visual odometry is used together with the GPS system to determine the actual global orientation or course of the vehicle (tractor) or a valid global orientation of the vehicle in earth coordinates, i.e. the actual angle 65 between the direction 67, in which the vehicle is moving, and the direction 69 North. As mentioned enter the, visual odometry provides an indication of the actual rate on earth (or direction) relative to the tractor. In other words, visual odometry provides an indication of the angle 71 between the direction 73 course on earth and the direction 67, which is oriented vehicle. In the slippage of the tire, for example, when driving the tractor on a slope, as shown in figure 4, the direction 73 course on earth can deviate from the direction in which focuses on the tractor, even if the tractor is moving in a straight line. The global rate, i.e. the angle 75 between the direction 73 course on earth and the direction 69 North, is determined by the GPS system.

Now a true global rate or the actual angle 65 relative to the global North, as shown in figure 5, can be calculated as the difference angle 75 and angle 71.

It should be understood that although the invention described in the embodiments, these examples are not restrictive of the scope of protection defined by the claims.

1. Navigation of an agricultural vehicle (1)equipped with a device (7) generate three-dimensional images for image environment (13) of the vehicle and a device (15) image processing, containing the following steps:
device (7) with the Denmark-dimensional images receive frames representing at least a section (131, 132,...13n) environment of the vehicle at different points in time during movement of the vehicle, thus providing a chronological sequence of frames,
analyze frames and
set the change of position of the vehicle, using the results of the analysis of at least two chronologically different frames
moreover, the vehicle includes measuring steering angle, measuring the rotation angle of the steered wheels of agricultural vehicles, thus by comparing changes in the position of the vehicle and the rotation angle of the steered wheels determine the angle of slip of the driven wheels.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the vehicle (1) equipped with at least one additional navigation sensor(17, 19, 21, 23), the signal from this at least one navigation sensor is used when establishing the position changes.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that at least one navigation sensor (17, 19, 21, 23) is selected from the group consisting of: a sensor (17) GPS, inertial measurement unit (19), the meter (23) of the steering angle indicating the rotation angle of the steered wheels of agricultural tra the transport means (1), and the indicator (21) the number of revolutions of the wheels.

4. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the analysis frame contains the establishment of the distinctive features in the frames, the establishment of three-dimensional information about the distinctive characteristics found in frames, selection in a pair of distinctive features found in one frame, with distinctive features found in the second, an earlier frame, and the establishment of the position changes between one frame and the second frame based on the relative positions selected pair of the distinctive features in two frames.

5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the change of position is compared with a predefined change of position, and the first frame reject, if the position change is less than a specified predetermined position changes.

6. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the selection in a couple of distinctive features, found in the second frame, with the hallmark found in the specified one shot, which contains establishing the search area in the second frame within which assumes the presence of a distinction on the basis of knowledge about the current movement of the vehicle, preferably this knowledge about the current movement of the vehicle set on the basis of information from the at least one additional Navi is sure sensor.

7. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that information about the distinctive characteristics in neotrigonia frame is written in the memory distinctive characteristics found in one frame and matched in pairs with distinctive features in the second frame, trace back in chronological sequence, and position changes between different, especially chronologically adjacent frames, which traced such distinctive signs, take into account to establish the position changes during chronological sequence.

8. The method according to claim 5 or 6, characterized in that information about the distinctive characteristics in neotrigonia frame is written in the memory distinctive characteristics found in one frame and matched in pairs with distinctive features in the second frame, trace back in chronological sequence, and position changes between different, especially chronologically adjacent frames, which traced such distinctive signs, take into account to establish the position changes during chronological sequence.

9. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that the distinctive features found in one frame and matched in pairs with distinctive features in the second frame, trace back as far as possible in chronological posledovatel the particular frames.

10. The method according to claim 7 or 9, characterized in that the frames in chronological order, in which the distinctive features of the specified one frame is not traced, exclude from chronological sequence.

11. The method according to claim 7 or 9, characterized in that the evaluation of the current position of the vehicle set based on the position of the vehicle at the time most of the old frame in chronological order, which traced the hallmarks of a specified one frame, and position changes between the older frame and the specified one frame.

12. The method according to claim 8, characterized in that the evaluation of the current position of the vehicle set based on the position of the vehicle at the time most of the old frame in chronological order, which traced the hallmarks of a specified one frame, and position changes between the older frame and the specified one frame.

13. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, 5-7, 9, 12, characterized in that the vehicle includes a sensor global directions for determining the global motion direction of the vehicle, the method further comprises comparing changes in the position of the vehicle with the global direction of motion of the vehicle.

14 the Method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, 5-7, 9, 12, characterized in that the vehicle contains the indicator of the number of turns connected to the driving wheels of the vehicle, the method further comprises comparing the vehicle speed indicated by the indicator of the speed with changes in the position of the vehicle.

15. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, 5-7, 9, 12, characterized in that the continuously set the change of position of the specific area on the vehicle.

16. Agricultural vehicle (1), in particular a tractor or self-propelled agricultural tool, such as a processor or machine for forming bales containing device (7) generate three-dimensional images, the computer system (15), containing the imaging device, at least one navigation sensor, preferably selected from the group consisting of: a sensor (17) GPS, inertial measurement unit (19), the meter (23) angle steering for measuring the rotation angle of the steering wheel of an agricultural vehicle (1) and the indicator (21) the number of revolutions of the wheels and a computer-readable medium in which a recorded set of instructions providing, when run by a computer system perform this computer system method according to any one of claims 1 to 15.



 

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54 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: destinations of a trip are based on at least one of a prior and a likelihood based at least in part on the received input data. The destination estimator component can use one or more of a personal destinations prior, time of day and day of week, a ground cover prior, driving efficiency associated with possible locations, and a trip time likelihood to probabilistically predict the destination. In addition, data gathered from a population about the likelihood of visiting previously unvisited locations and the spatial configuration of such locations may be used to enhance the predictions of destinations and routes. The group of inventions make easier probabilistic prediction of destinations.

EFFECT: output of distributions of probabilities on destinations and routes of a user from observations on content and partial trajectories.

FIELD: physics, measurement.

SUBSTANCE: device of information provision enables relevant confirmation of information content which facilitates movement of moving object and is represented by image display unit, even in conditions of vibration affecting image display unit at a level not lower than given value. Equipment includes image display unit mounted in vehicle and allowing display of information facilitating movement of vehicle, vibration sensor detecting vibration equal or exceeding specified level applied to image display unit, and transmitting detection output signal, and operation control unit modifying display mode for information presenting image display by image display unit into information including data content which can be recognised if detection output signal of vibration sensor indicates than image display unit is affected by vibration equal or exceeding specified level for time period longer or equal to specified period.

EFFECT: device of information provision enabling relevant confirmation of information content, facilitating movement of moving object.

8 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: procedure of traffic control of vehicles.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in forming of the sequence of the junction and chord of the terminal on the basis of data of the route search, selection of the terminal junction and chord separation by comparison of the sequence of the junction and chord with the terminal map, reproduction of the data on route control on a complicated roads crossing with the use of the selected terminal junction and chord separation, coordination with the map and tracing of the route at driving on the basis of the reproduced data and submitting of the information on control of the traced route to the user. The vehicle navigation instrument for route control on a complicated roads crossing includes a means for forming of the sequence of the junction and chord of the terminal by comparison of the sequence and of the junction and chord with the terminal map, the means for reproduction of the data on route control on a complicated roads crossing with the use of the selected junction and chord, the means for coordination with the map and tracing of the route at driving on the basis of the reproduced data and submitting of the information on control of the traced route to the user. The vehicle navigation system includes a server for transmission of the required route data from the remote source of geographic information and information on road traffic, the means for obtaining of the required route data from the server, the means for obtaining of information on the present location of the vehicle from the GPS satellite, means for selection of information on vehicle driving with the use of the obtained information on location of the vehicle, means for memorizing and storage of the geographic information, means of route search for search of the geographic information stored in the memorizing means, and the control means for reproduction of the data on route control on a complicated roads crossing with the use of the route data obtained from the server and means of the route search, for realization and means of the route search, for realization of route control and submitting of information on route.

EFFECT: enhanced precision in route control by reconfiguration of the presentation of the complicated roads crossing that cannot be represented by one junction on a digital navigation map.

18 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agricultural machinery industry, namely, to piston presses. The piston presses comprises a compression chamber, a baling piston and a feeding channel. In the feeding channel a packer is mounted. In the drive transmission of the packer a safety clutch is provided. The drive transmission of the packer comprises an additional locking device.

EFFECT: invention enables to reduce the risk of damage to the packer or other components of the press.

2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural machinery industry and can be used for granulation and briquetting the forage. Press for shredded forage comprises two gear wheels with radial holes in the cavities and flanges on the sides of the gear wheels with a height equal to half the height of the tooth. The gear wheels are arranged horizontally. In the area of feeding the material the receiving chamber is located, formed by a base, rear and two side walls. The base is adjacent to the surface generators of the lower flanges. The upper bound of the base is in the same horizontal plane as the upper surfaces of the lower flanges. The rear wall is mounted so that the angle between it and the base from the side of the receiving chamber is blunt and does not exceed 135. The lower part of the rear wall is tangent to the outer diameters of both pressing gears. The side walls of the pressing chamber converge at the point of contact of the pitch circles of pressing gears and are adjacent to the surface generators of the upper flanges on sectors with central angles of 90. The lower end faces of the side walls of the pressing chamber are in the same horizontal plane as the lower surfaces of the upper flanges.

EFFECT: proposed press of shredded forage provides reduction of power consumption of the pressing process.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to system of bale stacking by agricultural bale press machine and can be used for compact bale stacking. System for bale stacking includes stacking of at least one bale in immediate vicinity of the bale already staked on the field. System is made with possibility of dynamic adaptation of bale stacking interval in the field.

EFFECT: due to compact stacking of bales optimised picking of bales and their transportation with low time expenditure are ensured.

16 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: pick up baler includes picking up device for collecting row of the mowed agricultural crop, compactor for formation of wads, device for formation of three-dimensional image of the field and of the row and a control device. Compactor contains a device measuring level of fullness of the compacting chamber. Device creating a three-dimensional image registers three-dimensional image of the field and of the row of the mowed agricultural crop in front of the pick up baler. Controlling device contains data processor for pick up baler control depending on the data from the three-dimensional image and level of fullness.

EFFECT: even filling rate of the compacting chamber and automatic control of compacting without involvement of a mechanic.

8 cl, 8 dwg

Gear-type press // 2264076

FIELD: agricultural engineering; presses used for granulation and briquetting of fodder and other materials.

SUBSTANCE: proposed press has two similar gear wheels with pressing passages in tooth spaces. Teeth of pressing wheels are made at full tooth addendum, thus increasing the amount of single batch pressed into passage.

EFFECT: increased productivity.

1 dwg

Gear-type press // 2261586

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, feed pelletizing and briquetting equipment.

SUBSTANCE: gear-type press has two toothed gears with pressing channels in slots. Inserts placed in pressing channels have inner curved surface with reducing perimeter of variable section, square section being smoothly continued with round section.

EFFECT: intensified stress relaxing process due to usage of inserts of such construction and increased efficiency of gear-type press.

2 dwg

Gear-type press // 2261585

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, feed pelletizing and briquetting equipment.

SUBSTANCE: gear-type press has two similar toothed gears with pressing channels in slots. Pressing channels are arranged between teeth at an angle to radial direction of axis of symmetry of slot. Said angle is selected so as to ensure coincidence of compression force and displacement of material in pressing channel.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of power for feed pelletizing process.

1 dwg

The invention relates to agricultural machinery, in particular to machines for cleaning senuality and bast crops

Gear-type press // 2261585

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, feed pelletizing and briquetting equipment.

SUBSTANCE: gear-type press has two similar toothed gears with pressing channels in slots. Pressing channels are arranged between teeth at an angle to radial direction of axis of symmetry of slot. Said angle is selected so as to ensure coincidence of compression force and displacement of material in pressing channel.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of power for feed pelletizing process.

1 dwg

Gear-type press // 2261586

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, feed pelletizing and briquetting equipment.

SUBSTANCE: gear-type press has two toothed gears with pressing channels in slots. Inserts placed in pressing channels have inner curved surface with reducing perimeter of variable section, square section being smoothly continued with round section.

EFFECT: intensified stress relaxing process due to usage of inserts of such construction and increased efficiency of gear-type press.

2 dwg

Gear-type press // 2264076

FIELD: agricultural engineering; presses used for granulation and briquetting of fodder and other materials.

SUBSTANCE: proposed press has two similar gear wheels with pressing passages in tooth spaces. Teeth of pressing wheels are made at full tooth addendum, thus increasing the amount of single batch pressed into passage.

EFFECT: increased productivity.

1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: pick up baler includes picking up device for collecting row of the mowed agricultural crop, compactor for formation of wads, device for formation of three-dimensional image of the field and of the row and a control device. Compactor contains a device measuring level of fullness of the compacting chamber. Device creating a three-dimensional image registers three-dimensional image of the field and of the row of the mowed agricultural crop in front of the pick up baler. Controlling device contains data processor for pick up baler control depending on the data from the three-dimensional image and level of fullness.

EFFECT: even filling rate of the compacting chamber and automatic control of compacting without involvement of a mechanic.

8 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to system of bale stacking by agricultural bale press machine and can be used for compact bale stacking. System for bale stacking includes stacking of at least one bale in immediate vicinity of the bale already staked on the field. System is made with possibility of dynamic adaptation of bale stacking interval in the field.

EFFECT: due to compact stacking of bales optimised picking of bales and their transportation with low time expenditure are ensured.

16 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural machinery industry and can be used for granulation and briquetting the forage. Press for shredded forage comprises two gear wheels with radial holes in the cavities and flanges on the sides of the gear wheels with a height equal to half the height of the tooth. The gear wheels are arranged horizontally. In the area of feeding the material the receiving chamber is located, formed by a base, rear and two side walls. The base is adjacent to the surface generators of the lower flanges. The upper bound of the base is in the same horizontal plane as the upper surfaces of the lower flanges. The rear wall is mounted so that the angle between it and the base from the side of the receiving chamber is blunt and does not exceed 135. The lower part of the rear wall is tangent to the outer diameters of both pressing gears. The side walls of the pressing chamber converge at the point of contact of the pitch circles of pressing gears and are adjacent to the surface generators of the upper flanges on sectors with central angles of 90. The lower end faces of the side walls of the pressing chamber are in the same horizontal plane as the lower surfaces of the upper flanges.

EFFECT: proposed press of shredded forage provides reduction of power consumption of the pressing process.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agricultural machinery industry, namely, to piston presses. The piston presses comprises a compression chamber, a baling piston and a feeding channel. In the feeding channel a packer is mounted. In the drive transmission of the packer a safety clutch is provided. The drive transmission of the packer comprises an additional locking device.

EFFECT: invention enables to reduce the risk of damage to the packer or other components of the press.

2 dwg

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