Device to measure and correct deviation from parallelism into rods for nuclear fuel
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device arranged on a stand (4), comprises a place (31) with a horizontal axis (X) for placement of the above fuel rod; a facility (20) for measurement of deviation from parallelism and a facility (22) for correction of the above deviation. The device comprises a facility (14) of device positioning relative to the fuel rod comprising two parallel supports arranged at the distance from each other, at the same time each of them supports the end of the above fuel rod. The supports are made in the form of two horseshoe-shaped parts (16.1. 16.2), the inner ends of which are designed for resting against the fuel rod, and are distanced from each other at the specified distance to ensure the coverage of the stand support, at which the end rests with the upper plug of the fuel rod, and which has thickness that is substantially equal to the distance between two horseshoe-shaped parts (16.1, 16.2). Also the device comprises a facility (32) to retain a fuel rod made as capable of providing for rotation of the fuel rod around its longitudinal axis, which is arranged between the facility (14) of positioning and facilities of measurement and correction. The facility (32) comprises a lower grip (34) and an upper grip (36), to hold the fuel rod, at the same time the lower grip (34) forms a base for measurement of deviation from parallelism.
EFFECT: provision of measurement of deviation from parallelism during correction of the above deviation.
12 cl, 15 dwg
The technical field to which the invention relates, the level of equipment
The present invention relates to a device for measuring and correcting deviations from parallelism in the rod for nuclear fuel, in particular, deviations from parallelism in the end, provided with a top cover.
The fuel Assembly of a nuclear fuel gathered from a variety of rods, arranged parallel to each other, so that it has an essentially square cross-section.
Each fuel rod contains fuel shell, which is a long tube of small diameter, which is closed at its lower end and in which the stacks are cylindrical tablets of circular cross section. After placing in the fuel sheath required number of tablets its open end is closed by a cap bearing the name of the top cap. This element is formed of the fuel cladding, the lower and upper plugs and tablets is the fuel rod.
The Assembly has a lower end in which is placed the end of each fuel rod, provided with a lower cover and an upper end, in which is placed the end of each fuel rod, provided with a top cover. The lower end and the upper end provided with casings which are separately placed the end of each rod. Topand bottom ends are connected by rigid rods for the formation of a rigid frame.
To ensure proper connection between the fuel rod, in particular, its end, provided with a top cover and the top cover should be provided with sufficient parallelism with the upper end of the stub.
The deviation from parallelism may occur at the end of the top cover during welding the top caps to the tube with welded bottom bracket, which corresponds to fuel the shell, provided with a bottom cover. This deviation may also occur due to accidental deformation of the end with the upper cover during handling of the fuel rods. The deviation from parallelism can be caused by other reasons.
The document JP 10123283 describes a device for measuring the deviation from parallelism of the end of the fuel rod containing the probe, in this case the rod makes rotation.
This document also describes a device for measuring deviations from parallelism, containing at least two linear probe perpendicular to the axis of the fuel rod, designed to measure the axis of the upper stub; using at least two probes prevents the necessity of rotation of the probe. This measurement allows you to measure the gap between the axis of the upper end and the axis of the fuel rod.
These measuring devices are not to pozvoljaetrealizovat deviation from parallelism.
In addition, the correction of the deviation must be carefully monitored to avoid another deviation from parallelism due to excessive correction of the first deviation.
Thus, the present invention is to propose a reliable device that allows you to measure the deviation from parallelism and correct it
Brief description of the invention
The above problem can be solved by using a device for measuring deviations from parallelism and correction of this deviation, containing means for measuring deviations and means for correcting deviations; means for measuring and adjusting are located so that they provide a measurement of the deviation in real time, in particular, its change during the adjustment. The device also provides a means of positioning the above-mentioned device on the fuel rod and interaction with the stand, which holds the fuel rod.
Thus, this device prevents excessive correction of the deviation and the rise of another rejection. The device can be easily transported and moved.
In addition, it is possible to perform the measurement and correction using a single device that p is eduversum manipulation of the fuel rod, thus, reducing the risk of deformation. In addition, significantly reducing the time required to perform these two steps. This reduces the time of manufacture of the fuel rod.
Mostly it is envisaged that this device was portable, eliminating the need to move the fuel rods, since moving device for measuring and adjusting.
The present invention primarily relates to a device for measuring and correcting deviations from parallelism of the end with the upper stopper rod for nuclear fuel containing means of measuring deviations from parallelism and means for adjusting the above-mentioned deviations, while the above-mentioned adjustment means are located opposite the measuring means relative to the location of the fuel rod to provide a measurement of the deviation from parallelism during adjustment of the above deviations.
Measurement tools include, for example, a probe designed to come in contact with the periphery of the end with the upper plug of the fuel rod; the above probe can be moved along an axis located in a transverse direction relative to the axis of the location of the fuel rod.
The means of adjustment may contain the substance of the pressure element, designed to come in contact with the periphery of the end with the upper plug of the fuel rod; above the pressure element can be moved along an axis located in a transverse direction relative to the axis of the location of the fuel rod and the axis of movement of the pressure element and the axis of movement of the probe are in a plane containing the axis of movement of the fuel rod.
The device according to the invention may also include means for holding the fuel rod while rotating above the fuel rod around its longitudinal axis, with the above-mentioned retaining means contain the lower grip and the upper grip, designed for gripping the fuel rod, and the lower grip provides the basis for measuring deviations from parallelism.
Mainly grips are made from a material that reduces friction, for example, from a material Ertalyte®that allows you to hold the fuel rod without interfering with the rotation of the fuel rod.
The upper grip is mainly mounted pivotally around an axis parallel to the axis location of the fuel rod; provides means for locking the upper and lower grippers in a holding position, which facilitates the placement of the fuel rod.
The pressure element, for example, installed on the s end of the threaded rod, located in a threaded hole made at the end of the arm, and the above post contains the handle on the end opposite the end on which is mounted a pressure element that allows you to move the pressure element manually.
The emphasis is mainly mounted on the rod, to which is attached a pressure element so as to limit the movement of the pressure element in the direction of the probe, which prevents excessive deformation of the end top flap.
The device according to the invention can also contain a ring between the retaining means and adjustment means with the axis parallel to the axis location of the fuel rod; the above ring is designed for the passage through it of the fuel rod and counter deforming the effort applied to the fuel rod.
The device according to the invention may also contain an axial stop for fuel rod; this stop is in the transverse direction relative to the axis location of the fuel rod after measuring in the direction of insertion of the fuel rod in the device. Thus, facilitates the positioning of the fuel rod.
The device may also include means for positioning the above-mentioned device relative to the fuel rod; the above tool posizionare the project is intended to interact with the fuel rod and the rack where is the fuel rod, while the above tool positioning contains two u-shaped parts, in which the inner bottom side are intended for bearing on the upper zone of the periphery of the fuel rod; these two parts are located at a given distance from each other so as to overlap the stand on which rests the end of the upper plug of the fuel rod, while the support has a thickness essentially equal to the distance separating the two u-shaped parts. These tools prevent the need to use external support through the use of racks and the fuel rod as a support.
For example, measurement tools and means of adjustment are located on the platform connected with means of positioning two parallel beams intended for adjunction to the fuel rod.
Means to lock the upper and lower grippers, for example, collected from the threaded rod, the hinge is installed around an axis parallel to the axis location of the fuel rod on the side opposite the side on which the hinge is installed, the upper grip, and a nut screw threaded on the rod; grip contains a recess for accommodating the threaded rod and the nut is against the bottom of the grip relative to the upper grip when it is titsa in the notch to lock the upper and lower grips. These simple to manufacture devices lock ensures quick and efficient lock.
The present invention also relates to a method for measuring and correcting deviations from parallelism with the device for measuring and adjusting according to the invention, the method includes the following steps:
a) placing the device on the fuel rod at the end with the upper cover;
b) moving the fuel rod along its axis in position between the measuring tool and means of adjustment;
c) locking the retaining means of the fuel rod;
d) rotating the fuel rod and the detection of deviations from parallelism;
e) determining the necessary adjustment;
f) the orientation of this deviation in the direction of means of correction;
g) correcting this deviation through the application of deforming force applied by the means of correction, and the simultaneous validation using information provided by the measurement tool;
h) confirmation of the deviation of parallelism due to verify that this deviation is below a predetermined threshold value;
i) repeating steps d)-h)if the value of deviation from parallelism exceeds the threshold value.
Mainly provides for the rotation of the fuel rod lying to the ing, what makes this method simple, and the device is less bulky and more reliable.
Brief description of drawings
The present invention will become more clear after studying the following description with reference to the drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a perspective view of a variant of execution of the device for measuring and adjusting of the present invention;
Figa-2I' - views of the device of Figure 1 during various stages of the measurement and correction of deviations from parallelism of the rod for nuclear fuel;
Figa and 3B is a schematic image of the indicator of the measuring device when measuring the deviation from parallelism.
Detailed description of the invention
Figure 1 and Figa-2I' shows an embodiment of a device 2 for measuring and adjusting.
The device 2 is designed to accommodate shown in Figa rack 4, which contains the fuel rods 6.
Hour 4 contains two parallel supports, located at some distance from each other, each bearing supports longitudinal end of the fuel rod. Each bearing contains recesses 10, forming a space for the longitudinal end of the fuel rod. Figure 2 shows a support 8.1 6.1 all with top plugs of the fuel rods 6.
The fuel rods 6 are located in the grooves 10 at a sufficient distance is from the top of the stub 12, so that the cap 12 and part of the fuel cladding was performed on the support console.
The device 2 includes a means 14 for mounting the device in a specified position on the rack 4, in particular on the support 8.1.
In the example shown, the tool 14 positioning contains two u-shaped part 16.1, 16.2, rigidly held in parallel position by the rods 18.
The width of the gap in the parts 16.1, 16.2, essentially equal to the diameter of the fuel cladding of the fuel rod, so that part 16.1, 16.2 can block the fuel rod.
Mostly the bottom part of the gaps have a radius of curvature essentially equal to the radius of the fuel cladding of the fuel rod. Thus, the contact surface between the parts 16.1 and 16.2 and fuel rod is optimized, which reduces the risk of deformation of the fuel rod.
In addition, the distance separating two sections 16.1, 16.2, essentially equal to the thickness of the support 8.1, which allows you to place parts on each side of a support, and the device is stationary relative to the fuel rod due to the small gap between the bearing surfaces and surfaces of parts.
The device comprises a means 20 for measuring deviations from parallelism and means 22 for correcting this deviation from parallelism. These tools 20, 22 are located at the first longitudinal end of 24.1 R who we which is attached to the second longitudinal end of 24.2 means 14 positioning.
In the example shown, the frame consists of two parallel beams 26 that are connected to each other at the second longitudinal ends of the side means 14 positioning using u-shaped part 28.
The distance between the two beams 26 is identical to the gap in the parts 16.1, 16.2. If the device is installed in place, the beams 26 are continued on each side of the fuel rod.
The tool 20 measurements and the tool 22 adjustment are located on the platform 30, which is also provided with means 32 for holding the fuel rod. Means 32 are located between the holding means 14 positioning and measuring means and adjustment.
Longitudinal seat 31 with the axis X of the fuel rod (see Figa) is located between the beams and the platform 30 between the retaining means 32 and the lower part 33 forming a stop; means of 20 measurements and the tool 22 border adjustment with seat 31.
Below is a detailed description of the holding means 32.
The retaining means 32 is designed to capture the fuel rod, which serves as a base of measurement, thus allowing the fuel rod to rotate about its axis.
The retaining means include a V-shaped bottom grip 34, which is designed to support Topley the aqueous core, and V-shaped upper grip 36, intended to hold the fuel rod from the top to prevent it from moving in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the fuel rod.
The lower gripper 34 forms a base for the dimension.
Mainly grips 34, 36 are made from materials that allow the fuel rod to slide, i.e. not to interfere with its rotation. The grips are made, for example, from a material Ertalyte®.
In the example shown, the upper gripper 36 is mounted on the plate 37, which is pivotally mounted on the platform 30 on an axis parallel to the axis of the fuel rod that opens the holding means, facilitating the installation of the fuel rod. Also provided by the system 38 to lock the upper grip 36 in position holding the fuel rod, i.e. opposite the bottom of the grip 34. System 38 lock includes a rod 40, which is installed on the platform 30 and can be rotated around the hinge axis parallel to the X-axis, on the side, which is the opposite side of the axis of the hinge upper grip 36.
The rod 40 includes a threaded end 40.1, on which is screwed a nut 44. Plate 37 of the upper grip 36 includes a recess 45 on the side opposite its axis of hinge designed to accommodate the threaded rod 40 and the nut 44 is located on the outside for attachment of the retention efforts of the plate to block the top of the grip 36 opposite the bottom of the grip 34 in position, shown in Fig.2D.
May be provided by any other system that allows the bottom 34 and top 36 of the grippers away from each other or closer. For example, you can include the installation of the upper grip 36 on the two threaded rods at the top of the grip 36 will move parallel to the bottom of the grip 34. The lock is provided with two nuts.
The platform contains a ring 46 that is designed to resist all efforts of deformation required for adjustment.
The tool 20 measurement deviation from parallelism is located at the free end of the platform 30 and is located under the fuel rod, as shown in Figa.
In the illustrated example, and as shown in Figv' and 2C', the tool 20 of the measurement is a tool with a mechanical axial load and is formed by the probe 47, able to move in the hole 48 made in the platform 30. In the shown example, the hole 48 is vertical. The probe 47 is designed so that its free end 47.1 come in contact with the upper end of the stub. The probe 47 is connected with a mechanical means of measuring movement for converting longitudinal movement of rod 47 in the value of deviation from parallelism.
This value is then displayed on the display 50, which can be observed by the operator. In the example shown atestimony indicator.
Mechanical means of measuring movement consists of gears, connecting rods and toothed sectors that provide this transformation.
To convert this move, you might consider using electronic means, for example, using optical means, piezoelectric diaphragms and digital display.
Instead of a mechanical probe can also be used capacitive probe.
The measurement tool is a comparator designed to compare the shape with the upper end of the plug of the fuel rod relative to the base specified by the lower capture, and display differences with respect to the above database.
The probe 47 is moved up through the elastic means providing a continuous contact of the probe with the fuel rod and providing a continuous measurement.
The tool 22 adjustment is intended for application of force by the end of the top cap to correct the deviation or at least reduce it so that it was within acceptable tolerances.
Means 22 adjustment are located diametrically opposite to the probe relative to the fuel rod, so that simultaneously with the correction of deviations from the errors of the probe measuring means can continuously monitor the evolution of QCD is onine.
In the example shown, the axis of movement of the pressure element 52 and the axis of the probe 47 are not in the same plane perpendicular to the axis of the fuel rod. It is clear that this configuration is not limited. The position of the pressure element depends on the efforts that are transmitted on the fuel rod. In addition, in the example shown it is located so that it does not interact with the stop 33.
Means 22 adjusting contain the push element 52 which is able to move vertically and designed to come in contact with the upper end of the cap for application thereto of deforming forces.
The push element 52, for example, is mounted on the end of the threaded rod 54 mounted in the threaded hole 56, made at the end of the shoulder 58. The shoulder 58 is located so that the probe 52 located at the end of the upper plug of the fuel rod.
Rod 54 includes a handle 60 at the end opposite the end supporting the push element 52, to facilitate the setting in rotation of the threaded rod 54 and vertical movement of the pressure element 52. The push element 52 is mounted so that it can freely rotate on the threaded rod 54.
This alternative implementation is particularly simple and reliable and, in addition, it allows you to provide a small weight and dimensions, in which case the t of the portable device.
It is clear that within the scope of the present invention can use any other means for moving the pressure element 52, for example, electrical, mechanical and hydraulic.
Mainly the push element 52 includes a V-shaped groove, designed for compression of the fuel rod. Thus, effort is better divided into two forming the fuel rod. In addition, the presence of this groove allows to improve the retention of the fuel rod during the application of deforming efforts, at the same time preventing the deformation of the surface of the fuel rod.
There are predominantly restrictive means 62 to prevent excessive vertical movement of the pressure element 52 in the direction of the probe and prevent deformation of the end top flap.
In the shown example, these vertical restrictive means 62 is formed using a ring mounted on the rod 54 on the side of the shoulder 58, the opposing pressure element 52. The ring 62 is mounted in a predetermined position, preventing excessive deformation. The ring 62 abuts against the shoulder 58 to stop the movement of the pressure element 52 in the direction of the probe and, therefore, additional deformation of the fuel rod.
The lower part 33 of the platform 30 is located after the probe 47 and intended the Jena for education axial stop of the fuel rod. During operation, the free end of the rod rests on the above focus 33.
As an example of the device according to the present invention has a length 308 mm, height 175 mm and a width of 71 mm, which allows one operator can easily manage.
Below is a description of the various steps of measuring and adjusting the deviation from parallelism of the rod for nuclear fuel, using a measuring device and adjustment of the present invention.
Fuel rods are located at the front 4.
The device 2 is fed vertically and is set in place, covering two sides of the fuel rod 6 and the support 8. Part 16.1, 16.2 are located on both sides of the fuel rod (Figa). Then the device 2 is based on the fuel rod through the bottom side gleams parts 16.1, 16.2, as shown in Figv. In this position, the end with the upper cover is located between the two beams (Figv and 2B').
Then the fuel rod is moved in the axial direction to accommodate the end with the upper cap on the dipstick. With this purpose, the fuel rod to slide along the lower gripper 34 in the ring 46 to until its free end will rest against the lower part 33. During this initial phase, the probe 47 is held in the down position to prevent the collision between the fuel rod and the probe. After fuel is first rod rests on the lower part 33, the probe is released and rests on the end with the upper cover (Figs and 2C').
Next, the upper gripper 36 is placed on the fuel rod, the rod is inserted into the recess and rotates the nut to lock the bottom 34 and top 36 of the handle in this position. On Fig.2D fuel rod is locked. During lock checks, confirming that the fuel rod and the probe really rely on each other.
The operator first determines the deviation. For this purpose, the operator rotates the fuel rod around its axis, for example, manually (Fige). The fuel rod is rotated until such time as the operator will not detect the deviation from parallelism. He writes the value DFH specified on the device comparison (Pigv), when the deviation is oriented upward as shown in Fig.2F, and the value DFB specified on the device comparison (Figa), when the deviation is oriented downward.
The operator then calculates the beating, which is equal to the difference between the DFH and DFB:V=DFH-DFB.
Next, the operator counts the parallelism P equal to half beats: P=V/2=(DFH-DFB)/2.
The P value, the operator can determine which strain should be applied to the fuel rod with the help of the adjusting element to adjust the deviation from parallelism of the fuel rod and make it acceptable.
Def is rmacy is determined experimentally.
For example, if R≤0.35 mm, found value adjustment will be 2.3 mm; if P≥0.35 mm, found value adjustment will be 2.4 mm
For example, you need to make an effort corresponding to the force that must be applied to the cylindrical rod of zircalloy diameter of 5 mm and a length of 40 mm, fixed on one side and free on the other hand, the deformation of the free end of the 2.5 mm
The operator calculates the value attached corrective efforts, i.e. the value should be read from the device of the comparison, when the deviation is oriented upward, and the force supplied pressure element.
This value DFHtoachieved is the sum of the found correction and the measured deviation DFH.
The operator then proceeds to step adjustment of the fuel rod.
The operator sets the fuel rod in such a way that the deviation was oriented upward.
Next, the operator moves the clutch element 52, so that it rests against the fuel rod, fuel rod is placed in the V-shaped groove, as shown in Fig.2G, however, no effort by the end with the upper cover is not yet applied.
The handle is rotated so that the compression element is applied deforming force to the end of the top cover toward the probe to change the deviation, as shown in Fign, you can see that the probe 47 is pressed.
The applied force causes the movement of the arrow in the direction opposite to the value of DF variance; then additional displacement due to the use specified values actually leads to plastic deformation of the fuel rod. The operator moves the fuel rod as long as he will not be able to read the value of DFHtoachievedefined above for the comparison.
During the correction of the deviation operator constantly monitors the deformation, which he attaches to the fuel rod; this is done by using a probe, which continues to measure the position of the end with the upper cover. This observation allows us to avoid the application of excessive force to the fuel rod. The method of adjustment is faster, because it is better controlled. At a later stage, the operator raises the push element 52 (Fig and 2I') and check the runout with the upper end of the stub.
With this purpose, the pressure element is allocated back to the top position. The operator again rotates the fuel rod and defines a beating. He again measures the deviation when it is oriented upward, and the beating, when it is oriented down and determine the concentricity and parallelism R.
If this difference is below a preset porogo the CSO values, fuel rod will have a proper parallelism.
For example, this threshold may be equal to 0.25, and the beating in this case should not exceed 0.5.
If during a test the deviation of parallelism will be above the threshold value, the operator repeatedly performs the previous steps for correcting deviations by applying a deforming stress to the end of the top cover and check the deviation from parallelism.
And finally, when the value of the parallelism becomes due, the fuel rod 6 is removed due to its movement with the sliding of the lower part 33, and the device is removed. It is clear that rotation of the fuel rod can be provided by mechanical means.
This device has the advantage consisting in the fact that it creates the possibility of adjusting the parallelism of the end with the upper plug of the fuel rod while determining the value executed of deformation, as measurement tools continue to operate during phase correction.
In addition, this device is compact, it can easily be managed by a single operator, and the device combines the measurement of the error correction of this deviation. The device can be placed on each fuel rod with minimum man what polerowanie fuel rods, it only requires longitudinal move a few centimeters, and the rotary movement of the fuel rods around their axis.
In addition, this device uses a rack as a support. Therefore, it does not require any other additional supporting elements.
In this description, the probe and the pressure element have vertical movement, but it should be understood that the device in which the probe and the pressure element is moved along the axes inclined relative to the vertical direction, is not beyond the scope of the present invention; in this case, it is envisaged that the pressure element and the measuring system will be located opposite each other.
1. Device for measuring and adjusting the deviation from parallelism of the end with the upper plug stem (6) nuclear fuel, located on the rack (4), containing:
- place (31) with a horizontal axis (X) to be placed above the fuel rod;
means (20) for measuring deviations from parallelism and means (22) for correcting deviations above; the above means (22) the correction is opposite the means (20) dimension relative to the longitudinal axis of the seat (31) to provide a measure of the deviation from parallelism during adjustment of the above deviations;
- means (14) poses the ment of the device relative to the fuel rod, for interacting with the fuel rod and the rack (4)containing two parallel supports spaced from each other, and each support end above the fuel rod, while the above-mentioned means (14) includes two u-shaped parts (16.1, 16.2), the inner ends of which are designed to support the fuel rod and are separated from each other by a given distance so as to provide overlap of the supports of the rack, on which rests the end of the upper plug of the fuel rod, and which has a thickness essentially equal to the distance between the two u-shaped parts (16.1, 16.2);
- means (32) for holding the fuel rod is arranged to provide rotation of the fuel rod around its longitudinal axis, which is located between the means (14) for positioning and measuring means and the correction, and which contains the lower grip (34) and the upper grip (36), for gripping the fuel rod, the lower grip (34) forms a basis for measuring deviations from parallelism.
2. The device according to claim 1, in which the tool (20) dimension contains the probe (47)intended for contact with the periphery of the end with the upper plug of the fuel rod and mounted for movement along an axis located in transversely the direction about the axis of the seat (31).
3. The device according to claim 1 or 2, in which the tool (22) adjustment includes a push element (52)intended for contact with the periphery of the end with the upper plug of the fuel rod, and is arranged to move along an axis located in a transverse direction relative to the axis of the location of the fuel rod, and the axis of movement of the pressure element (52) and the axis of movement of the probe (47) are in the plane in which lies the axis of movement of the fuel rod.
4. The device according to claim 1 or 2, in which the hooks (34, 36) is made of a material that reduces friction, for example, from a material Ertalyte®,
5. The device according to claim 1 or 2, in which the upper grip (36) pivotally mounted on an axis parallel to the axis location of the fuel rod, and a means (38) for locking the bottom (34) and upper (36) captures in a holding position.
6. The device according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the device (22) adjustment includes a push element (52)intended for contact with the periphery of the end with the upper plug of the fuel rod, and which can move along an axis located in a transverse direction relative to the axis of the seat (31), while the axis of movement of the pressure element (52) and the axis of movement of the probe located in a plane containing the axis of movement of the fuel rod, the push element (52) is the and one end of the threaded rod (54), located in the threaded hole (56), made at the end of the shoulder (58), the above-mentioned rod (54) includes a handle (60) on the end opposite the end on which is mounted a pressure element (52)that allows you to move the pressure element (52) manually.
7. The device according to claim 6, in which the thrust bearing (62) is mounted on the rod, to which is attached a pressure element (52), to limit movement of the pressure element (52) in the direction of the probe (47).
8. The device according to claim 1 or 2, containing a ring (46) between the holding means (32) and means (22) adjustment axis parallel to the axis location of the fuel rod, while the above ring (46) is intended for the passage through it of the fuel rod and to resist deforming stresses applied to the fuel rod.
9. Device according to one of claims 1 or 2, containing an axial stop (33) for the fuel rod positioned in the transverse direction relative to the axis location of the fuel rod after means (20) dimension in the direction of insertion of the fuel rod in the device.
10. The device according to claim 1 or 2, in which the tool (20) measurement tool (22) the correction is supported by the platform (30), which is connected with means for positioning two parallel beams (26)intended for adjunction to the fuel rod.
11. The device is about to claim 1 or 2, in which the upper grip (36) is mounted pivotally around an axis parallel to the axis of the seat (31), and there is a means (38) for locking the bottom (34) and upper (36) captures in a holding position, containing the threaded rod (40), pivotally mounted on an axis parallel to the axis of the seat (31) on the side opposite the side on which the hinge is installed, the upper grip (36), and nut (44), screw on the threaded end (40), the upper grip (36) includes a recess (45) for placement of the threaded rod (40), nut (44) is located opposite the bottom of the grip (34) relative to the upper grip (36) to lock the bottom (34) and upper (36) seizures, when the rod (40) is located in the recess (45).
12. A method of measuring and correcting deviations from parallelism with the device according to one of the preceding paragraphs, containing the steps:
(a) the installation of the device on the fuel rod (6) at the end with the upper cover;
b) moving the fuel rod along its axis in position between the tool (20) measurement and means (22) adjustment;
C) locking the retaining means (32);
g) rotating the fuel rod (6) and the detection of deviations from parallelism;
d) determining the necessary adjustment;
(e) the orientation of this deviation in the direction of the adjustment means (22);
g) correcting this deviation by the application to the Oia deforming voltage by using the correction (22) together with a proof that provide a means of measurement (20);
C) confirmation of the deviation of parallelism due to verify that this deviation is below a predetermined threshold value;
I) repeating steps d)-f), if the value of deviation from parallelism exceeds the specified threshold.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: specimen is made of two coaxially combined tubular elements; one of which is fully or partially located inside the other one; gas pressure is created in a cavity between elements, sealed, arranged in a nuclear reactor and irradiated.
EFFECT: increasing informativity and reliability of results of change of properties of reactor materials at irradiation in the reactor at various types of stress-and-strain state.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: time-series data by reactivity is produced from time-series data by a neutron bundle by the method of reverse dynamic characteristic in respect to a single-point kinetic equation of the reactor. Time-series data by fuel temperature exposed to previously determined averaging is produced using time-series data by power output of the reactor and pre-determined dynamic model. The component of contribution to feedback by reactivity is determined using time-series data by reactivity and introduced reactivity. The Doppler coefficient of reactivity is determined using the received time-series data by average temperature of a moderator in the reactor, time-series data by fuel temperature exposed to previously determined averaging, isothermic temperature coefficient of reactivity and component of contribution to feedback by reactivity.
EFFECT: increased accuracy and simplicity of measurements of the Doppler coefficient and possibility of its usage in case of use of discrete data.
8 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: nuclear fuel pellet density monitoring plant includes measuring unit including gamma radiation source and detection unit, transfer mechanism for movement of pellets and hold-down device, as well as measuring result control and processing unit intended to control the operation of transfer mechanism for processing of measuring results and rejection of pellets. Transfer mechanism includes the first transfer assembly for movement of column of pellets through measuring assembly with reference to outlet pallet, the second transfer assembly for movement of reference and outlet pallet for columns of pellets in transverse direction, and hold-down device has the possibility of pressing the pellets during movement of column of pellets through the measuring unit.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing the monitoring efficiency due to supply to monitoring zone of nuclear fuel pellets in the form of columns and performance of measurement during movement of columns through the monitoring zone.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method of creep-rupture test of tubular samples in a non-instrumentation channel of a nuclear reactor includes the following operations. At least one reference tubular sample loaded with inert gas pressure is placed into a heating furnace, maintained at the preset temperature in the heating furnace until destroyed, and time is measured to the moment of its destruction. Two tubular sample accordingly loaded and non-loaded with inert gas pressure are simultaneously placed into an ampoule. The tight ampoule with both types of tubular samples is radiated in a nuclear reactor channel. The radiated tubular samples are placed into a heating furnace and tested until destroyed under pressures and temperatures similar to the ones in the reactor. The time is measured to the moment of destruction of tubular samples of the first and second types in the heating furnace. The time to the moment of tubular sample destruction under conditions of reactor radiation at the preset pressure and temperature is determined using the ratio that takes into account time values measured in process of method realisation.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase accuracy of detection of strength characteristics of materials.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device to pelletise nuclear fuel comprises press, conveyor (4) for transportation of pellets from press to sintering area, facility (26) of pellets reloading from press to conveyor (4) and facility of inspection of at least one pellet of nuclear fuel at the outlet of press, besides, facility of inspection comprises facility for detection of matrix, where each pellet is made. Method to manufacture pellets of nuclear fuel with application of device, which includes stages, when matrices (10) are filled with powder, powder is pressed, pellets (P) are reloaded to conveyor (4), conveyor (4) is started, pellet (P) is taken, manufactured in certain matrix (10), proper operation of this matrix is inspected by results of inspection of pellets manufactured in it, pellets (P) are transported to sintering area.
EFFECT: control of manufactured pellets density, control of pellets without increasing duration of production cycle.
24 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: control method of gas pressure in fuel element of nuclear reactor consists in the fact that fuel element is located horizontally, inserted in annular induction heater, heat impulse is generated, which induces convective gas current in fuel element, change of temperature is measured with temperature sensors pressed to the cover and gas pressure is calculated on the basis of temperature change value; at that, shoes and couplings are installed on temperature sensors prior to measurements; sensors are pressed to the cover opposite to each other, one is from above, the other is from below, heat-insulating patches are installed between sensors and difference of temperatures shown with sensors is measured, then heat impulse is supplied and difference of temperatures is measured again in certain time τ1; after that, fuel element is turned together with patches, sensors and induction heater through 180° and after it is turned, temperature difference is measured in certain time τ2, then the second heat impulse is supplied and temperature difference is measured again in time τ1; then fuel element is turned together with patches, temperature sensors and induction heater through 180° back to initial position; then temperature difference is measured again in time τ2; cycle is repeated for several times; after that obtained results are mathematically processed, and as a result gas pressure value is determined inside fuel element.
EFFECT: improving measurement accuracy of gas pressure inside fuel element.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: device contains the first housing with through holes for passage of fuel assemblies (FA), around which illuminators are equally installed. Mirrors receiving the optical radiation reflected from fragments of side FA surface and installed with various turning angles of images provide uniform transfer of reflected mirror images to the plane of openings. The second housing with openings, which is located at some distance from the first one, is provided with radiation protection. Inside housing there arranged are video cameras consisting of video matrixes and objectives, and mirror labyrinths formed with inlet mirrors and outlet mirrors. Inlet mirrors are oriented towards outlet openings, and outlet mirrors - towards the objectives. External image control and processing unit is taken to clean room and connected to video cameras through cable communication lines. Invention is aimed at increasing radiation protection of video cameras owing to their possibility of being compactly arranged in remote housing.
EFFECT: radiation protective material and mirror labyrinths in the second housing provide additional radiation protection of video cameras.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to control devices of gas pressure in fuel element of reactor. Device containing annular induction heater (inductor), temperature sensors located on one side of the heater at the distance close to fuel element diametre on opposite generatrixes of fuel element cover coaxially perpendicular to fuel element axis; in order to improve accuracy characteristics of pressure measurement there additionally introduced are heat-insulation patches between temperature sensors in thermal contact zone; sensors have metal shoes in the form of rectangular copper plates bent along the radius of surface generatrix of fuel element cover, covered with electrically insulating thermally conductive film, and flexible (for example rubber) couplings; there also introduced is the device of turning the fuel element through 180° relative to its longitudinal axis together with inductor, sensors and heat-insulation patches.
EFFECT: improving accuracy measurement characteristics of gas pressure inside fuel element.
SUBSTANCE: method of controlling mass ratio of uranium-235 isotope in gaseous uranium hexafluoride involves desublimation of gaseous uranium hexafluoride in a measuring chamber by lowering temperature of the base of the chamber, determination of gamma-ray intensity of the uranium-235 isotope in the solid phase and calculation of the mass ratio of the uranium-235 isotope in uranium hexafluoride using the formula: C = α*Iγ/M, where: M is mass of uranium hexafluoride in the measuring chamber determined using a mass flowmeter or a weight measuring system, g; Iγ is gamma-ray intensity of uranium-235 in solid uranium hexafluoride in the measuring chamber, s-1; α is a calibration coefficient.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and accuracy of determining mass ratio of uranium-235 in gaseous uranium hexafluoride.
FIELD: nuclear physics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to operation of graphite-uranium reactors. The device for controlling the gas gap of the process channel of a graphite-uranium reactor has a calibration zirconium pipe fitted on the channel pipe of the process channel. On the outer surface of the pipe there is a block of graphite rings with fixed gaps, and a vertically movable electromagnetic radiation sensor is placed coaxially inside the pipe. The sensor is made in form of two measuring coils, compensated on the surface a uniform conducting medium, and one exciting coil above which there is a short-circuited winding made from non-magnetic current conducting material. The coils are mounted on a permalloy flat-topped magnetic conductor. The device also has a mechanism for moving the sensor and an electronic signal processing unit which is connected to the sensor and a computer. Measuring coils are accordingly connected to the electronic signal processing unit through an amplitude-phase balancing bridge circuit of the sensor, and the exciting coil is connected the electronic signal processing unit through an exciting current stabiliser.
EFFECT: more accurate control when measuring gas gaps due to possible readjustment of the sensor in the control zone.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: meter, for instance, vernier callipers, is installed with metering legs on some surfaces of shafts (or a shaft clearance), then the vernier callipers are moved with metering legs onto opposite surfaces (sides) of shafts (or a shaft clearance), and the first readings of the meter are algebraically summed by the available method with the second readings, afterwards the doubled misalignment value is produced. A correcting value is introduced, which is equal to the sum of radii (or a shaft clearance) by the available method, metering legs are installed onto maximum distant surfaces of shafts, for instance, in the vertical position, and the vertical misalignment is determined, vernier callipers are rotated between these surfaces, the extreme misalignment is determined, and in the horizontal position - horizontal misalignment. After a specified time of operation of the mechanism, and also after a certain time of operation of the rolling stock they repeatedly measure misalignment in one spatial position of metered surfaces, and by difference of the first and repeated measurements they identify the total value of the wear, the clearance, the bearing and the shaft.
EFFECT: simplified process of measurement of misalignment and provision of capability to do measurements in hard-to-access places.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: method includes prealignment, measurement of the current shaft alignment parameters, final alignment and mounting of mechanisms. Prior to the alignment the mechanisms' shafts are loaded by a device with specified bending moment and transverse force. Deflection and rotation angles of the shafts of both mechanisms are measured. The device is demounted. The bend and shift in the shafts joint is calculated according to the dependencies:
where I stands for the bend in the shafts joint; S - for the shift in the shafts joint. Final alignment of the mechanisms is carried out considering the calculated bend and shift values.
EFFECT: improving control accuracy of mounting loads and stresses in shafts as well as enhancing technological capabilities of mechanism alignment processes.
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: measurement cartridge comprises a casing 1 with a cover 2 and a measurement mechanism 3. Inside the casing 1 there is a spring 4 and a feeler consisting of a metal rod 5, installed in an insulation bushing 6, where a current-conducting case 7 is concentrically installed. In the upper part of an insulation bushing 6 there is a current-conducting plate 8 capable of interaction with a rod of the feeler 5. On the current-conducting plate 8 there is a power supply source 9, fixed with the help of a washer 10 and a stop ring 11 relative to the insulation bushing 6. The spring 4 is placed between the power supply source 9 and the cover 2 of the casing 1. The measurement mechanism 3 is made in the form of an indicator 12, installed in the cover 2 of the casing 1 and electrically connected to the current-conducting plate 8 and the casing 1. The measurement cartridge is equipped with a detachable protective jacket 13, which is installed on the casing 1 of the measurement cartridge at the open side of the feeler 5 rod and prevents it from damage during storage.
EFFECT: improved accuracy and reduction of tuning time.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: mechanisms are installed on foundations; fractures and offsets of shafts of aligned mechanisms are measured; as per measurement results, movement of mechanisms is performed; after that, mechanisms are attached to the foundation. At that, movements of mechanisms are performed according to design values of mechanisms movements at their reference points x1, x2, x3, x4 obtained as per measurement results. In particular case of the proposed method the attachment of mechanisms is performed with the error obtained as a result of calculations, but not more than 35% of allowance of mechanism offset. Attachment errors mean deviations of actual position of the mechanism from the position reached at its locating, owing to deformations of mechanism-to-foundation attachment assemblies, which appear at their assembly and tightening of fasteners.
EFFECT: reducing the duration of the erection process of aligned mechanisms.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to handling equipment and serves to control position of running wheels of travelling and gantry cranes. Proposed method comprises determining basic measurement points on crane travel section. Then, deviation of each adjacent wheels in horizontal plane at the rail head height level is measured by measuring the distance from base point to beam. Now, actual departure of wheels from design value by adequate formulas for every wheel pair. In case crane base values is insufficient for required accuracy of measurement, position of wheels with respect to basic points of crane travel with length varying from ten to twenty meters marked over the span is measured. Finally, actual departure of each wheel from design values is determined by appropriate formula.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of measurement in horizontal plane.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: measuring device made as source of light equipped with rulers crossing at angle of 90° on axle of cone and shaft is fixed on axle of one of shafts by means of cone. A screen is fixed on another shaft; the screen is equipped with an identical measuring device and is additionally equipped with the ruler whereat measuring point begins from the point of rulers crossing at the screen; the ruler is designed to rotate around the point of the benchmark. The source of light is switched on; the additional measuring device is rotated on the screen till matching with projection of the axle of another shaft; distance between crossing points is measured and extremum misalignment is evaluated.
EFFECT: independent from diameters (radii) of shafts measuring and elimination of search of extremum misalignment.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to engineering industry and can be used for centering shafts of the machines containing couplings with long spacing part. Method consists in the fact that offset of shafts relative to each other is measured at their synchronous turn through 180° simultaneously with two indicators out of four ones, which are installed in pairs diametrically opposite on each flange of coupling spacer part in vertical or horizontal planes. Their position is corrected. At that, indicators are installed at equal distance from rotation axis; before shafts are turned, scales of indicators are set to zero. After shafts are turned, one of the machines is turned till readings of diagonally located indicators coincide; after that, one of the machines is moved parallel relative to the position reached during turn till axes of shafts coincide. This position is controlled when readings of all indicators are decreased by two times.
EFFECT: improving accuracy of centering machine shafts and reducing labour input.
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: proposed automated TV-optical system designed to measure relative arrangement of the barrel and sight axes comprises computer with a display, power supply and control unit with a controller (PSC), measuring head (MH) incorporating a rotary device (RD) designed to press the casing to the barrel channel inner surface, optoelectronic unit (OEU), first TV camera arranged in OEU. Note that is additionally comprises one more OEU incorporating the second TV camera fitted on the sight eyepiece. Note also that RD can rotate through 360 degrees and be locked in every 45 degrees with the help of electrical and hydraulic drives.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of measurements, process automation.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises measuring shift one of the shafts with respect to the other during their synchronous rotation and correcting their position. After each synchronous rotation of the shafts by 180° in the vertical or horizontal planes, the distance between the same points of the shaft flanges and flanges of the spacing part of the clutch is measured simultaneously with two indicators. The indicators are mounted diametrically opposite on each flange of the spacing part of the clutch, and the shift of the shaft in the measuring planes is determined from the formula presented.
EFFECT: enhanced precision.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting the gear wheel or spline shaft in horizontal position for permitting axial rotation, determining the value of deviation by means of indicator when the wheel or shaft rotate, and comparing the value of deviation with the reference value. The slot calibrating member provided with a smooth cylindrical section is set in the gear wheel or on the spline shaft. The indicator measures the beat value in two planes of the cylindrical section of the slot calibrating member arranged at a distance equal to the length of the slot of the gear wheel or spline shaft.
EFFECT: enhanced precision.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a stack of adjusting and control wedge-shaped spacers. The thickness in each of the four node points of the adjusting spacer allows for the actual sizes of the space between the supports and the base after the preliminary testing of the units on the technological supports.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of testing.