Method of dynamic probing of soils and device for its realisation
SUBSTANCE: method of dynamic probing of soils, in which a rod with a probe is submerged into soil by means of periodical shocks, and during each shock they determine parameters of soil impact to sensors of the measurement system, providing for amplification of signals from sensors, their analog-digital conversion, registration and transfer of data, including dependence of probe movement on time and dependence of head resistance variation on time, into the outer block of data processing with the help of the appropriate software, as a result of which they determine physical and mechanical characteristics of soil. The probe is submerged into soil with the help of a hydraulic hammer machine. The hydraulic hammer machine after introduction of the rod with the probe is lifted, and the rod is extracted with the probe after introduction of the probe to the specified depth by means of hydraulic hoists. In addition, to measure displacement of the probe during shock, they measure the outer sensor of movement with an autonomous recorder. Data registration is carried out with the help of a recording block adapted for direct connection with the outer block of data processing (computer). To determine soil characteristics, they perform mathematical modelling and solve an inverse problem based on experimental dependences of probe movement on time, variation of head resistance on time and other data.
EFFECT: increased manufacturability, efficiency and depth of research.
The invention relates to the field of construction, namely the study of the physical-mechanical characteristics of the soil dynamic probing.
Known installation ESM-15M (research Institute of transport construction, the Guide dynamic contact sensing of soils, Moscow, 1983), in which the probe tip and the rod is embedded in the soil through the shock of the cable mechanism. The load is lifted by the winch, and then reset. Readings are taken visually. This method has low productivity and small depth research. Realizing the way the device has a large weight and dimensions.
Also known hydroshock machine according to patent No. 2229559 and No. 2252299, which has high performance and is intended for introduction into the soil probe. Weight hydroshock machines about 75 kg, while setting ESM-15M has a mass of 1100 kg, However, this machine cannot implement the method, providing high performance and depth of research.
From patent application No. 2008125936 known selected as the closest analogue is the way to studies of soil dynamic sensing, including immersion of the probe into the ground by hammering and the determination of physical-mechanical characteristics of soil sensors for exposure parameters g is the flying boot to the sensors, characterized in that the characterization is produced by the application of torque, equipped with sensors Mendoza electronic measuring system, by receiving signals from sensors, amplification, conversion-to-digital Converter analog-to-digital converters (ADCS), reception, processing and transmission of the block of information management. However, it does not provide high performance and depth of research. A device that implements the method and selected as the closest analogue that contains a rod probe with a conical tip, a percussion device, a means of extracting the probe from the soil, placed in the tip of the probe measurement system, including sensors, amplifiers, ADC, registration unit, configured to send data to an external processing unit, supplied with software. The device has the same disadvantages as it is implemented in its way.
The invention is directed to solving the problems of improving manufacturability, performance, and depth of research.
The invention consists in that in the method of dynamic sensing of soils, in which the immersed rod probe into the soil by periodic shock and during each blow determine the parameters of the impact of soil PA sensors of the measuring system, respecive amplification of signals from sensors, their analog-to-digital conversion, recording and transmission of data, including the dependence of the displacement of the probe from time to time, and the dependence of the drag from time to time, the external data processing unit using the appropriate software, the result of which determine the physical and mechanical characteristics of the soil, we offer a probe submerged in the ground with hydroshock machines, lifting hydroshock machines after the implementation of the rod with the probe, and removing the rod from the probe after the introduction of the probe to a predetermined depth to produce the platforms, in addition to displacement measuring probe at impact to use an external displacement transducer with Autonomous Registrar registration data to produce by using the recording unit, adapted for direct connection with an external data processing unit (computer), and to determine the characteristics of the soil to produce mathematical modeling and to solve the inverse problem on the basis of the experimental dependencies of moving the probe from time to time, change the drag from time to time, and other data.
The invention also lies in the fact that the device for dynamic sensing of soil containing rod probe with a conical tip, impact device, extractor AOR is Yes from the soil, posted in tip of the probe measurement system, including sensors, amplifiers, ADC, registration unit, configured to send data to an external processing unit, supplied with software, offers a percussion device to perform as hydroshock machines, means of extraction of the probe from the soil to perform on the basis of the platforms so that they provide lift hydroshock machines after the implementation of the rod with the probe, and removing the rod from the probe after the introduction of the probe to a predetermined depth, in addition to measuring the movement of the probe when hitting enter in an external displacement transducer with independent Registrar, the registration unit adapted for direct connection with external the data processing unit (computer), the external data processing unit to provide software for the characterization of soil by mathematical modeling and solution of the inverse problem on the basis of the experimental dependences of the displacement of the probe from the time trend of drag from time to time, and other data.
The use of miniature electronic recording unit to record and store information when probing placed in the tip of the probe, provides high performance and manufacturability issledovanija more accurate measurement of the displacement of the probe when the kick is an external displacement transducer with a standalone recorder. Characteristics of soils are determined not by the tables, because the tables in the SP-11 - 105 - 97 are given only for sandy soil, and according to dynamic sensing and mathematical modeling.
Figure 1 shows a block diagram of a device implementing the method of dynamic sensing of soils. Figure 2 shows the block diagram of the tip of the probe. Figure 3 shows graphs of the variation of the force of drag from a single shot in different types of soil. Figure 4 shows the graphs of moving the probe from one blow in different types of soil.
Device for dynamic sensing of soils, shown in figures 1,2 can be set, for example, on the vehicle (figures not shown). It contains a percussion device (immersion probe), is made on the basis hydroshock machines. Tip 1 probe includes accelerometer 2 and the load cell 3, which through appropriate linkages 4,5 are connected with the inputs of the high-speed recording unit - logger 6. In the handpiece 1 of the probe also has connected to the logger 6 communication 7 unit 8 power. Hydroshock machine 10 is installed on the rod 11 and is driven by a not shown in the figures oil station with valve-regulator 9. At the beginning of the dive hydroshock machine 10 is the upper starting position, then in the process of immersion on what's allowed in the extreme lower position. Translation hydroshock machines 10 from the lower position to the original upper position is performed by means of the platforms 13. The platforms 13 are also used to extract the rod 11 after the end of the dive. The sensor 12 is used to move the Desk graphics probe.
Dynamic probing tip 1 probe is introduced into the ground by hammering. At impact there faster. Acceleration recorded with an accelerometer 2. Load cell 3 installed inside the hollow cylinder resting on the tapered portion of the tip of the probe 1, fix the force of drag cone during its introduction into the soil. Figure 3 shows graphs of the variation of the force of drag in different types of soil. Logger 6 is intended for reception, recording and storing data received from the accelerometer 2 and the load cell 3. For this logger 6 is not shown in the figures LCP (analog-to-digital Converter) and a memory block. Prointegrirowany time acceleration, which are recorded by the accelerometer 2, we can determine the rate of introduction of the probe. Further, if re-integrate acceleration, that is now the speed, then eventually learn to move the probe over time. Graphics move the probe over time in different types of soils shown PA 3.
To offer the technology to determine the construction and properties of soils used mathematical modeling of the interaction of the probe with ground-based nonlinear soil mechanics and software. Modeling of the stress-strain state of soil, which is used in our technology, complicated by the fact that it is necessary to solve the inverse problem. When solving the inverse problem as the source of information used experimental data. We have experimental graphs of moving the probe over time, figure 3, the graphs of the variation of drag with time, figure 2, and other data (the frequency of oscillation of the probe, the force of the blow, shock acceleration, and others). Through mathematical modeling, we construct a similar virtual graphics. Further, by optimization calculations we come up virtual graphics to experimental to a predetermined degree of accuracy. When we succeed, then we say that the soil has the same values of parameters and construction of properties, as in the virtual model. The software package is designed so that allows us to describe the motion of the tip of the probe in a soil medium with obtaining charts, graphs similar to the real dynamic sensing is shown in figures 3, 4. By solving the optimization problem we can achieve the maximum approximation estimated graphs for real. At their coincidence with acceptable accuracy conclude that the soil parameters match the values in the computational model.
1. The way dynamic sensing of soils, in which the om is dipped into the bar with the probe into the soil by periodic shock and during each blow determine the parameters of the impact of soil on the sensors of the measuring system, providing amplification of signals from sensors, analog-to-digital conversion, recording and transmission of data, including the dependence of the displacement of the probe from the time and the dependence of the drag from time to time, the external data processing unit using the appropriate software, the result of which determine the physical and mechanical characteristics of the soil, characterized in that the probe is dipped into the ground with hydroshock machines, lifting hydroshock machines after the implementation of the rod with the probe, and removing the rod from the probe after the introduction of the probe to a predetermined depth produced by the platforms, in addition to measuring the movement of the probe when hitting the use of an external displacement transducer with offline Registrar registration data is produced using a recording unit, adapted for direct connection with an external data processing unit (computer), and to determine the characteristics of the soil produce mathematical modelling and solve the inverse problem on the basis of the experimental dependencies of moving the probe from time to time, change the drag from time to time, and other data.
2. Device for dynamic sensing of soil containing rod probe with a conical tip, impact device, extractor probe and the ground, posted in tip of the probe measurement system, including sensors, amplifiers, ADC, registration unit, configured to send data to an external processing unit, supplied with software, wherein the impact device is made in the form of a hydroshock machines, means of extraction of the probe from the soil is made on the basis of the platforms so that they provide lift hydroshock machines after the implementation of the rod with the probe, and removing the rod from the probe after the introduction of the probe to a predetermined depth, in addition to measuring the movement of the probe when the shot put external displacement transducer with independent Registrar, the registration unit is adapted for direct connection with an external data processing unit (computer), the external data processing unit is supplied with software for determining the characteristics of the ground by mathematical modeling and solution of the inverse problem on the basis of the experimental dependencies of moving the probe from time to time, change the drag from time to time, and other data.
SUBSTANCE: set of devices for selection of vertical soil monoliths comprises a k number of thin-walled metal cylinders-monolith-selectors with tapered lower end of a triangular shape, equal to
EFFECT: improvement of accuracy of determining the properties of soil on genetic horizons of the soil profile, reduction of time for selection of the monolith and labour intensity of work in selection of the quality sample of the soil.
3 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method to assess content of macrofragmental inclusions to characteristics of compressibility of mixtures of clayey soils includes sampling a soil mixture, definition of sample density and moisture, dry unit weight, separation of the sample into fine and coarse fractions, definition of content of fine Pf and coarse Pc fractions, and density of particles of fine
EFFECT: provision for determination of impact of macrofragmental inclusions content at characteristics of compressibility of clayey soil mixtures.
2 cl, 3 ex, 3 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device to measure speed and direction of soil motion relative to an underground pipeline comprises a metering telescopic two-link lever with a sensor of elongation, a hinged joint, a unit of movements count. A hinged joint and a metering telescopic two-link lever are placed into a protective flexible case, besides, the metering sliding two-link lever in the case is fixed with the help of spring centralisers, and also in the metering telescopic two-link lever there is a unit of unlocking of a cord of elongation of the metering telescopic two-link lever.
EFFECT: provision of long-term fault-free operation of a device and convenience of its service without labour intensive earth works.
SUBSTANCE: method to determine frost heave of soil during freezing of a seasonally thawing layer includes drilling of a well before start of its thawing, sampling of soil, measurement of depth of seasonal thawing ξ, definition of dry soil density in samples ρd,th. In addition wells are drilled after freezing of the seasonally thawing layer, on the samples they additionally define density of dry soil after freezing of the seasonally thawing layer ρd,f, and the heave value is determined in accordance with the given dependence.
EFFECT: reduced labour intensiveness of works, increased accuracy of determination of heaving value, provision of material intensity reduction.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device for soil deformation measurement comprises a deformation-sensitive sensor optical cable, a measurement block connected with a cable, anchors connected to a cable and soil and is equipped with a system of cable protection against damage, including a safety fuse within each anchor, which actuates in case, when the force acting at the side of the anchor at the sensor cable exceeds the specified value.
EFFECT: provision of the possibility to limit a force transferred with an anchor to a sensor cable, in process of anchors displacement relative to each other, caused by soil movements, regardless of soil properties, which may be known unaccurately or change with time.
6 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: sampler comprises a sampling bushing made with the possibility to increase its cross section in process of sample withdrawal, a facility for sampling bushing insertion into a tested material. The sampling bushing is made from two chutes, longitudinal edges of which are equipped with alternating rectangular ledges and grooves, at the same time location of ledge section in one chute corresponds to location of second chute grooves, besides, loops are formed from the ledges of the chute edges, longitudinal axes of holes of which are parallel to the longitudinal axis of the chute and coaxial to longitudinal axes of the second chute loops. Chutes are coupled with each other by means of longitudinal edges. Through holes of the loops at each longitudinal edge of the chute there is a rod pulled, one end of which is equipped with a head, the section of which is more than the section of the hole, and the second end of the rod is equipped with threading, is pulled through holes of the slab made as capable of fixation on the vibrator and is fixed with a nut, at the same time the free end of the sampling bushing is equipped with a circular pad from magnetic material.
EFFECT: provision of integrity of an initial structure of a material sample during its withdrawal from a tested massif of a placer mine, provision of the possibility for material sampling from depth that is more than 2-3 m.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method is carried out by means of heading of containers, such as a cutting cylinder, onto a monolith. At the same time previously the soil is sampled. For this purpose a site is chosen, and in its centre a circular trench is dug with depth of not more than by 25 mm lower than the height of the cutting cylinder, belting the untouched soil, representing a truncated cone in shape, the diameter of the upper base of which is by 10…15 cm more than the inner diameter of the cutting cylinder, and the diameter of the lower base is more than the inner diameter of the cutting cylinder by 15…25 cm. From the soil left untouched the monolith is cut with the diameter of at least by 6 mm smaller than the inner diameter of the cutting cylinder and the height that is at least by 25 mm smaller than the cylinder height. At the same time the cylinder is periodically put on the monolith, using it as a template to monitor the diameter of the cut monolith. After cutting of the monolith and putting of the cutting cylinder on it, the cylinder is pushed into soil, until its upper layer levels with the monolith surface. In the space between the inner surface of the cutting cylinder and the outer surface of the monolith four Z-shaped supporting monolith-supporting plates are inserted with height equal to 3/4 of the cutting cylinder height. Evenly they are distributed along the cylinder perimetre and put on its upper edge. The slot between the inner surface of the cutting cylinder, the soil monolith and its supporting plates is filled with a molten waterproof material, having lower temperature of melting, for instance, a mineral wax. Afterwards the monolith is cut at the bottom at the lower edge of the cylinder, it is installed on the solid surface, packed and delivered to the area of filtration tests performance.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of soil filtration coefficient detection and accuracy of establishment of land reclamation system parameters, efficiency of using reclaimed soils, expanded zone of application of monoliths for detection of filtration coefficient.
SUBSTANCE: method for laboratory determination of rheological characteristics of soils includes detection of deformation characteristics of undisturbed or disturbed soil under conditions of uniaxial compression without possibility of its side expansion in a compression device in the mode of stresses relaxation, and a compression curve is built by final values of stresses and their appropriate deformations of the sample as each stage is completed. For each of relaxation branches they build curves of deformation dependence on deformation speed. Then points are market on these curves with selected values of sample deformation speeds, their appropriate values of deformations are applied onto relaxation branches, and a bundle of curves is pulled through them, as corresponding to selected values of deformation speeds. Using these curves, they determine values of deformations corresponding to the selected value of the vertical load, and on the basis of this data they build curves of deformation dependence on time, by which they determine coefficients of filtration and secondary consolidation with available methods.
EFFECT: reduced terms and labour inputs for performance of laboratory tests for determination of rheological characteristics of soils, including detection of coefficients of filtration and secondary consolidation.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises cartridge for soil sample composed of rings and base with water feed chamber. Rings represent semi-rings fastened together to perform limited mutual displacement. Device uses tight chamber.
EFFECT: higher reliability of measurements.
SUBSTANCE: device is a sleeve assembled from split rings which are provided with bands with given compliance with strain gauges, a tray, a porous insert for soaking the sample with water, a piston with a rod and freezing chamber mounted thereon. By rotating around the rod, the freezing chamber executes translational motion along the soil sample, providing the required speed of the freezing front.
EFFECT: high reliability of measurements.
FIELD: engineering investigations in building, particularly devices for determining deformation and strength properties of ground in well.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises probe (working tip), control-rod, pipeline, communication line, loading jig and measuring station. Probe includes hollow cylindrical body with bottom and cap filled with working liquid, elastic shell sealed from body bottom and top. Formed in non-fixed elastic shell area are perforations. Piston with rod is installed in upper part of hollow body above working liquid. Rod passes through cap in sealed manner. Rod is connected with control rod so that piston may move in axial direction. Formed above piston is cavity connected to pipeline. Hollow body has bottom in which air-tight plug is installed. Measuring device is made as linear piston displacement transducer. Through orifices are formed in hollow body wall near body bottom. Arranged from body outside are vertical or inclined grooves aligned with through orifices by lower ends thereof. Air-tight plug is provided with adjustable rest for restricting piston stroke.
EFFECT: simplified structure of probe and measuring devices, increased operational reliability and improved validity of obtained data.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly building-and-engineering researches to investigate deformation ground properties.
SUBSTANCE: device has thrust structures including bearing plate connected with base by supports, mechanism for applying axial load to ground sample mounted on base and dynamo-metering structure. Dynamo-metering structure is made as frame formed by two longitudinal tie rods and two transversal beams. Cross-section of upper beam has the shape of horizontal H-bar along axis of plant symmetry. Strain gage transducers are arranged on working shoulders of H-bar, support part for sensing forces to be measured is connected to wall thereof.
EFFECT: increased measuring accuracy, reduced measuring time.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: stand has device for pumping liquid and detachable shell, wherein model of filtering environment is placed. Detachable shell is connected to liquid forcing plant and has replaceable impenetrable elements for adjusting value of contact area of outer surface of filtering environment to liquid, made in form of inserts and ring isolators.
EFFECT: higher precision.
FIELD: construction, particularly engineering investigations to determine earth strength and deformation characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: method involves rotary driving hollow pipe string for the test depth with the use of boring rig so that minimal vertical load is applied to the pipe string. Pipe string is provided with screw punch blade having constant pitch and varying blade thickness which increases in down-top direction. Blade is provided with pressure transducers flushed with lower surface thereof. Pressure transducers are connected with original ground by communication cable. Module of deformation is determined with the use of well-known method by stabilized pressure value of each transducer after punch driving completion and from predetermined rate of deformation under each transducer. Rate between punch immersion depth per one turn h and pitch thereof a is synchronized up to obtaining value of h/a≤1.0 before reaching test depth for instance with the use of screw pair. Non-stabilized pressure values under each transducer are recorded immediately before punch driving stop.
EFFECT: increased measuring reliability and output.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly engineering investigations used in rapid building erection and reconstruction.
SUBSTANCE: method involves driving screw-in punch made as a blade in soil with the use of boring rig up to reaching soil test level simultaneously with driving screw-in anchor in soil, wherein screw-in punch and anchor are mounted on lower end of hollow pipe string so that they may perform limited movement one relative another and relative the pipe string with upper pipe string end secured to soil; applying predetermined load value to the punch; measuring punch immersion value at predetermined time intervals up to soil settlement stabilizing under the punch; applying next load value. Load application and measuring, as well as punch immersion method is performed in direct contact with punch of load applying device and linear displacement transducers with the use of feedback link connected with day ground. Load is applied to punch from day ground through technological hollow rod passing through pipe string hollow before test start. The rod is provided with load transducer cooperating with the punch and linear displacement transducers cooperating with the anchor. The anchor is used as reference point. Soil is tested in mode of set soil displacement under the punch by conditionally momentary deforming of soil under the punch in steps equal for soil to be tested. On reaching deformation step total load applied to punch and additional punch immersion are measured at predetermined time intervals. On reaching conditional load stabilizing on one step one will shift to the next step of soil deforming. Rate of change of specific pressure applied to soil with time is used as criterion of conventional load stabilizing on each step.
EFFECT: possibility to measure load applied to operating member and immersion thereof near soil test level, reduced test time.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: construction, namely engineering surveying to be carried out during building and building structure reconstruction, particularly accelerated surveying methods.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises hollow pipe string parts screwing up in ground with the use of boring rig. Pipe string parts are connected with each other by thread connections and additionally with pins. Screw impress with tail piece and screw marker with case are mounted on lower pin so that they may perform limited axial movement. Auxiliary rod is inserted in pipe string interior up to reaching impress tail piece. Lower end of auxiliary rod is provided with load sensor cooperating with marker case. Sensors communicate with day surface. Hydraulic power cylinder is installed between swivel head shaft and connected with upper end of auxiliary rod through centralizer having cut for cable passing. Each pipe string part additionally has inner left-handed thread formed in right-handed outer thread and annular inner seat located at lower end thereof. Hollow nipple is freely installed inside each pipe string part. Nipple has mating left-handed thread made on lower end thereof and mating outer annular seat located on upper nipple end. The annular nipple seat has socket, for instance adapted for socket wrench receiving to tighten pipe string parts by means of left-handed thread by unscrewing right-handed one during impress and marker removal. Marker case is provided with taper collet secured to lower end thereof so that taper collet surrounds impress tail piece by springing blades thereof. Packing gland in installed in taper collet interior. Screw impress is secured to tail piece by coaxial connector and shear ring having shear resistance less than that of other tail piece connections.
EFFECT: increased reliability during device driving in soil and drawing out from soil and increased accuracy of obtained information.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: construction technology; graphical methods.
SUBSTANCE: combined profiles of stresses are built at the plane of contact of rigid dye with flat-deformed base taking elastic state of base combined with plastic one taken into account. Law of shift of bounds of these states at area of contact is determined depending on raise in external average pressure (pav) while taking distribution of elastic contacts of stresses σzk e according to concave parabola law and distribution of contact stresses σz n of shift under smooth sole of stencil according to straight line rule. The straight line crosses concave parabola of elastic stresses at the bound of area of elastic and shift deformations. Parameters of carrying ability of base depending on internal friction angle φ, engagement c and volumetric weight γ are calculated for stencils of known shape, sizes, rigidity and degree of roughness of its sole. Contact tresses are determined from coordinates of profiles. Profiles after being built are represented as mirror reflection relatively axis of ordinates and profiles of elastic and shift contact stresses are got under surface of stencil.
EFFECT: solution of combined elastic-plastic contact problem.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises plane-parallel deforming of soil base by external pressure and determining the specific bond and angle of internal friction of the soil base.
EFFECT: enhanced precision.
FIELD: construction engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method concludes in determining parameters of physical and mechanical characteristics: internal friction angle φ, specific adhesion c and volumetric weight of depth-uniform ground base and anisotropic turf deposit γ. Value of average external pressure ρave applied to base through flat hard template of average size is calculated, which average pressure corresponds to moment of phase shift of base from one state to the other to determine specific processes of sharp growth of deposits, reduction in strength and possible loss of stability in total and to determine carrying capacity of flat-deformed base when pattern of operation of ground base is seen as linearly deformed space and turf deposit - as Fuss-Winkler model of local elastic deformations. In this case new phase conditions of ground are found and phase states under turf deposit load are determined depending on sizes and shapes of hard flat templates.
EFFECT: improved precision of calculation.
FIELD: investigation of foundation soil in situ, particularly to construct and reconstruct existent buildings and building structures.
SUBSTANCE: method involves monoaxial ground sample compression in compression apparatus along with prevention of radial expansion thereof, wherein the ground sample is tested in stress release regime; plotting compression curve after each stage termination by final stress values and corresponding sample deformations. As predetermined sample deformation value is achieved additional ground sample settlement is restricted by partial stress release to approximate value thereof to conditional stress stabilization or sample deformation value.
EFFECT: reduced ground investigation time.