Method for determining local changes of admixture concentration in fluid flow

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: use: to measure change in the local concentration of impurities in the liquid flow at the entrance to the measuring cell. The substance is that the first change of impurity concentration is determined in time within the measurement cell to the fluid containing an impurity, wherein the concentration changes with time at the entrance of the measuring cell is known, and they find the impulse response of the measuring cell using the deconvolution method. Then they determine the change in the impurity concentration within the measuring cell for the sample liquid with an unknown impurity concentration at the entrance. They calculate the unknown concentration of impurities upon entering the measuring cell using the found impulse response of the measuring cell and a definite change in the impurity concentration inside the cell.

EFFECT: improving the accuracy of determining concentration of impurities without changing configuration of a measuring cell.

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The invention relates to methods of measurement and can be used for estimation of non-stationary impurity concentration at a particular point in the stream.

It is known that the presence of impurities changes various properties of the carrier fluid, such as density, color, radioactivity, magnetic and thermal properties and electrical resistivity. Thus, by measuring its physical properties it is possible to estimate the concentration of impurities, in particular, the composition of the salt solution, oil-water emulsions and other mixtures can be set by electrical resistance measurement. The prior art methods for determining concentration: visual color impurities, indirect conductivity flow and so on (see, for example, .Levy, .Berkowitz, Measurement and analysis of non-Fickian dispersion in heterogeneous porous media. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology // 2003, 64, pp.203 - 226; Gas, Zuska J, Coufal P, van de Goor, T. Optimization of the high-frequency contactless conductivity detector for capillary electrophoresis, Electrophoresis // 2002, V.23 supported, pp.3520-3527).

The main problem in the known methods is the averaged nature of the measurements, i.e. a significant time interval, determined by the dimensions of the measuring cell, during which the concentration of impurities can significantly change. The proposed method provides more accurate determination of impurity concentrations without changes in the configuration of the measuring cell.

In accordance with the proposed method of determining the local changes in the concentration of impurities in the fluid flow through the measuring cell of the pumped liquid containing the admixture, the change of concentration in time at the entrance to the measuring cell is known. Determine the impurity concentration in time within the measuring cell and restore the impulse response of the measuring cell by the method of deconvolution. Next pumped through the measuring cell of the investigated liquid and determine the impurity concentration in time in the flow of the investigated liquid inside the measuring cell. The impurity concentration in time in the flow of the liquid under study at the entrance to the cell is determined from the equation

where τ is the integration variable, t is time, I(t) is the impurity concentration in the investigated liquid flow at the entrance to the cell, Rσ(t) is the impurity concentration in the investigated flow of the liquid inside the measuring cell, K(t) is the impulse response of the measuring cell.

Pre can be ustanovlena dependence of the physical properties of the liquid depends on the concentration of impurities, in this case, the impurity concentration in the fluid flow within the measuring cell is determined by making measurements of the physical properties of the liquid.

The measured physical property of the fluid can be electrical resistance, density, radioactivity, etc.

Additionally, could be assessed as a measuring cell, which calculates the difference between the concentration measured within the measuring cell, and the concentration at the entrance to the measuring cell, and the obtained difference is judged on the quality of the measuring cell.

The quality of the measuring cell can be assessed by determining the impulse response of the measuring cell using the Fourier transform and comparing the Fourier transform of the function K(t) with the constant of.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a sample layout of the experimental setup with the measuring cell; figure 2 - results of the measurement of the concentration of impurities in the liquid for two measuring cells; figure 3 - results of the measurement of the concentration of impurities in the fluid in the first cell and the results determine the concentration at the entrance to the measuring cell of the proposed method; figure 4 - results of the measurement of the concentration of impurities in the liquid in the second measuring cell and the results determine the true concentration of the proposed method; figure 5 - results of the determination of the true concentration of the proposed method for two cells.

In the operation example shows an example implementation of the invention by measuring such physical properties, as the electrical resistance of the liquid. In this case, use the measuring cell, consisting of a tube made of dielectric material, and two electrodes in contact with the liquid (Figure 1). This cell design is used in several dimensions (see, for example, Zhiyao Huang, Jun Long, Wenbo Xu, Haifeng Ji, Baoliang Wang, Haiqing Li. Design of capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection sensor // 2012, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, in press). The electrical resistance of the liquid inside the tube is connected with the concentration of impurities in the stream. Thus, resistance measurements, you can determine the concentration of impurities in the volume bounded by the tube and electrodes. The concentration of impurities at the entrance to the cell (the true concentration) may differ from the readings of the cells, measuring the concentration in volume, due to heterogeneity of the field of concentration. When using such a cell it is necessary to reduce the difference between the readings of the cell and the true concentration of impurities at the entrance to the cell.

The measuring cell is a signal processing system. It can be assumed that the processing system has the property of linearity and does not depend on time (Linear Independent of Time, then LNS, for examples of such systems, see, for example, J.P.Hespanha, Linear Systems Theory // 2009, Princeton University Press, 263 p., ISBN 978-0-691-14021-6). If you know the pulse transition is function LNVS, then for any measured output signal LNVS (response to the incoming signal), you can restore this incoming signal deconvolution method. In turn, the impulse transient function LNVS can also be calculated by the deconvolution method, measuring the response LNVS on previously known input.

The incoming signal this LNVS is the concentration of impurities in the carrier fluid at the inlet port into the cell output signal is the impurity concentration, calculated from the measured resistance of the carrier liquid. LNVS characterized by a pulse transition function, which is also often called the impulse response of the system.

The invention allows to measure the impurity concentration in the carrier fluid at the inlet into the measuring cell. The measurement procedure consists of several stages. Pre-set dependence of the electrical resistance of the investigated liquid from the concentration of impurities. Through the cell pumped liquid, which is known to change with time of the concentration of impurities at the entrance to the cell, and record the output signal of the system (i.e. the measuring cell). Find the impulse transient function of this system, using, in General, the method of deconvolution. Then record the output signal of the system (i.e. resistance) for a new, investigational flow with the unknown and the application of the impurity concentration at the inlet. Finally, calculate an unknown impurity concentration at the entrance to the cell using a deconvolution method using pulse transition function found earlier, and the concentration in the cell, known for the resistance measurements.

To implement the invention was used the experimental set-up for playing the course with an impurity, as shown in figure 1. The system includes a pumping system 1 for liquids with known changes in the concentration at the entrance to the measuring cell, the pump system 2 for the investigated liquid, the concentration of which you want to determine the three-way valve 3; the porous media 4, the measuring cell 5, the ohmmeter 6, the electrode 7, the receiver 8 of dielectric material and system back pressure 9.

Field of concentration impurity depends on the time. Studying the change of concentration at a particular point in the flow, we can estimate the variance of the impurities inside the porous sample. The concentration of impurities may be determined by the change in electrical resistivity of the liquid inside the measuring cell. Measuring the concentration occur with error σ.

Pre-establish the empirical dependence of the resistance on the impurity concentration (for example, the salinity of the fluid). This dependence is used to estimate the concentration of an impurity, for example, according to the testimony is of metra to determine the concentration of conductive impurities (Figure 1).

Then run the installation for whose known distribution dynamics impurities, including known changes in the concentration of impurities at the entrance to the measuring cell, is equal to i(t), where t is the time. The cell registratiom the change in resistance rσ(t). Thus, both functions i(t) and rσ(t) is known.

According to the conducted experiment restore impulse response K(t) (impulse transient function LNVS):

If in the known mode currents i(t) ≈1, then the kernel is easy to calculate the measurement result as. Otherwise, for recovering the kernel K(t) you must use the deconvolution, i.e. to solve the integral equation under the assumption of smoothness of the unknown function.

Then conduct the experiment in which to study the arrival of impurities in the stream. The impurity concentration at the entrance to the measuring cell - I(t)and the change in concentration, registered in the measurements of R(t). The function I(t) is not known.

You need to find the input signal I(t)with known transition pulse function K(t) and output signal R(t) in the form of measured concentrations (see below equation (2)). The problem solution is a function I(t), which evaluates the local variation of concentric and impurities in the stream.

The difference between the incoming and outgoing signal can serve as an assessment of the quality of the measuring cell. In the presence of a set of measurements {In(t), Rn(t)} can be calculated difference Rn(t)-In(t) we are interested currents (n is the number of experiment). This allows you to evaluate the quality of the measuring cell. The smaller this difference, the better the quality of the measuring cell.

The quality of the measuring cell can also be evaluated after the restoration impulse response. The best quality of measurements corresponds to the case when Rσ(t)=I(t). Using equation (2), we get K(t)=δ(t), where δ(t) is the Dirac function. It is known that the Fourier transform for functions Dirac. Thus, the closer the Fourier transform of a function K(t) to a constantthe higher the quality of the measurements. The distance between the functions can be evaluated, for example, L2-normal:

The proposed procedure was applied in the study of the flooding of the core salt solution of variable concentration. As the base fluid was used NaCl solution with a content of 40 g/l, the admixture was simulated by a NaCl solution with a content of 60 g/L. the core Sample (sample porous mountain p is childbirth) was placed in a sealed kindergaten. The measuring cell was placed in the flow pattern sequentially with kindergaten and registrovana the concentration of impurities in the stream for kindergaten.

The first measuring cell (cell 1) consisted of a plastic tube with a steel electrodes at the ends (Figure 1). Known flow regime represented a distribution of impurities in the measuring cell in the absence of a core in the flow pattern. The concentration at the entrance to the measuring cell was changed abruptly from 0 to 1, so the incoming signal is a function of Heaviside. Registered in the measuring cell signal is the result of smoothing the input signal. The first cell has a relaxation time that her testimony was changed from 0 to 1 at jump concentrations at the inlet. The time scale was time leveling one pore volume of the core, when the rate of injection of 2 cm3/min time scale equal to 5 (Figure 2, box 1).

The presence of the porous medium (core) in the experiment helps to blur the front with a gradual increase in concentration at the outlet of kindergaten. The concentration at the entrance to the cell was estimated using the proposed method (Figure 3, box 1). It differed significantly from the measured concentration (absolute error between the actual concentration at the inlet of the cell and the measured concentration reached 10%).

Was the province of the dena validation of the proposed method by comparing the results for two different measuring cells. Experiment flooding core was repeated with improved measuring cell, in which a plastic tube was replaced by a glass with a smaller volume (Figure 4, Figure 5, cell 2). Improved cell had lower relaxation time than the first cell 2, cell 2). The method was applied to the concentrations registered in two different cells, to evaluate the impurity concentration at the entrance to the measuring cell. Restored the true concentration of impurities at the entrance to the measuring cell differed by less than 3% throughout the experiment. The study with the use of the invention showed that the enhanced cell improved the quality of measurements and provided the necessary accuracy to study the flooding of the core.

The difference between the incoming and outgoing signal can serve as an assessment of the quality of the measuring cell. The incoming signal is recovered by the proposed method using deconvolution. The difference between the signals can be considered different standards functionals, such as the norm of L2equal to the integral of the square of the difference signal by the time interval. The minimum value of the difference corresponds to the most accurate measurement. Thus, when processing a series of experiments using deconvolution we can judge the quality of the measuring cell.

1. the manual definition of local changes in the concentration of impurities in the fluid flow, in accordance with which the measuring cell is pumped liquid containing the admixture, the change of concentration in time at the entrance to the measuring cell is known, and determine the impurity concentration in time within the measuring cell, restore the impulse response of the measuring cell by the method of deconvolution, and then pumped through the measuring cell of the investigated liquid and determine the impurity concentration in time in the flow of the investigated liquid inside the measuring cell, and the impurity concentration in time in the flow of the liquid under study at the entrance to the measuring cell is determined from the equation

where τ is the integration variable, t is time, I(t) is the impurity concentration in the investigated liquid flow at the entrance to the cell, Rσ(t) is the impurity concentration in the investigated flow of the liquid inside the measuring cell, K(t) is the impulse response of the measuring cell.

2. The method according to claim 1, whereby the pre-set dependence of the physical properties of the liquid depends on the concentration of impurities, and the impurity concentration in the fluid flow within the measuring cell is determined by the measurement of the physical properties of the liquid.

3. The method according to claim 2, according to which the measured physical property of a liquid is the electrical resistance.

4. The method according to claim 2, in accordance with which the measured physical property of a liquid is the density.

5. The method according to claim 2, in accordance with which the measured physical property of the fluid is radioactivity.

6. The method according to claim 1, whereby additionally the quality of the measuring cell.

7. The method according to claim 6, in accordance with which calculate the difference between the impurity concentrations in the investigated liquid, measured within the measuring cell, and the concentration of impurities in the test fluid at the entrance to the cell, and the obtained difference is judged on the quality of the measuring cell.

8. The method according to claim 6, whereby determine the impulse response of the measuring cell using the Fourier transform and compare the Fourier transform of a function K(t) with constant.



 

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