FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: condenser uses heat exchange tubes made from heat-resistant and heat-insulating material as a waste steam cooling device; thermobatteries, the cold junctions of which face inside the tube and the hot ones face the outer side, are mounted in the above heat exchange tubes. Hot air from inter-tube space of the condenser is used for heating of rooms during winter time.
EFFECT: simpler design.
2 cl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to energy, primarily for equipment-condensing exhaust steam after the steam turbine nuclear power plants or thermal power plants.
Known cooling device for cooling and condensing the exhaust steam, comprising a condenser, a dry cooling tower and a vortex tube .
The disadvantage chiller plant design is the complexity and high cost of energy at her work.
The technical result of the invention is to simplify the design and reduce energy consumption.
To achieve a technical result in the cooling installation comprising a cooling medium exhaust steam, according to the invention is excluded vortex tube and dry cooling tower and condenser as a means of serving to cool the exhaust steam used heat exchanger tubes made of heat resistant and heat insulating material, in which is mounted thermopile cold junctions are facing the inside of the pipe, and hot outside.
In addition, the heated hot junctions of the air used for space heating and warm time is thrown away.
The invention is illustrated by the drawing, which shows a capacitor in the section.
The capacitor includes a housing 1 with an orifice 9 for the admission of steam in the turbine exhaust, the receiver pair 3, the collector to the completion of 4 and heat exchanger tubes 6, made of heat resistant and heat insulating material, open at the top in the receiver pair 3 and below in the condensate collector 4. In the walls of heat exchange tubes mounted thermopile cold junctions 7 are located inside the tubes 6, and hot 8 - face outward in the tube space of the condenser. The condensate is thrown through the pipe 5. On the pipe 10, indicating annulus with the atmosphere has a valve 11. The annular duct 12 extending from the housing 1 and coming back to it, fitted with a valve 13 and the blower 14.
The device operates as follows.
Exhaust steam through the neck 9 is supplied into the cavity 3, whence it moves through the channels of the heat exchange tubes 6. Since there is considerable difference in temperature between the exhaust steam and cold junctions, there is a transition of heat from the exhaust steam to the cold junctions 7 thermopile by two physical mechanisms, the direct contact of steam with cold junctions 7 and due to the radiation heat transfer between them .
As you move within the channels of the heat exchange pipes exhaust steam is cooled and condensed. The condensate is removed through pipe 5.
Hot hot junctions 8 air from the annulus through the pipe 10 is thrown away, and in cold weather the circular duct is served on ebohr is in space. The annular duct 12 within the heated rooms feature electroheater devices.
Thus, the exception of the design of the vortex tube and dry cooling tower and the application of heat exchanging tubes with thermopile for cooling the exhaust steam in comparison with the prototype to simplify the design and reduce energy consumption.
Sources of information:
1. Cooling unit for cooling the circulating water. RF patent No. 2 392 555.. 2010
2. Radiant heat exchange. - New Polytechnic dictionary. M:BDT,. 2003. P. 272.
1. A capacitor containing an instrument serving to cool the exhaust steam, characterized in that as a tool used heat exchanger tubes made of heat resistant and heat insulating material, in which is mounted thermopile cold junctions are facing the inside of the pipes and hot outside.
2. The capacitor according to claim 1, characterized in that its annular space communicates with the outer atmosphere or with the annular duct that supplies heat other rooms.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to spacecraft thermal-control equipment. Proposed system comprises two two-chamber fluid thermal boards 22 to support the equipment. Said thermal boards are mounted at manned compartment 1. External heat sink 12 is composed of four diametrically opposite heat exchange panels 14. Panel 14 is furnished with heat pipe with condenser 15 arranged inside panel 14 and evaporator 19 integrated with self-contained heat transfer element 16 mounted at spacecraft outer surface nearby panel 14. Element 16 comprises two one-chamber fluid thermal boards 18. Evaporator 19 is furnished with steam temperature regulator 17 to shut off or open heat pipe circuit depending upon set temperature. Thermal boards 22 are hydraulically communicated by circuits 13, 21 with appropriate one-way fluid thermal boards 18 of elements 16 to make one-phase working body line. Every circuit 13, 21 comprises electrically driven pump 3, drain-fill valves 5, hydropneumatic accumulator 8, pressure and flow rate gages 4, 7, 10, flow rate controller 11 and electric heaters 23. Every circuit 13, 21 has working body temperature transducers 20. Replaceable elements of said circuits are connected in main lines via hydraulic joints. Main lines are fitted in manned comportment 1 via sealed lead-ins 6. Heat control system comprises also the two-chamber gas-fluid heat exchanger 24 with two replaceable fans included into both circuits 13, 21.
EFFECT: expanded application range, higher reliability and reparability.
SUBSTANCE: noiseless heat-pipe cooling system includes a heat source, a closed flat heat-pipe evaporator and a condenser, which are equipped with steam and liquids branch pipes connected to each other via a steam line and a condensate line. Inner surface of the bottom of the evaporator is covered with a wick. Outer surface of the evaporator housing opposite a heat source is covered with zigzag-shaped ribs, and inner surface is covered with a grid from porous material. The grid is connected at its ends to a wick-header adjacent to the inner surface of its side end faces and lower end face, which is connected through a condensate inlet branch pipe to a transport wick arranged in a condensate line. A capillary heat-pipe condenser-cooler represents a flat rectangular housing with longitudinal vertical through air slots, which is equipped with condensate inlet and outlet branch pipes arranged in its opposite end faces. The condenser is separated on inner side with a vertical partition wall with vertical slots, which is adjacent to end partition walls of air slots into a steam header and a working chamber. Inner surface of lower wall of the housing of the heat-pipe condenser-cooler is coated with a wick layer on which in the working chamber in cavities between side vertical walls of two adjacent air slots there arranged are condensation and cooling sections. Each of the sections consists of two vertical partition walls, between which a vertical distributing steam channel is arranged, which is interconnected with the steam header through a vertical slot. Vertical chambers of residual condensation are located between side vertical walls of two adjacent air slots and two above said vertical partition walls. Each vertical partition wall consists of several vertical perforated plates arranged with a gap relative to each other and covered with a layer of hydrophilic material or made from it, the holes in which are made in the form of horizontal conical capillaries. Capillaries are located so that small holes of conical capillaries of the previous plate are located opposite large holes of conical capillaries of the next plate. Plates of vertical partition walls with large holes of conical capillaries face the cavity of each steam chamber, and plates of vertical partition walls with small holes of conical capillaries face the cavity of each chamber of residual condensation. Inner surface of side vertical walls of vertical chambers of residual condensation is covered with a grid from porous material. All gaskets from porous hydrophilic material and grids from porous material are connected to a wick layer that in its turn is connected through the condensate outlet branch pipe to the transport wick of the condensate line.
EFFECT: invention allows improving reliability and efficiency of a noiseless heat-pipe cooling system.
SUBSTANCE: heating radiator from a heat pipe arranged so that a working substance evaporation zone is in a pipe plugged at one side in the lower part of the pipe, and the entire pipe is in coolant, and a condensation zone is at least between two shaped metal sheets, besides, in the section such connection of sheets may look like an ellipse in case of two sheets, as a triangle in case of three sheets, as a parallelogram in case of four sheets, as a star in case of 10 and more sheets, and the condensation zone is arranged higher than the evaporation zone.
EFFECT: simplification, cost reduction and convenience of radiation structure installation.
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises evaporator in contact with heat generator, two condensers in contact with heat-controlled hardware and radiator, respectively, steam line, condensate line, and three-way valve with bellows. In compliance with first version, device additionally incorporates bypass line while condensers are connected in series. In compliance with second version, said condensers are connected in parallel. In both versions, device is equipped with sensor composed of capillary tube partially gilled with two-phase heat carrier. One end of said tube is connected with bellows while opposite end, tightly closed one, stay in contact with heat-controlled hardware.
EFFECT: adjusted heating of equipment, higher accuracy of adjustment.
6 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchange device comprising a lower part - a heating and evaporation zone and an upper part - a cooling and condensation zone, a body with heat-insulated walls and nozzles for supply and drain of a heated solution, comprises a longitudinally ribbed pipe located in a mixing chamber of a furnace, at the same time the ribbed pipe exiting the furnace goes into a shell and tube heat exchanger, which comprises a body, three pipes exiting from the ribbed pipe at the angle of 15 degrees, changing into horizontal pipes, at each end of which there is a socket, and seven tubes of identical diametre exit from the each socket, besides, body walls are heat-insulated with a heat insulation material, for instance, penofol, and the body comprises three nozzles for supply and drain of the heated solution and a nozzle for emptying a reservoir, at the same time the device is equipped with a pressure gauge, a safety valve and a tap for coolant filling and has a line of excessive pressure compensation for coolant filling with the device on, which is equipped with a valve, besides, in the device there is a reverse line of the circulating circuit and an expander with a nozzle.
EFFECT: invention increases efficiency, reliability and effectiveness of device operation.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: external combustion engine includes sealed housing in the form of flattened cone, which is partially filled with heat carrier. Housing includes evaporator and condenser. The housing includes heat-insulating ring being the element of the housing and rigidly attached both to evaporative section, and to condensation section of the engine housing. Turbine impellers with moving blades enclosed with a rim are rigidly attached to heat-insulating ring. Turbine impellers are rigidly attached to engine shaft. Turbine wheels with guide vanes enclosed with the rim representing an internal annular magnet are installed on the shaft. Rims of all wheels are installed so that an annular gap with housing is formed. Wheels with guide vanes are installed with possibility of being rotated in relation to the shaft - on bearings. External annular magnet rigidly attached to the housing is installed above internal annular magnet. Propeller is rigidly fixed on the engine shaft. The condenser includes bars, on which there rigidly fixed are cone-shaped plates of wave-like profile both on internal, and external sides of the housing. Combustion chamber with injectors is located around evaporator.
EFFECT: reducing mass and dimensions characteristics of the engine; enlarging its functional capabilities.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: method of heat pipe quality control is proposed using non-contact optic heat supply and temperature measurement methods, as well as digital methods of processing of the recorded brightness contrast of heat field. At that, quality of heat pipe is determined as per value of asymmetry coefficient of isothermic surface relative to heat supply zone, and defect zone is determined as per distortion of shape of isothermic lines.
EFFECT: improving informativity and reliability of heat pipe quality control; reducing the time required for test performance.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to has phase catalytic process equipment to be used in chemical, petrochemical and other industries exploiting gas phase catalytic reactions. Reactor comprises housing with reactor gas feed branch pipe and reaction product discharge branch pipe, heat pipe and pipes filled with catalyst. Heat pipe is formed by wall and housing first and second bottoms. Space between housing and first bottom is communicated with reactor gas feed branch pipe while that between housing and second bottom communicates with reactor product discharge branch pipe. Tubes filled with catalyst extend inside heat pipe. Note here that ends of tubes with catalyst extend beyond heat pipe limits. Heat feed to heat pipe and removed therefrom via housing.
EFFECT: uniform feed of heat, simplified heat feed and removal.
16 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in a heat pipe comprising a body with a polished inner surface, a system of capillary channels is made in the form of a plate perforated with holes, having width of more than the length of the vessel opening diametre, and the plate is installed in the body, in the section across the body length, in a crescent-shaped form, besides, ends of the plate tightly adjoin the body walls and have an angle between the body wall and the plate up to 1 degree, and the body has at one end a plug as permanently connected, and at the other side of the body there is a valve in the form of a helical pair to pour liquid containing the following mixture: ether - 20%, industrial ethyl alcohol - 60%, acetone - 20%.
EFFECT: development of a heat pipe with minimum quantity of parts and maximum even heating along the entire surface of the pipe.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: steam turbine multiheat-pipe plant includes evaporation chamber consisting of vertical evaporation sleeves connected to each other. Sleeves are connected to separation section the inner surface of which is covered with a grid consisting of strips made from porous material. Distributing header with nozzles is located at the top of separation section and demister and steam connection pipe is located at the bottom of separation section. Plant includes working chamber with power turbine the shaft of which is connected on the outer side with working element. Working chamber is equipped with high pressure steam inlet connection pipes and exhaust steam outlet connection pipes. Condensing chamber consists of distributing section the cover plate of which is equipped with exhaust steam inlet connection pipe. Bottom is covered with wick mass with holes and provided with holes to which vertical condensation sleeves covered on the inner side with a grid consisting of strips made from porous material, which is connected to wick mass, are connected. In the wick centre there located is cylindrical reservoir and feed pump the shaft of which is passed through cover plate of condensing chamber coaxially to shaft of power turbine wheel and rigidly attached to it. Pressure connection pipe is connected via pipeline to distributing header of evaporation chamber.
EFFECT: improving reliability and efficiency of steam turbine multiheat-pipe plant.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: water reuse system comprises heat exchangers connected with forward and return water manifolds to a mixer pool, which is equipped with a cooler connected to the forward manifold by a connecting pipeline with a flow controller and an ejector, the mixing chamber of which is connected to the return water manifold with a pressure controller, and the nozzle part of the ejector on the inner surface has helical grooves joined to a circular groove connected to a collector of contaminants, besides, the cooler comprises a vertical body, side walls of which and sectional partitions installed in it are made as zigzag-shaped and form diffusers and confusors in each section, which are arranged relative to the neighbouring sections in staggered order, besides, the cooler is equipped with a sprinkler made of nozzles in the form of pairwise expanding nozzles, at the inner surface of which there are curvilinear grooves, besides, in each pair of expanding nozzles on the first one from the pair the produced curved grooves have a clockwise direction, and at the second expanding nozzle of this pair the formed curved grooves have counterclockwise directions, besides, partitions of diffusers and confusors are made of bimetal, at the same time the internal metal of diffusers has the coefficient of heat conductivity that is 2.5-3 times higher than the coefficient of heat conductivity of the internal material of diffusers.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to maintain efficient operation of water reuse system in case of durable operation under conditions of contamination accumulation as cooled water moves in the cooler due to vibration shaking of solid particles that stick to inner surfaces of diffusers and confusors.
1 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: recirculating water supply system includes heat exchangers connected by means of straight and return water main line to reservoir - mixer equipped with cooler connected to straight main line by means of connecting pipeline to flow control and ejector the mixing chamber of which is connected to return water main line to pressure control, and nozzle part of ejector on inner surface has screw-shaped grooves connected to annular groove connected to dirt collector. At that, cooler includes vertical housing the side walls of which and sectional partitions are zigzag-shaped and form diffusers and confusers in each section, which are located relative to adjacent sections in staggered order; flow control is equipped with gate valve with speed control drive in the form of unit of powder electromagnetic couplings, and on straight water main line there is installed temperature sensor connected to temperature control containing comparing unit and setting unit; at that, comparing unit is connected to input of electronic amplifier equipped with non-linear feedback unit; output of electronic amplifier is connected to input of magnetic amplifier with rectifier the output of which is connected to speed control of gate valve drive; at that, partitions of diffusers and confusers are made from bimetal; at that, inner material of diffusers has heat conductivity coefficient which is more by 2.0 - 2.5 times than material of confusers.
EFFECT: invention allows providing reduction of energy consumption and maintenance of effective operation of system during continuous operation.
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: proposed heat exchanger comprises, at least, two heat exchange sections made with single tube plate whereto condensate collection chambers introduced to the inlet of every said section and furnished with condensate discharge branch pipes. Heat exchange tubes inside chambers are provided with holes or fractures.
EFFECT: reduced metal input and vapour circuit drag, lower costs.
8 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: condenser with capillary head piece includes housing with upper and lower cover plates, which is equipped with waste steam inlet and condensate outlet branch pipes, air branch pipe inside which a head piece is arranged on support grid and represents perforated caps laid in rows one on the other in a staggered order; their surface is covered with a layer of hydrophilic material or they are made from it; perforation in them is made in the form of conical capillaries located normally to surface of caps so that their small holes are situated on external surface of cap and large holes are provided on internal surface.
EFFECT: simpler design and higher operating efficiency of condenser with capillary head piece.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: to vertical shell-and-tube condenser containing cylindrical housing with lower and upper inlet and outlet branch pipes of heated heat carrier, bank of internal heat exchange tubes and external tubes installed coaxially so that inter-tube through annular channels are formed, as well as lower and upper grids for attachment of internal tubes and grid for attachment of upper ends of external tubes, at that, on the above cylindrical housing there is cover and bottom with branch pipes for supply of heat carrier to be cooled and discharge of cooled heat carrier, there additionally introduced is grid for attachment of lower ends of external tubes, which forms together with lower grid of internal tubes and cylindrical housing of condenser the distributing chamber of the heated heat carrier directed to inter-tube through annular channels. At that, some part of space between lower grid of internal tubes and bottom of condenser is interconnected by means of the tubes fixed in lower grids with volumetric space enclosed between external tubes, their grids and cylindrical housing that is equipped with discharge branch pipe of non-condensed gases. At that, discharge branch pipe of cooled heat carrier is equipped with floating valve.
EFFECT: stable and reliable operation.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to combination of internal combustion engine and steam machine. Proposed two-stage engine contains cylinder-piston group, crankcase with crankshaft, fuel supply system and cooling system. Cylinder block cooling jacket is made in form of steam boiler connected to additional cylinder-piston group connected with initial crankshaft. Condensing of steam is provided by pairs of plates installed with clearance at outlet of additional cylinder-piston group over perimeter of which grooves with holes are made for collecting condensate.
EFFECT: reduced overall dimensions of steam condenser.