Method for closing cracks in ice massif
SUBSTANCE: in ice massif, at certain distance L from crack edge an inclined cut is made at angle more than 45 degrees towards crack and at edges of this inclined cut vertical cuts are made perpendicular to crack propagation direction so that ice slab cut in this way slips under gravity along inclined surface and closes the crack. After crack closure depression formed at surface of ice structure is filled with snow and compacted until it acquired required strength.
EFFECT: crack closure method allows reliable blocking of the crack upper part, smoothening of formed depression by snow filling and compaction and ensuring strength characteristics for damaged surface area of the ice structure.
The invention relates to nedovedenie and lithotechnics and can be used to combat the cracks on roads, marinas, airfields, and other facilities built on the glaciers and icebergs.
The known method of repairing cracks and passages, consisting in the use of mats . This solution requires a significant amount of material, and is used when the ice structure is in close proximity to the forest. For repair of cracks at the airport, located on the glacier or iceberg may require a significant amount of construction material.
There is a method recommended by the Manual ice airfields located on the glaciers. Offered in case of occurrence of cracks on them and the inability to fill them with snow or broken ice is used, the object will be moved to a new location on the glacier, where cracks are absent . The disadvantage is the need to actually re-build the ice structure.
Known taken as the prototype of a way of dealing with the crack when the crack is filled with snow, and the snow is compacted using tracked vehicles . The disadvantage of this method is that the glaciers and icebergs, as a rule, are formed deep cracks, sometimes up to several hundred meters in depth, which physically is not possible to fall asleep in the snow.
The aim of the present invention is to eliminate gaps of the working surface of the ice facilities, such as runways (runway) ice airfield, ice roads, ice pier, etc. caused by cracks in the ice array.
The technical result consists in reducing fall asleep volume.
The invention is illustrated in the drawings, depicted in figure 1-3, on which are marked: 1 - ice pack, 2 - crack, 3 - inclined slot, 4 - cut a block of ice, 5 - vertical sections of ice, 6 - cavity.
The invention is implemented as follows.
In the array of ice (1), at a distance L from the edge of the crack (2) is inclined slot (3) at an angle more than 45 degrees in the direction of the crack. On the edge of this inclined slotted ice-cutter (such as a thermal ice-cutter GTR-1000 , or other structures) are made vertical cuts (5), perpendicular to the propagation of cracks that cut off so the ice block (4) under the action of gravity slid down the sloping surface and closed a crack, as shown in figure 2. The angle of the slits is selected from the considerations that would on the one hand to provide reliable slippage cut block of ice, on the other hand, what would a block of ice not scored high speed in contact with the opposite side of the crack and not collapsed. Forming is the lasting on the surface of the ice structures after the fracture blocks of ice cavity (6) is filled with snow, stamped and uchityvaetsya to give it the necessary strength (figure 3). The distance from the edge of the crack to the slot indicated in figure 1 by the letter L should be greater than the width of the crack and is chosen in such a way that the strength of the block cracked after lowering block of ice, and fill the cavities (6) snow and/or broken ice (figure 3) has withstood the estimated surface structures load.
The proposed method of sealing cracks ensures reliable locking of the upper section of the crack, by allowing the spreading and compaction of snow to align the formed cavity and to provide the necessary strength characteristics of the damaged portion of the surface of the ice structure.
As shown by the experiment, the economic effect from the use of the proposed method consists of saving time and funds to complete the filling of the cracks with snow and/or broken ice, and in case of impossibility of fill for the construction of a new ice facilities (runway, icy roads, and other objects).
Sources of information
1. Design, construction and maintenance of winter roads in Siberia and North-East of the USSR. VSN 137-89 Interstroy of the USSR, Moscow, 1991.
2. Manual civil airfields of the Russian Federation (RAGA RF-94). Moscow Air transport 1996.
3. Vassil is s NB, Kulchitsky VA; Makagonov VA Airfield pavement. Modern look. Fizmatlit, 2002.
4. Morev VA Ship the device to break up the ice. Copyright certificate for invention №844465. 1981.
Method of sealing cracks in the ice pack, which consists in their sleep by snow and his seal, characterized in that on one of the edges of the crack at a distance greater than its width, make an angled cut in the ice at an angle more than 45° in the direction of the cracks at the edges of the inclined slots are vertical slits perpendicular to the propagation of cracks, and then make the filling the resulting cavity with snow or broken ice.
SUBSTANCE: sea bridge is made of giant balls-floats from stiff foam plastic in a strong shell and ropes stretching via their middle with tubular elements of an overbridge on strainers and bearings, making it possible for the floats to rotate around the overbridge.
EFFECT: possibility to use a bridge for transportation of cargo and passengers via bays, channels, where ordinary bridges may not operate.
1 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: pontoon bridge comprises floating metal supports and a traffic area laid onto a beam metal span of the bridge. Floating supports are hollow waterproof metal vessels, which are trapezoid-shaped when looked at from the side above the deep-water line and ellipsoid-shaped under the deep-water line. Supports are connected in pairs at the level of the deep-water line with transversely aligned hinged joints and two longitudinal ropes that are common for the bridge and strength via foci of large axes of vessel ellipsoids, with a metal sheet on top overlapping above a rubber sheet at the bottom in the upper part of adjacent vessels coupled with hinged joints. Longitudinal ropes stretching via foci of large axes of vessel ellipsoids may be fixed with their ends via lanyards to the beam metal bridge span or to anchor devices on the shore. A rope conductor for each longitudinal rope may be a cylinder that connects two appropriate boards of vessel ellipsoids at the technologically justified level without damage to water tightness of the metal vessel.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing bridge service life and carrying capacity.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes freezing of previously stretched steel springs at both sides of the crossing along its length. After its freezing the stretching forces are removed. For freezing of springs into their ice cover they are heated to the temperature above the ice melting temperature by means of electric current sending through ropes. After their submersion into the ice cover for the depth of more than the diameter of the spring, the electric current supply is stopped. The surface of the ice crossing prepared by this surface is exposed to low atmospheric temperatures t<0°C to total freezing of water in grooves that occurred during ice melting.
EFFECT: increased load-lifting capacity.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates crossing appliances, namely to ferries and pontoon bridges. Proposed appliance consists of identical individual or interconnected ferries. Every ferry includes folding pontoon links composed of articulated two extreme and two central pontoons with built-in roadways and transom joints. Propulsors are arranged between said folding links. Displacement folding links are arranged on ends of every ferry with decks arranged on part of their length and inclined to transoms equipped with articulated triangular gang boards furnished with two-way roadways and lifted above water surface by gantry. Ends of extreme pontoon gang boards are furnished with paired fixed thrusts. Said ferries are jointed by transom joint links of extreme displacement folding links. Gang boards of said links are arranged and secured on pontoon deck inclined sections. Clearance between said paired thrusts makes 4-6 mm.
EFFECT: easier and faster deployment.
SUBSTANCE: pontoon hydropower motor road includes support links in the form of catamarans joined into a belt, on the deck surface of which there is a road surface. Between the catamaran bodies there are hydraulic drives of power plants installed. Double-body pontoon links of the motor road of catamaran type are shaped into a belt along a nonfreezing river bed.
EFFECT: using the invention makes it possible to erect a pontoon road of any length along a non-freezing river bed.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: result is achieved by freezing-in steel ropes at both sides of a crossing along its entire length. At the same time elements are previously installed onto ropes as rigidly connected to them, prior to their freezing-in the ropes are stretched, and after their freezing-in the stretching forces are removed. To freeze-in ropes with elements into an ice cover, they are heated to the temperature above the ice melting temperature by sending electric current through ropes, electric current supply is interrupted after their submersion into the ice cover for the depth below half of the ice thickness, the ice crossing surface prepared in this manner is exposed to low atmospheric temperatures (t<0°C) until full freezing of water in grooves that occurred during ice melting, at the same time the freezing-in process is repeated many times.
EFFECT: preservation of higher weight-lifting capacity by development of compressing forces.
1 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to stream-crossing expedients. Proposed segment comprises articulated medium and extreme pontoons with roadway built in deck. Medium pontoons transoms accommodate segment joint assemblies while extreme pontoon transoms support eye bolts and bypass units. Outer board of one of extreme pontoons is furnished with extending flexible folding sector-like floater consisting of inflatable wedge-like vessels arranged between frames. Said frames are fixed in recesses to turn about vertical axles mounted at the center of recess adjoining the roadway. Another extreme pontoon is equipped with rigid pod with length equal to that of pontoon pivoted to the latter to turn about axis parallel with segment lengthwise axis. Said pod features triangular prism shape. With pod in top position, one face of said prism continues segment bottom outlines and, with pod in position, another face does it. Third face is provided with joint device made up of, for example, ear and yoke with moving pin for jointing segments together in pontoon bridges and ferries.
EFFECT: expanded applications.
SUBSTANCE: propulsion assembly comprises displacement hull with side joint assemblies, engine and water-jet propeller, two hinged pontoons and their opening/closing mechanisms. Water-jet propeller is made up of two water jets. Pontoons are hinged together. Bottoms of pontoons are provided with sledge outlines along crosswise axis of subassemblies. Hinged pontoon side height equals that of river subassembly jointed thereto. Guide cutouts are made in the bottom of every pontoon. Said cutouts are located opposite rotary nozzles of water jets and oriented across propulsion assembly.
EFFECT: increased speed of shuttle ferry.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in freezing in steel ropes on ferry both sides over entire ferry length provided with preset elements rigidly jointed to said ropes. Prior to freezing in said elements, said ropes are pre-stretched. Said elements are made up of steel washers to be heated to temperature exceeding that of ice melting by feeding electric current there through. After immersing said elements in ice to depth half the ice entire thickness, current feed is terminated. Ice ferry surface thus prepared is subjected to effects of low ambient temperature (t<0°C) to complete freezing of water originating in channels of ice melting.
EFFECT: increased bearing capacity.
2 dwg, 2 cl
FIELD: road construction.
SUBSTANCE: watertight band with cords-weights fastened (sewn) thereto is used to accelerate uniform ice buildup all over ice ferry area. For this aforesaid band with cord-float and cords-weights fastened thereto is downed via prepared through ice-hole oriented along said ferry across under-ice water current. Heavier weight is arranged at the distance, exceeding ice thickness, from the edge of band fixed on ice sheet surface.
EFFECT: higher reliability of ferry.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing ramp and propulsion and steering gear and their hydraulic systems. Novelty in proposed water craft is that it is furnished with streamlined carrying frame for fastening devices of propulsion and steering complex installed in hull aft part and formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams hinge secured by inner ends of aft sheet of hull in zone located under loading side coupled by flexible cross beams in each pair and support bar between pairs. Hydraulic heads of propulsors are hinge-mounted on outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams, being secured on said beams to form additional cross tie between beams. Carrying frame is furnished with power hydraulic cylinders connected with hydraulic system and installed to control position of heads and loading side by turning carrying frame in aft sheet hinge joints. Body of each is provided with upper roller support, being rolling support for each hinged loading side at its opening, and lower platform being rigid base interacting with ground at resting of hinged loading side on head body in loading position of loading side. Novelty in hydraulic system of watercraft is that it is furnished, in additional to propulsor control hydraulic cylinders, with hydraulic cylinders for setting ramps, changing thrust vector, fixing loading side and locking carrying frame. Each hydraulic cylinder, including propulsor position control hydraulic cylinders, are supplied through parallel hydraulic lines connected with main line, with electric control in each line. Invention contains description of design peculiarities of each line providing required modes of operation of watercraft.
EFFECT: improved performance of watercraft and creating of hydraulic system providing required mode of operation of watercraft.
9 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to construct temporary roads across lakes and other water obstacles.
SUBSTANCE: ice bridge includes cooling plant, pipelines connected to cooling plant. Pipelines are submersed in water and suspended by wire ropes. Cooling plant has reducers for pressure reduction, 10 MPa gaseous nitrogen cylinders and liquid nitrogen cylinders adapted to fill pipelines with liquid and gaseous nitrogen mixture. The pipelines include several coiled sections or formed as straight and finned pipes. The pipelines are arranged in several rows and extend in vertical or horizontal directions. The pipelines are submersed for 0.1-5 m depth and are connected by wire ropes to balloons floating at water surface or to finned pipes driven in ground of river bottom and connected one to another by diaphragms. The cooling plant provides water freezing within 3-5 km range and obtains ice having thickness of 3 m or more.
EFFECT: increased water freezing rate.
FIELD: movable or portable bridges, floating bridges adapted to convey loads over ice cover.
SUBSTANCE: method to transport vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover over ice involves moving vehicle having weight not exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover at resonance speed; moving vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying capacity to ice cover line when above vehicle having lesser weight has moved away from ice cover line for distance equal to 2/3 of resonance bending-gravity wave length; initiating above vehicle having larger weight movement with above resonance speed. Resonance bending-gravity wave length is determined from where D is cylindrical stiffness of ice plate, ρ and h - ice density and thickness, g - gravity, H - water body depth.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity of ice cover.
FIELD: floating bridges, for instance temporary bridges for load transportation over ice.
SUBSTANCE: structure includes ice blanket in which vertical holes are drilled for the full bridge structure length so that the holes are located from both bridge sides. Reinforced concrete blocks connected to ropes are inserted through the holes so that the blocks are located under the ice blanket. Discs having diameters exceeding hole diameters are connected to upper block ends. Rope lengths are selected to prevent ice blanket movement in upward direction with respect to initial ice position if flexural-gravity waves are generated in ice blanket.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity.
FIELD: bridge crossing equipment; ferries and floating bridges.
SUBSTANCE: proposed motor unit includes displacement hull with joints in sides, engine mounted inside hull and water-jet propeller, two hinged pontoons which are articulated with hull and mechanism for opening and folding the pontoons. Each hinged pontoon is provided with torsion-loaded swivel hydrostatic shield on external side which is articulated with hinged pontoon in area of its bottom; hinged pontoons are also provided with mechanism for turning the shield; this mechanism is made in form of hydraulic cylinder with rod secured in hull of hinged pontoon. Thrust roller secured on end of rod is received by guide of hydrostatic shield.
EFFECT: reduced resistance of shuttle ferry due to improved streamlining of projecting lower part of motor unit.
FIELD: bridge construction, particularly floating bridges, for example, pontoon bridges.
SUBSTANCE: method involves unloading land-based and river-based pontoon sections on ice, expanding the pontoon sections in temporary bridge location area; sealing pontoons of each pontoon section by means of top and bottom jointing means; moving each pontoon section to temporary bridge construction site over ice; serially jointing pontoon sections with each other along temporary bridge length and breaking ice by blasting charges spaced from bridge axis. Longitudinal grooves are created in ice from each bridge side with the use of ice-cutters so that ice thickness in groove bottom area is not more than 10 cm. After that elongated charges including several detonating fuse strings are laid in the grooves. The grooves are filled with wet snow or water and elongated charges are blasted to break ice in each groove. After that ice under bridge sections is broken by vehicle movement over the bridge.
EFFECT: decreased time and increased safety of temporary bridge construction.
FIELD: construction industry; bridges.
SUBSTANCE: method of pontoon bridge equipping at high flow speed is performed using set of railway pontoon ribbon bridge and differs in the fat that bridge stiffness on water obstacle is provided by anchors which are installed on bridge top and bottom sides and are attached to bottom of outer pontoons with the help of ropes which pass through lugs fixed on rings welded to deck and bottom of outer pontoons.
EFFECT: increasing vertical component of hydrodynamic forces, reducing the different of member to top or bottom sides, and improving pontoon bridge reliability.
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: ice crossing construction method refers to ice-technology industry, and can be used when designing ice crossing meant for load transportation. Snow shall be removed from ice surface, and the latter shall be covered with air-tight film. Space between ice surface and film is ventilated with fan cold ambient air. Cold air flow intensifies heat exchange on ice surface and provides its fast cooling, and thickness increase.
EFFECT: fast putting into operation of ice crossing.
FIELD: construction, road construction.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of bridge engineering and is intended for erection of pontoon bridges over water obstacles on a tight schedule and with the least material and labour expenses. It is achieved by the fact that pontoon bridge comprises pontoons open at the bottom, on which bridge supports are mounted to carry spans and road way, and spacers that connect peripheral parts of pontoon to fixed anchors on soil, and every pontoon is arranged in the form of packet of vertically oriented adjacent tanks that are inverted upwards with their bottoms and are connected to system of air supply and its pressure control in every of them, at that spacers are located on the opposite sides of pontoon to form triangular figures with every of them, which are oriented in crossing planes, and have dampers and/or control mechanisms, preferably with remote control, their stretching in process of bridge erection and/or its operation. At that vertically oriented tanks form rows of cells in section with horizontal plane, which are evenly located on at least part of section area.
EFFECT: higher reliability of pontoon bridge operation at different dynamic effect at it, also from wave and wind loads due to provision of stability in pontoons that carry spans and provision of their controlled submersion at specified depth.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport, construction.
SUBSTANCE: method of producing ice ferry consists in cleaning ice surface of snow, placing a layer of heat-isolation material through the cut, along the ice ferry routed, and pressing aforesaid layer to the ice layer lower surface. A continuous layer of ice floats is placed between the ice surface lower surface and the said heat-isolation material.
EFFECT: higher load-carrying capacity of ice ferry.