Electrochemical method for synthesis of metal-doped polyaniline
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an electrochemical method for synthesis of metal-doped polyaniline, which involves preparation of a solution with the following concentration of components: sulphuric acid 0.5-1.5 mol/dm3, aniline 0.1-0.4 mol/dm3, transition metal salts 0.1-1.0 mol/dm3; conducting electrolysis at temperature of 10-30°C using a working electrode and an auxiliary electrode, wherein the solution preparation step involves further addition of 0.1-0.5 mol/dm3 aminoacetic acid or 0.1-0.5 mol/dm3 disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; the transition metal salts used are transition metal sulphates; the working electrode and auxiliary electrode used are stainless steel electrodes; electrolysis is carried out with constant current density of 1-10 mA/cm2, and after the electrolysis step, the obtained metal-doped polyaniline is treated with an alkaline solution at pH 8-10.
EFFECT: electrochemical method for synthesis of metal-doped polyaniline is cheap owing to use of stainless steel electrodes, and the obtained metal-doped polyaniline has high passivating capacity.
1 dwg, 3 ex
The invention relates to the electrochemical production, namely, electrochemical methods for the synthesis of polyaniline doped with metal used for the passivation of metal to improve corrosion protection of metal constructions and metal products.
Closest to the present invention is a method of synthesis of polyaniline doped with metal, comprising preparing a solution with a concentration of components: sulfuric acid of 0.5-1.5 mol/DM3, aniline 0.1 to 0.4 mol/DM3the chlorides of transition metals of 0.1-1.0 mol/DM3, carrying out electrolysis at a temperature of 10-30°C at constant potential 0,65-0,85; In which case, as a working electrode using a platinum foil or conductive glass, and as an auxiliary electrode using a platinum foil (patent CN 1958852, priority 10.11.2006,).
However, the thus obtained synthesis of polyaniline alloyed metal is quite expensive due to the need for synthesis as electrode material platinum, and the resulting product has a weak passivating ability.
An object of the invention is the reduction method for the synthesis of polyaniline doped with metal, and obtaining a product with a higher passivating ability.
The problem is solved t is m, in the electrochemical method of synthesis of polyaniline doped with metal, comprising preparing a solution with a concentration of components: sulfuric acid of 0.5-1.5 mol/DM3, aniline 0.1 to 0.4 mol/DM3, salts of transition metals of 0.1-1.0 mol/DM3, carrying out electrolysis at a temperature of 10-30°C. use a working electrode and auxiliary electrode, at the stage of preparation of the solution additionally impose 0.1-0.5 mol/DM3aminouksusnoy acid or 0.1-0.5 mol/DM3disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as salts of transition metals are used, the transition metal sulfates, as the working and auxiliary electrodes using the electrode made of stainless steel, electrolysis is carried out at a constant current density of 1-10 mA/cm2and after the stage of electrolysis received polyaniline alloyed metal is treated with an alkaline solution with a pH of 8-10.
As the alkaline solution using an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide or ammonium hydroxide.
Components: aniline, sulphuric acid, sulphate of transition metals (copper sulfate, Nickel sulfate, aluminum sulfate, manganese sulfate), aminouksusnoy acid, the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid is used pure for analysis (reagent grade.) or net (hours).
The invention is illustrated in the following the examples.
Prepare a solution with a concentration of components: sulfuric acid 1.0 mol/DM3, aniline 0.2 mol/DM3, aluminum sulfate 0.5 mol/DM3and the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and 0.4 mol/DM3conduct electrolysis at a temperature of 20°C using a working electrode and auxiliary electrode, stainless steel, carry out electrolysis for 50 minutes at a constant current density of 7 mA/cm2. Received polyaniline alloyed metal is treated with sodium hydroxide solution to pH 9, then washed with distilled water and dried, for example, in a drying Cabinet at 60°C.
Prepare a solution with a concentration of components: sulfuric acid and 1.5 mol/DM3, aniline 0.4 mol/DM3, manganese sulfate 1.0 mol/DM3and the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid 0.5 mol/DM3conduct electrolysis at a temperature of 30°C using a working electrode and auxiliary electrode, stainless steel, carry out electrolysis for 30 minutes at a constant current density of 10 mA/cm2. Received polyaniline alloyed metal is treated with sodium hydroxide solution to pH 10, then washed with distilled water and dried, for example at room temperature.
Prepare a solution with a concentration to which mponents: sulfuric acid 0.5 mol/DM 3, aniline 0.1 mol/DM3, Nickel sulfate 0.1 mol/DM3and aminouksusnoy acid 0.1 mol/DM3conduct electrolysis at a temperature of 10°C using a working electrode and auxiliary electrode, stainless steel, carry out electrolysis for 120 minutes at a constant current density of 1 mA/cm2. Received polyaniline alloyed metal is treated with ammonium hydroxide solution to pH 8, then washed with distilled water and dried, for example, in a drying Cabinet at 40°C.
Check passivating ability of the obtained polyaniline doped with metal, in comparison with the prototype is as follows. 1% aqueous solution of polyaniline doped with metal, applied on steel specimens of size 2×1 cm, dried at normal temperature and immersed in a 3% aqueous solution of sodium chloride and incubated for 1 hour, and then applied polyaniline, doped metal removed from the surface of the steel sample and estimating the rate of corrosion by electrochemical method in a 3% aqueous solution of sodium chloride, exploring the anodic polarization curves passivated polyaniline, alloyed metal samples for prototype and according to the invention. As can be seen from the curves (Fig.1), the corrosion rate of the samples according to the invention, in 2 -3 times less compared to samples of the prototype.
Thus, the proposed electrochemical method for synthesis of polyaniline doped with metal, through the use of electrodes made of stainless steel instead of electrodes made of platinum is more expensive than the method on the prototype, and received polyaniline, doped metal has a higher passivating ability compared to polyaniline, alloyed metal, obtained by the prototype.
Electrochemical method for synthesis of polyaniline doped with metal, comprising preparing a solution with a concentration of components: sulfuric acid of 0.5-1.5 mol/DM3, aniline 0.1 to 0.4 mol/DM3, salts of transition metals of 0.1-1.0 mol/DM3, carrying out electrolysis at a temperature of 10-30°C. use a working electrode and auxiliary electrode, characterized in that at the stage of preparation of the solution additionally impose 0.1-0.5 mol/DM3aminouksusnoy acid or 0.1-0.5 mol/DM3disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as salts of transition metals are used, the transition metal sulfates, as the working and auxiliary electrodes using the electrode made of stainless steel, electrolysis is carried out at a constant current density of 1-10 mA/cm2and after the stage of electrolysis received polyaniline, legirovannym the metal, treated with an alkaline solution with a pH of 8-10.
SUBSTANCE: method of producing ultramicrodispersed nickel oxide powder includes electrolysis in 17 M sodium hydroxide solution under alternating sinusoidal current at 20Hz with nickel electrodes. The process of electrolysis is carried out at temperature of 20-30°C and voltage across the electrodes of 4V.
EFFECT: method for producing ultramicrodispersed nickel oxide powder suitable for use in catalytic production of nanocarbon materials by pyrolysis of hydrocarbons while reducing heating costs and simplifying its cell structure.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises casing to accommodate cells connected in series and composed of cathode, anode, gastight membrane arranged there between, pump to circulate alkaline electrolyte, tanks with alkaline electrolyte, water feed system, device to separate oxygen from water and alkali vapors and device to separate hydrogen from water and alkaline vapors. Anode of every cell is composed of screen tube while cathode is composed of hollow cylinder made from porous water-repellant material. Note here that anode and cathode are located close to gastight membrane to form cathode gas chamber between outer side of cathodes and casing connected with hydroseal chamber, alkaline electrolyte tank and device separating hydrogen from water and alkali vapors. Cell anode chambers are connected with heat exchanger and alkaline electrolyte tank communicated with device separating oxygen from water and alkali vapors and water feed system.
EFFECT: power savings, higher efficiency, reliability and safety.
5 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: electrolytic cell comprises housing, heat exchanger, in-synthesis-stable metal electrodes with insulators arranged there between, reaction solution feed pipe arranged at housing bottom, target product suspension discharge tangential pipe arranged at housing top, two-tier mixer, compartment for replenishment of reaction solution with used reagent and stable membrane for separation of said compartment from cell main volume.
EFFECT: higher purity of target product, simplified removal of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole.
SUBSTANCE: there is a pause from several seconds to several hours between electric power switch-off moment and moment of switch-on with opposite polarity.
EFFECT: elimination of clogging of inter-electrode space with deposits of hardness salts on electrodes of electrolysis devices, and increasing operational life of those devices.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a multielement matrix filter-press water electrolysis unit consisting of electrolysis cells containing porous cathode, anode and electrolyte-containing matrix, as well as wetting elements containing an electrolyte cavity and a porous membrane permeable for water vapours and non-permeable for liquid, with water supply to cathodes in the form of water vapour mixed with hydrogen; besides, wetting elements and electrolysis cells are spatially separated from each other and insulated as to metal and electrolyte and combined into two separate sections, in which vapour-hydrogen mixture circulates via a common closed circuit, thus maintaining the same temperature in sections; with that, in the wetting element liquid electrolyte is separated from gas of vapour-hydrogen mixture with a hydrophilic membrane with gas shutoff properties, and gas pressure is higher than electrolyte pressure.
EFFECT: reliable and high-efficient operation during a long period of time.
5 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of electro-chemical processing of water by disinfectants, which can be applied for processing of drinking water, domestic and industrial sewages, and water of swimming pools. Method includes introduction into processed water of disinfectants, obtained by direct electrolysis in flowing regimen of processed water, which contains sodium chloride, with application of water, which contains 0.1÷20 mg/l of sodium chloride. Invention also relates to device for electro-chemical processing of water by disinfectants, which contains body with input and output branch pipes, polarity-changing titanium electrodes, means for supply of current to electrodes, and change of polarity takes place with pause from several seconds to several hours, and inter-electrode distance constitutes less than 1 mm.
EFFECT: possibility of reagent-free control of water properties with low content of chlorides, resulting in direct disinfection.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to an antiviral composition solution and a method for preparing it. The antiviral composition solution contains complex silver, glycine complex bound to silver, sodium glycinate and water in certain proportions. The method for preparing the above antiviral composition solution consists in electrolysis of the solution containing the glycine compounds and sodium glycinate to provides the electric conductivity of the solution; the electrolysis of the solution is conducted to achieve the silver concentration of 0.1-0.45 wt %. The electrolysis is followed by chemical oxidation of the prepared solution to improve its stability, and the precipitation is filtered.
EFFECT: invention provides preparing the stable lightfast and long-tern stored antiviral composition solution.
4 cl, 6 tbl, 2 dwg, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of chemistry. To obtain hydrogen reaction of steam catalytic conversion of carbon-containing liquid is carried out with obtaining hydrogen-containing reaction products. Reaction products are directed on output of cathode space for electrolysis in high temperature electrolyser, on outlet from cathode space reaction flow, which contains synthesis-gas, directed on catalytic synthesis of carbon-containing liquid, is separated. Oxygen is released in anode space, separated from cathode space by electrolytic layer. Carbon-containing liquid is returned to the start of process for conversion, and hydrogen, obtained in process of carbon-containing liquid synthesis, is purified from carbon oxides.
EFFECT: hydrogen obtaining.
11 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: treatment of carbon-bearing carrier of an electrochemical catalyser is performed in a vacuum chamber equipped with a source of flow of atomic particles and a holder of carbon powder, which has the possibility of mixing the powder; powder of carbon-bearing carrier is mixed, and surface of the carrier is bombarded with a beam of atomic particles; besides, in order to arrange powder of carbon-bearing carrier, there used is a porous substrate installed in the holder and having open porosity, and made from inert material, and pneumatically connected to an autonomous gas supply device; layers of particles of carbon-bearing carrier are put on the substrate; inert gas is blown through the porous substrate so that a fluidised layer of carbon-bearing carrier particles is formed above the substrate, and bombardment of surface of particles of carbon-bearing carrier is performed with ion energy of not less than 7.41 eV/atom.
EFFECT: improving activation efficiency of surface of fine and nanosized carrier of electrochemical catalysers.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to electrolysis unit (100) including the following: high-pressure housing (115) having a shell and opposite closed ends; pack (101) of electrolytic cells inside the high-pressure housing, which contains a group of bipolar electrolytic cells assembled in a pack between the fist end contact plate (107a) and the second end contact plate (108a), and adapted for operation at internal pressure; connections for fluid media for supply of electrolyte to pack of cells and for discharge of product(s) of electrolysis unit from the pack of cells, and electrical connections including at least anode and cathode connections. Electrolysis unit is characterised by the fact that: the first end contact plate (107a) of pack of cells composes a single whole together with one of closed ends of the high-pressure housing, thus forming stationary head (107) of pack of cells, which is equipped with connections (122) for fluid media and electrical connections (120, 121) of anode and cathode with pack of cells, and the second end contact plate (108a) of pack of cells is insides high-pressure housing (115) and has the possibility of of free movement in longitudinal direction relative to the first end contact plate and the housing, at thermal expansion or compression, thus forming floating head (108) of pack of cells. Also, the invention refers to a method for performance of electrolysis, to electrolysis equipment and to obtainment of high-pressure hydrogen, which use the above electrolysis unit.
EFFECT: invention provides an electrolysis unit allowing to obtain hydrogen at the pressure required for its storage in reservoirs; at that, it does not contain any connectors for fluid media critical for tightness of the system and excludes the risk of parasite currents and dangerous closures appearing in case of electrolyte leakage.
14 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of producing polyphenyl polyamines comprises steps of producing an aqueous stream containing polyphenyl polyamines and removing the polyphenyl polyamines from the aqueous stream. The method of removing polyphenyl polyamines involves preparing pertraction equipment, having a membrane which has a first side and a second side opposite the first side. The membrane is then soaked with a liquid characterised by surface tension of less than 40 mN/m. Further, the aqueous stream containing polyphenyl polyamines linked by bridge methylene groups is brought into contact with the first side fo the membrane and the second side of the membrane is brought into contact with an organic stream. During this process, there is transfer of polyphenyl polyamines from the aqueous stream through the membrane into the organic stream.
EFFECT: invention reduces the number of steps of the method, makes the extraction step more robust when operating in varying process conditions.
14 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to use of alkoxylated polyalkanolamines to demulsify oil-in-water emulsions, primarily oil emulsions. Alkoxylated polyalkanolamines are obtained (A) by condensing at least one trialkanolamine to a polyalkanolamine, the obtained polyalkanolamine having number-average molecular weight from 1000 to 20000 g/mol, and (B) alkoxylating the obtained polyalkanolamine with ethylene oxide and propylene oxide. The formed polyoxyalkylene groups have a block structure of general formula: -(CH2CH2O)x(CH2CH(CH3)O)yH, in which x and y denote a number from 3 to 100, respectively, and the ratio y/x is greater than 1.
EFFECT: disclosed demulsifiers are suitable for faster and complete phase separation of oil-in-water emulsions, primarily oil emulsions.
11 cl, 2 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method for extraction of oil from carbonate formations involves dilution in water or salt solution (in quantity of 0.01-20%) of quarternary polyamines of the specified formula, where n≥1; R1 represents H, CH3, CH2CH3, CnH2n+1; R2 represents H2CHOHCH2, CH2, CH2CH=CH2, R3 represents CH3, CH2CH3, CnH2n+1; R4 represents CH2, CH2CH=CH3; and if R2 and R4 represent allyl groups, then altogether they can form aliphatic cyclic structures; ratio between atoms of carbon and nitrogen (C/N) is at the interval of 2 to 30, and further introduction to the well.
EFFECT: increasing oil extraction degree.
15 cl, 30 ex, 4 tbl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polyamines and methods of using said polyamines for scale treatment in different industrial process streams. Disclosed are hydrophobically modified silicon-containing polyamines, containing repeating structural links of two types, a composition based thereon and a method of reducing or eliminating scales in an industrial process, involving addition of the disclosed polymer or composition into a process stream.
EFFECT: disclosed hydrophobically modified silicon-containing polyamines are suitable for aluminosilicate scale treatment in hard-to-clean industrial process streams, such as process streams in a Bayer method of extracting alumina from bauxite, streams of radioactive wastes and effluent streams formed during production of kraft paper.
30 cl, 9 tbl, 156 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biodegradable polymers suitable for delivery of biological agents to cells. Proposed is a polymer containing a link with formula (I) where PEI is a link of polyethylenimine with molecular weight less than 600 Daltons; R is a pair of electrons; L is selected from among C2-C50 carboxialkenyl and residues of fatty acid from C12 to C18; m is an integer from 1 to 30. Additionally proposed is a polymer complex with an oligonucleotide and a method for eukaryote cells transfection using such complex.
EFFECT: proposed polymer is applicable for safe and effective delivery of a small interfering RNA or oligonucleotides to the cell.
16 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is an adhesive composition containing a) polyamidoamine-epihalohydrin polymer with molecular weight 2000-100000 g/mol, which is a product of reaction of epichlorohydrin and a product of polycondensation of polyamine and polycarboxylic acid, and b) protein or lignin, where the weight ratio of a) to b) ranges from 100:0.1 to 0.1:100. Also disclosed is a version of the adhesive composition which contains a low-viscosity polymer, use of the disclosed composition to glue wood and cellulose, a method of producing a thermosetting product using the disclosed composition and articles from wood, which are glued to each other using the disclosed composition.
EFFECT: adhesive compositions have controlled viscosity and prolonged stability during storage, which makes easier their use and widens their field of use.
8 cl, 9 tbl, 53 ex
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is an enzymatic method of producing electroconductive polymers, specifically polyaniline, polypyrrole, polythiophene and substituted derivatives thereof. The method involves use of a salt of a transition metal complex as an enzymatic reaction accelerator, having redox potential in the range of 0.35-0.95 V. The salt is selected from a group comprising cyanide complexes of molybdenum, osmium, ruthenium, tungsten and iron. The process is carried out at pH 2.5-5.5 and temperature 0-30°C and the oxidant used is molecular oxygen.
EFFECT: method enables to carry out high-speed oxidative polymerisation using low concentration of enzymatic reaction accelerator and an acid dopant.
3 dwg, 12 ex
SUBSTANCE: antistatic coating composition, containing an acrylate- and polyaniline-based resin modified with cyanate-acrylate, which is capable of chemically bonding with acrylate-based resin. The antistatic coating composition can additionally contain a plasticiser, a photosensitiser and organic solvents. The antistatic coating composition, where the cyanate-acrylate-modified polyaniline is obtained using a two-step method: 1) obtaining cyanate-acrylate through a reaction of hydroxyacrylate (formula (1)): O=C=N-R1-N=C=O, where R1 denotes alkylene or arylene containing 10 or less carbon atoms) and diisocyanate (formula (2)): where R2 denotes alkylene or arylene containing 10 or less carbon atoms) and 2) covalent bonding of cyanate-acrylate to the polyaniline backbone chain to form a polyaniline-acrylate copolymer.
EFFECT: formation of a film with excellent adhesion properties and surface tension with UV curing.
13 cl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a cationic lypo-polymer, containing a polyethylene imine biodegradable group and a relative hydrophobic "lypo" group, or complex thereof with a biomolecule and consisting of recurring units selected from a group of formula and formula , where PEI denotes a polyethylene recurring unit; R is an electron pair; L is selected from a group consisting of C12-C18 fatty acids, cholesterol and derivatives thereof, C2-C50 alkyl, C2-C50 carboxyalkenyl, C2-C50 carboxyheteroalkenyl; W is a cationic part containing 2-50 carbon atoms; and m is a whole number from 1 to 30. The invention also describes methods of delivering a biomolecule to an eukaryotic cell, involving contact between the cell with said polymer.
EFFECT: obtaining polymers which can safely and effectively simplify delivery of biologically active agents to cells.
20 cl, 19 ex, 15 dwg
SUBSTANCE: copolymers of hetero-chain aliphatic poly-N-oxides of general formula (I) , where R=N, CH; x=2-4; y=0, 2; n=10-1000; q=(0.1-0.9)n; z=(0.1-0.9)n. Copolymers possess anti-oxidant action, therapeutic action as detoxicant and immunomodelling agent. Copolymers of formula (I) can be used as immunomodulating carrier for obtaining vaccinating medication and as carrier of medications for obtaining medications.
EFFECT: copolymers of hetero-chain aliphatic poly-N-oxides represent novel class of compounds possessing wide spectrum of pharmacological and vaccinating action, aimed at increase of safety in application, increase of technological and economical effectiveness and ecological safety of production of medications.
20 cl, 2 dwg, 13 tbl, 22 ex
FIELD: organic chemistry, rubber industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a chemical compound, namely to polyaniline (poly-p-phenyleneamineimine) that is used as an antiager for rubbers. Polyaniline of the formula: wherein m = n = 1 with molecular mass 25 x 103 Da is used as an antiager. Invention provides enhancing thermostability of vulcanized rubbers.
EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of antiager.
2 tbl, 2 ex