Multispectral interference light filter for protection from laser radiation
SUBSTANCE: light filter includes a transparent substrate and three elements deposited thereon, said elements having interference coatings made of alternating layers with high and low refraction indices (BH)k. In the first element, which is a multilayer interference filter in form of a second-order mirror (λ0=1565 nm) with high reflection in the 530-540 nm range and maximum transmission in the 470-505 nm and 545-620 nm range, at the filter-substrate and filter-air boundary, there are additional layers of (CH)3 and (CH)2 C1.24H. In the second element, which is a long-wave cut-off filter (λ0=680 nm) with high reflection in the 635-740 nm range and maximum transmission in the 470-620 nm range, situated on the side of the substrate opposite the first element and directly adjacent to it, there are additional layers of 0.5C(CH)4 and (CH)3C 0.54H. In the third element, which is a short-wave cut-off filter (λ0=425 nm) with high reflection in the 380-460 nm range and maximum transmission in the 470-620 nm range and situated on top of the second element, there are additional layers of 0.5 BH(CH)3 and 0.5B.
EFFECT: high filter transparency in the short-wave and long-wave region of the spectrum from the high reflection band while blocking laser radiation with a given wavelength.
The invention relates to optical instruments, namely, devices for protection of organs of sight and equipment from the blinding effects of laser radiation. Known protective devices using different types of filters, blocking laser radiation of certain frequencies and certain power. Blocking radiation occurs either due to absorption of radiation of a given wavelength (λ0), or due to its reflection. Absorption color filters is created by the introduction of materials admixtures, dyes, pigments, semiconductor elements. The absorbed light is converted into heat, resulting filters can discolour and lose the ability to protect against high-power laser radiation. As reflective systems can use various kinds of interference coatings of alternating layers with high (nin) and low (nn) index of refraction: dielectric mirrors, polarizers, splitters, band pass, low pass filters . The main requirements for such coatings are high reflectance in the spectral region of laser radiation, high transmission in the other sections of the visible spectrum and preservation of color. To meet these requirements usually created cover, a locking hole is RNA radiation of a certain frequency.
Now you want to create a coating for protection against laser radiation of multiple wavelengths simultaneously. For this band blocking in the visible part of the spectrum must be large enough to provide a deep suppression of the laser wavelength, including the case of oblique incidence of light, and small enough not to block the rest of the spectrum. The optimal bandwidth of the reflection Δλ0,01/λ0=(0,04-008) (Δλ0,01the bandwidth of the reflection at the level of 1% transmittance λ0- wavelength blocking). An obstacle to obtaining the maximum transmittance in the field of transparency is the presence in the spectra of transmittance of the side maxima of reflection (oscillations), the height of which depends on the refractive index difference between and from the absolute values of the refractive indices of the alternating layers. The deepest failure is near the edge of the reflection. The number and height of the side maxima increases with increasing number of layers. Increasing the number of layers needed to obtain maximum reflection (high optical density).
Quite high requirements for performance coatings. Cover should be water-resistant, to withstand cleaning with organic solvents (alcohol, acetone).
Known konstruktionsmaterialer of alternating layers with high and low refractive index, when the optical thickness equal to five (copyright certificate №381055 from 15.05.1973) . This embodiment of the filter provides selective reflection in several portions of the spectrum, for example in the area of 0.53; 0,69 and 1.06 µm, while maintaining transparency outside these areas. The design of the filter P(VN)to5B, where the symbol P labeled substrate; and N quarter-wave film with high and low refractive indices; to - parameter ratio, which determines the total number of layers in the system.
However, this filter does not have sufficient optical density (D). At the wavelength of 0.53 μm D almost in one point is equal to the unit (Δλ0,01/λ0<0,01, i.e. Δλ≈2-3 nm). In addition, the filter has a low mechanical strength, because when a large difference in the thickness of the adjacent layers are too high internal stress. These filters are subject to mandatory bonding immediately after production.
Known systems of dielectric mirrors with high selectivity (Δλ0,01/λ0=0.1 to 0.2) layer-based unequal optical thickness, and this inequality varies from layer to layer according to a given program. For example, P(0,V - 1,N-0,V-1,N-0,12V - 1,88H-...0,V). However, such systems are difficult to manufacture because they contain very thin layers, the thickness of which cannot be controlled it is possible accuracy in the visible part of the spectrum. Such coatings can be used for the far infrared region of the spectrum.
Also known system of alternating layers of equal optical thickness from three different materials. Selective systems can be Δλ0,01/λ0=0,08-0,16. Designation of such systems P(N)toP(N)toetc. where N is an integer denoting the thickness of the next layer in the quarters of the wavelength, With a quarter-wave film with an average value of the refractive index. However, such systems have a low optical density and extra band reflection in the area of transparency.
There are various designs of coatings used to reduce oscillations and improve the transmittance in the workspace transparency, maintaining high reflectance [3-6]. To obtain the greatest possible transparency with long-wavelength side of the band reflect commonly used structure P(0,VN,5V)toor P(0,NW,5H)to. For maximum transparency with the short wavelength side of the band reflection uses P(VL)toB0,5H.
Depending on the specific requirements of the spectral characteristics of the coatings developed a great number of designs of filters to smooth out the oscillations and increase bandwidth in C the data portions of the spectrum. For example, it is proposed, in addition to the upper layer of low refractive index (nn) thickness λ0/8 (0,5H), between the substrate and the interference system to place an additional layer with a high refractive index (nin) thickness 3/4 λ0(3V) (copyright certificate №386363 from 14.06.1973) . In the author's certificate No. 471568 from 25.05.75 proposed interference between the system and the surrounding environments place additional layers with an average refractive index (ncfcalculated by a certain formula, the optical thickness of λ0/8. In the author's certificate No. 448418 from 30.10.74  this task is solved by the introduction of two additional words of thickness λ0/8 on the borders of the interference coating. While the layers adjacent to the floor, have a refractive index equal to n=nin3/2·mon-1/2and the refractive index of the outer layers is equal to (n n0)1/2and (ndastardly)1/2. In the author's certificate No. 553564 from 05.04.1977  proposed two sides of the interference system to introduce additional layers with ninand optical thickness 0,3λ0and the top layer with nnand optical thickness 0,15λ0.
Such a great variety of ways of smoothing and increasing bandwidth in the area of transparency of the filters due to the fact that interferention the s system is very sensitive to changes of optical parameters: the refractive indices of the substrate and layers, the difference between them, the number of layers, the spectral applications. Therefore, for each optical device requires additional calculations of the parameters of the layers to provide the required spectral characteristics.
Most completely different ways of smoothing the oscillations in the interference systems presented in this paper S.A. Furman (prototype) . Using the method of equivalent layers and other analytical methods, the author has presented some special cases of the smoothing of the oscillations for a specific optical systems. For short-wave low pass filter to increase the transmittance in the short wavelength region is proposed by introducing the boundaries substrate-filter and filter-air two additional layers of optical thickness 0,125λ0and refractive indices calculated from approximate formulas. For long-wave low pass filter, to obtain a high transmittance in the long wavelength region, the author proposes the use of classical design P(0,VN,5V)towith the refractive index of the first and the last frame of the layer in accordance with the calculation. However, calculated by solving it is not always possible to implement in practice, because it can't find the film-forming materials with the required parameters.
To solve before us ass is Chi requires greater transparency of optical systems with long-wave, and with the short wavelength side of the band high-reflection for all edges of transition from a high level of transparency to low.
The proposed coating is different from the well-known fact that consists of a composition of three different elements, which provides the desired spectral characteristics of the coating in General. This objective is achieved in that each of the three elements is optimized its structure in such a way as to obtain an optical density of not less than three spectral regions 380-460 nm, 510-540 nm and 635-740 nm, respectively, at the maximum transmittance in the spectral regions 470-505 nm and 545-620 nm to save the color.
Figure 1 shows the schematic construction of the optical filter. The filter is a substrate 4, on both sides of which are optical interference coatings. On one side of the substrate is a multilayer interference filter in the form of a mirror of the second order (λ0=1565 nm) with high reflection in the field of 510-540 nm (element 1) and the maximum transmittance in the field of 470-505 nm and 545-620 nm. On the second side of the substrate is a composition of two interference coatings. Directly to the substrate adjacent the long-wave low pass filter (λ0=680 nm) with high reflectivity in the 635-740 nm and a maximum transmittance in the field 470-620 nm (cell battery (included) is t 2). This filter is a wavelet low pass filter (λ0=425 nm) with high reflectivity in the range of 380-460 nm and the maximum transmittance in the field 470-620 nm (element 3).
To improve the transparency of the filter in the short-wave and long-wave region of the spectrum from the band high-reflection 510-540 nm while blocking laser radiation with the wavelength of 532 nm in the basic design element 1 put additional layers on the border of the filter pad and filter the air:
When blocking laser radiation of a wavelength of 650 nm to increase transparency with the short wavelength side of the band maximum reflectance in the spectral regions 545-620 nm and 470-505 nm in the construction of item 2 introduced additional layers on the border of the filter substrate and the filter element 3:
When blocking of laser radiation with the wavelength of 405 nm and 445 nm to increase transparency with long-wavelength side of the band maximum reflectance in the spectral regions 470-505 nm and 545-620 nm in the design item 3 introduced additional layers on the boundary element 2-filter and filter-air:
F 0,5 VN(SN)3(NR)150,5V.
The composition is applied to the second side of the substrate, is written like this:
Figure 2 shows the estimated spectral transmittance of the filter. The calculated average value of the transmittance in the field of 470-505 nm is of 83.4%, in the 545-620 nm - 88%. Visual transmittance for the standard source And is 62.6%. Calculated values of the optical density at the wavelength of laser pointers purple, blue, green and red colors shown in table 1.
|The optical density||4||3,5||3,4||3,2|
In accordance with the calculated data in the production environment were made an experimental batch of filters. As layers with a high refractive index used In the zirconium oxide. As layers with an average refractive index used With yttrium oxide. As layers with a low refractive index N was used quartz. As substrates were used spectacled optically transparent glass. Prototyping was pariticpants vacuum unit A-700QE firm "Leubold-Heraus". The process of manufacture of mirrors standard and consists of cleaning of the substrate before coating, the heating of the substrate and successive layers in accordance with the calculation. For applying layers were used electron-beam evaporators. Control of the thickness of the layers was carried out on the transmission spectrophotometric method. To obtain maximum accuracy was calculated in advance in the control circuit. The pressure of residual gases in the chamber coating was 2÷5·10-5mm Hg, the Temperature of the substrate 180°C-220°C. the Rate of deposition of layers ZrO2was 17 Å/min, the rate of deposition of layers Y2O3- 20 Å/sec, the rate of condensation layers of SiO2was equal to 25 Å/min is Selected modes evaporation optimal from the point of view of obtaining the most stable and reproducible optical characteristics of the formed optical systems.
Figure 3 shows a typical spectral transmittance of the prototype filter, manufactured under production conditions by the above method.
Band reflection zone in the visible spectral range Δλ0,01/λ0=0,06-0,08 that is close to the calculated values. The optical density at the laser wavelengths were calculated from the spectra of transmittance measured on the spectrophotometer SF with stretching of the scale, and is D> 3 for a laser wavelength of 405, 445, 532, and 650 nm. The average value of the transmittance in the field of 470-505 nm is 70,4%, in the 540-620 nm - 80,5%. Visual transmittance of experimental samples 5-8% less than the calculated values, and an average of 54% for the standard source A. the design has ensured that the specified technical characteristics, and on its basis can be organized mass production of the product.
1. Gainutdinov I.S. and other Properties and methods of obtaining interference coatings for optical instrumentation. Kazan: Hairdryer, 2003, 424 S.
2. Mironov, S. p., V. veremey, N. Soloviev Interference filter.//A.S. No. 381055, CL G02b 5/28, publ. 15.05.1973. Bull. No. 21.
3. Thelen A. Design of multilayer interference filters. In kN. Physics of thin films. M.: 1972, volume 5, p.46-83.
4. Furman SP Thin-film optical coatings. Leningrad: Mashinostroenie, 1977, 264 S.
5. Yakovlev P.P., Bags B.B. Design interference coatings. M.: Mashinostroenie, 1987, 192 S.
6. The so-CALLED Krylov. Interference coatings. Leningrad: Mashinostroenie, 1973. 224 S.
7. LB Katsnelson and S.A. Furman. The interference filter.// Avts the USSR. No. 386363, IPC G02b 5/28. Bull. No. 26 from 14.06.1973.
8. B.B. Bags and VA Efremenko. Low pass optical interference filter with a transmission in the shortwave region of the spectrum is.//Auth. St. USSR №471568. Bull. No. 19 of 25.05.1975.
9. EVGENIY Tables and S.A. Furman. The interference optical low pass filter.//Avts of the USSR №448418. Bull. No. 40 of 30.10.1974.
10. NF EVGENIY Markov and Tables. Optical interference long-wave low pass filter.// Avts of the USSR №553564. Bull. No. 13 from 05.04.1977.
Multi-spectral interference filter for protection against laser radiation, comprising a transparent substrate and a deposited composition of three different elements, containing the interference coating of alternating layers with high and low indices of refraction (NR)to, characterized in that the first elements of the composition constituting the multilayer interference filter in the form of a mirror of the second order (λ0=1565 nm) with high reflection in the field of 530-540 nm and a maximum transmittance in the field of 470-505 nm and 545-620 nm, on the border of the filter pad and filter air introduced additional layers (CH)3and (CH)2C 1,24H, the second element represents the long-wave low pass filter (λ0=680 nm) with high reflectivity in the 635-740 nm and a maximum transmittance in the field 470-620 nm, is located opposite the first element-side substrate and adjacent to it, the additional layers 0,5C(CH)4and (CH)3C 0,54H, and the third element are the s a short-wave low pass filter (λ 0=425 nm) with high reflectivity in the range of 380-460 nm and a maximum transmittance in the field 470-620 nm and located over the second element, introduced additional layers of 0.5 NR(CH)3and 0,5B.
SUBSTANCE: light filter has on a flat surface a planar optical waveguide and prisms for inputting and outputting radiation into the waveguide that are optically insulated from the waveguide by uniform air gaps or by a uniform thin layer of a transparent dielectric with a refraction index less than that of the prisms and the waveguide. In the first version, said surface is the totally-reflecting face of the radiation output prism and the totally-reflecting face of the radiation input prism, which occupies part of the face of the radiation output prism, is attached to the waveguide on top of the optically insulating layer, having a thickness smaller than that of the optically insulating layer under the waveguide. The second version employs the surface of a flat plate. The face of the radiation input prism adjacent to the waveguide is much smaller than the face of the radiation output prism adjacent to the waveguide and lies from the waveguide at a shorter optical distance than the face of the radiation output prism.
EFFECT: designing a light filter having high resolution, large dispersion region and high optical power.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method can be used in making different optical, optoelectronic, quantum and micromechanical devices in which there is need to obtain a gap with an even and small thickness between electrodes or plates having a large surface area, particularly controlled Fabry-Perot interferometers. The method involves levelling one surface which is equally spaced from a second surface using a sacrificial layer and a flexible film attached to the surface by a layer of hardening medium. The sacrificial layer used is an interlayer of a surface-wetting liquid whose droplets are deposited first in a region of the surface of a first body, or said region is moistened by exposure to vapour of the liquid. A flexible film wetted by said liquid is then applied and the required surface of the second body is applied onto said flexible film through the layer of hardening medium. The liquid is removed by evaporation once the medium hardens. The volume of the deposited liquid droplets can wet the surface only within said region.
EFFECT: simple method of making devices in form of a system of bodies with ultra-small air gaps between their surfaces.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multilayer mesoporous structure based on nanoparticles has Bragg reflector or one-dimensional photonic crystal properties. The one-dimensional photonic crystal is formed by alternating layers with different refraction indices and controlled size, made from nanoparticles. Each layer has thickness from 1 nm to 200 nm. The method of making said structure involves a) preparing suspensions of nanoparticles, where concentration thereof ranges from 1% to 99% and b) forming a multilayer structure with high continuous porosity and having one-dimensional photonic crystal properties via successive deposition on any substrate of layers nanoparticles of controlled thickness based on the suspensions described in a) so as form alternating refraction index values. Each layer of nanoparticles has thickness from 1 nm to 1 mcm. The number of layers of nanoparticles can vary from 1 to 100.
EFFECT: high reflection coefficient while simultaneously allowing passage of liquid, which enables controlled variation of the colour of the multilayer structure.
25 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device includes at least one multilayer interference reflector and at least one resonator. In one version of the invention implementation the reflector works as a modulating element controlled by the voltage applied thereto. The stop zone edge is subjected to adjustment using electrooptic methods due to quantum-limited Stark effect in proximity to resonant mode which creates modulation of the reflector transmission factor thus entailing indirect modulation of light intensity. In another version of the invention implementation the optic field profile in the resonator represents the stop zone wavelength shift function, the device working as adjustable wavelength light radiator. In yet another version of the invention implementation at least two periodicities of refraction factor distribution are created in the reflector which enables suppression of parasitic optical modes and promotes high-speed direct modulation of intensity of light emitted by the device.
EFFECT: vertically integrated optoelectronic device serving for high-speed data transfer by way of direct or indirect modulation of emitted light intensity.
11 cl, 34 dwg
SUBSTANCE: interference light filter has a Fabry-Perot resonator in form of two plates with mirror coatings placed with a gap between them on holders of a mechanism for moving the plates. Between the mirror coating and the plate there is a compensation layer whose thickness varies in accordance with a law which provides equivalent arrangement of the mirror coatings relative each other.
EFFECT: simple design due to exclusion of an adjustment device and easier manufacturing due to simplification of requirements for the plane of the plates and exclusion of the adjustment process.
SUBSTANCE: fibre-optic connector has first and second half couplings for sealing first and second sections of optical fibre on whose butt ends there are first and second pairs of step-up and step-down optical multi-layer transformers. There is an air gap between the outer layers of the first and second pairs of optical multi-layer transformers. Layers of the first and second pairs of optical multi-layer transformers are made from materials with different refraction indices and are measured from outer layers of step-down transformers of the first and second pairs of optical multi-layer transformers adjacent to the air gap towards the butt ends joined to optical fibre sections. Thickness of each layer is equal to a quarter of the medium wave Xo of the signal transmitted over the optical fibre and the number of layers is selected based on conditions given in the formula of invention.
EFFECT: lower level of power loss arising due to insufficiently close contact or welded joint at the position of the joint and wider range of apparatus for this purpose.
4 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: fibro-optical connector comprises first and second half-couplings to receive first and second sections of optical fiber. First and second pairs of step-down optical multilayer transformers are arranged on end faces of said sections. Air gap is arranged between outer layers of said first and second pairs of said transformers. Layers of first and second pairs of aforesaid transformers are made from materials with differing indices of reflection and are counted from outer layers of aforesaid transformers in direction of the end faces of connected sections of optical fiber. Thickness of every layer makes one fourth of average signal wave λ0 transmitted over optical fiber, while the number of layers is selected subject to conditions covered by invention claim.
EFFECT: reduced power loss, expanded performances.
4 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: tunable optical filter with Fabry-Perot interferometre has transparent plates with mirror coatings with spacing in between. When making the said optical filter, a sacrificial layer is deposited on one plate with the mirror coating. A mirror coating is then deposited on top and the second transparent plate is attached through a layer of hardening material. After that the said plates are attached to holders through a hardening material and the sacrificial layer is removed through evaporation by heating to temperature below the thermal destruction temperature of the hardening layer.
EFFECT: easier obtaining of controlled spacing between plates, avoiding use of special methods of obtaining surfaces with high degree of flatness, avoiding the need to monitor the value of the spacing and its wedge.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns area of optical thin-film coatings. The spectral divider contains the optical interference system with alternating quarter wave layers; part of them has an optical thickness not multiple to quarter of length of an emission wave. The spectral divider design allows obtaining the optimised spectral characteristics having small fluctuations of the transmittance factor in a working range of transparency.
EFFECT: spectral divider can be used at a direct and inclined light ray tilt angle in various geodetic devices and special purpose devices.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: fibre-optic communication, optical multilayer filters.
SUBSTANCE: optical multilayer filter (OMLF) consists of an input optical transformer (In. OT 1), a selective part (SP 2), and output optical transformer (Out. OT 3) and substrates 5, 6. The In. OT 1, SP 2, and Out. OT 3 consist of NIn=2s, Nsp=4k and Nout=2r alternating layers 7 and 8, respectively, with high nh and low nl values of refractive indices of materials they are made of. The thickness of every layer d=0.25λ, where λ is the mean OMFL bandwidth wave length. Refractive indices of adjoining layers of the In OT and SP, and those of SP and Out.OT are equal. Note that the SP alternating layers are made from materials with refractive indices mirror-symmetric relative to the SP centre. The first layer of In. OT and the last layer of Out. OT are connected to substrates. Proposed are the relations to calculate the parameters of claimed arbitrary type OMLF.
EFFECT: reduction of signal distortion to preset magnitude in a wide frequency range of the filter attenuation in the preset bandwidth and increase in attenuation to the preset magnitude that allows wider application of the aforesaid filters.
3 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: radiation diffracting film has a viewing surface and an ordered periodic array of particles embedded in the material of the array. The array of particles has a crystalline structure, having (i) a plurality of first crystal planes of said particles that diffract infrared radiation, where said first crystal planes are parallel to said viewing plane; and (ii) a plurality of second crystal planes of said particles that diffract visible radiation. When the film is turned about an axis perpendicular to the viewing surface and at a constant viewing angle of said film, visible radiation with the same wavelength is reflected from the second crystal planes with intervals equal to about 60°.
EFFECT: designing a film for authenticating or identifying an object.
23 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in deep processing of dust captured from flue gases of electrothermal production of silicon. It is repulped with water at a ratio of liquid to solid (15-20): 1 technogenic waste in the form of dust comprising carbon nanoparticles are processed with an aqueous solution of fluohydric acid with a concentration of 15-32%, neutralised with ammonia to a pH of 6.5-8.5. The pulp and the precipitation containing the nanoparticles are mechanically separated by two-stage centrifugation or two-stage filtration. The byproducts in the form of fluorinated solutions can be recycled to aluminium fluoride.
EFFECT: reduced energy costs, simplified technology of production of carbon nanoparticles, improved environment due to utilisation of previously stored wastes.
4 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method for preparing a water suspension of silicon nanocrystalline particles for biomedical applications. The declared method is characterised by the fact that a porous silicon film of the thickness of 1 to 100 mcm and the porosity of 50 to 80% is formed on the surface of silicon plates. The film is formed by electrochemical etching in a solution containing 40-50% aqueous solution of fluoric acid and alcohol in ratio 1:1 to 1:5 for a period of time of 10 to 60 minutes at specific current 20 to 60 mA/cm2. The prepared silicon plates coated with a porous silicon layer is washed in distilled water, dried and placed in a container with distilled water. Then, they are exposed to ultrasound for more than 10 minutes at the intensity of the silicon plate exposure in water of 100 Wt/cm2 at frequency 23 kHz. This provides forming the stable suspension in distilled water from nanoparticles of the lateral dimension of 10 to 500 nm.
EFFECT: invention provides preparing the biocompaticle suspension of silicon nanoparticles that penetrate into living cells preserving its useful biological properties and luminescence.
4 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: proposed alloy features structure of nanocrystalline grains of B2-phase wherein volume fraction of 0.1 mcm-size grains and those of shape factor of 2 in mutually perpendicular planes makes at least 90%. Over 50% of grains have large angular boundaries misaligned relative to adjacent grains through 15 to 90 degrees. Method of making the bar from said alloy comprises thermomechanical processing including plastic straining and recovery annealing. Intensive plastic straining is made in two steps. At first step, equal-channel angular pressing is made to accumulated strain e≥4. At second step, forge ironing and/or drawing are made. Annealing is carried out either in process and/or after every straining step. Equal-channel angular pressing is performed at 400°C. Forge drawing and ironing are made to total reduction of over 60% at gradual decrease of temperature to t=450-200°C, while annealing is performed at t=400-200°C.
EFFECT: higher mechanical and functional properties.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: luminescent protective ink contains a solvent and semiconductor nanocrystals dispersed in an organosilicon compound, consisting of successively arranged: semiconductor nucleus 1, first 2 and second 3 semiconductor layers and an outer 4 layer, the material of which is selected from an organosilicon polymer from a series which includes poly(aminoethyl)trimethoxysilane, poly(methacryl)triethoxysilane, poly(methyl) triethoxysilane, poly(mercaptoethyl) triethoxysilane, methyl-phenyl polysiloxane, polyethoxysilane. The semiconductor nanocrystals emit a fluorescent signal in a fluorescence wavelength range of 400-3000 nm under the effect of a visible or UV light source; the relative fluorescence quantum efficiency is at least 80%.
EFFECT: making a protective mark from luminescent protective ink, through which an article can be verified using simple means, providing further protection for twenty years.
13 cl, 4 dwg, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technologies of nanomaterials production for obtaining of oxide fuel elements, thin coatings, films, which have high ionic conductivity. Method includes preparation of water solution of cerium and gadolinium salts, in which total concentration of rare earth elements constitutes 0.005÷0.02 mole per litre of water, and molar ratio of Ce:Gd constitutes from 19:1 to 4:1, addition of anion-exchange resin in OH-form to obtained solution until pH 9.0÷10.0 is reached, separation of formed colloidal solution from anion-exchange resin by filtering, hydrothermal processing at 120÷210°C for 1.5÷4 h and cooling to room temperature. Obtained unstable sol of nanocrystalline cerium dioxide, doped with gadolinium, is additionally stabilised with salt of polybasic acid (citric or polyacrylic) with molar ratio of rare earth elements in acid, equal 1:1÷4, and following slow drop-by-drop addition of ammonia water solution until pH 7÷8 is obtained.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain aggregative-stable water sols with average diameter approximately 4 nm, which have high morphological homogeneity, preserving their properties for long time.
5 cl, 4 dwg, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: cleaning is performed by dilution of a catalyst with different reagents in an electrolysis unit, the cathode and anode space of which is divided with a membrane. Cleaned carbon nanomaterial (CCN) is located in anode space of electrolysis unit. As electrolyte there used are water solutions of substances, at electrolysis of which in anode space of electrolysis unit an accumulation of reactive anions forming water-soluble salts with catalyst takes place.
EFFECT: use of the invention requires no high amount of reagents for removal of catalyst; reagent itself is not consumed and can be used for many times; no formation of high amount of waste water takes place.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed unit comprises frame to support vacuum chamber communicated with vacuum pump, part fixture, gas flame torch for high-rate gas-dynamic sputtering arranged at 45 degrees to part surface, feeder of powder with shape memory effect to gas-flame torch, pyrometer to measure part temperature, module for ion-beam cleaning, appliance for surface straining to produce nanostructured layer, step-down transformer for additional heating of part surface, device to cool part surface to temperature of martensitic transformation at surface straining, and control device. Proposed unit comprises extra two magnetrons and metal ion implantation source secured on in vacuum chamber to be directed towards processed part. Surface straining appliance is composed of the press with moving top crossbar and fixed bottom crossbar arranged inside vacuum chamber. Note here that part fixture and surface cooler are mounted at said bottom crossbar. Gas-flame torch is rigidly secured inside vacuum chamber.
EFFECT: higher strength and wear resistance, expanded processing performances.
1 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment and can be used in whatever field. Initial water is filtered through sorbent containing graphene and/or carbon nanotubes and membrane including cylindrical or conical through 0.0050.3 mcm-dia pores. Proposed device comprises sorbent containing graphene and/or carbon nanotubes and membrane including cylindrical or conical through 0.0050.3 mcm-dia pores. Filtration element membrane is a track membrane. Membrane cylindrical pores are composed by carbon nanotubes. Invention allows to up efficiency and reliability of water treatment and to down costs.
EFFECT: conserved useful mineral elements, higher biological activity.
14 cl, 1 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in production of catalysts, electrodes, current-conducting elements, filters. Solid polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is subjected to hydrolysis without access of air in plasma of pulse high voltage electric discharge at atmospheric pressure with pulse amplitude not lower than 9 kV. Obtained carbon material with ordered nanostructure contains structural elements in form of defluorinated partially graphitised supramolecular chain structures of PTFE 30-100 nm thick, formed by fibres with diameter 1-2 nm, woven in random way into homogeneous porous mass with pore size 1-2 nm.
EFFECT: simplification of method with simultaneous improvement of conditions of reproducibility of results, increased of porosity and specific surface of carbon nanomaterial, providing possibility of its effective modification and obtaining carbon nanomaterials with specified properties.
2 cl, 8 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine and deals with nanoliposome which includes liposomal membrane, contains ethgerificated lecitin and one or more physiologically active ingredients, incorporated in the internal space of liposomal membrane, method of obtaining such, as well as composition for prevention or treatment of skin diseases, containing nanoliposome.
EFFECT: invention ensures long-term stability and homogenecity of nanoliposomes.
15 cl, 22 ex, 4 dwg, 2 tbl