Multispectral interference light filter for protection from laser radiation

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: light filter includes a transparent substrate and three elements deposited thereon, said elements having interference coatings made of alternating layers with high and low refraction indices (BH)k. In the first element, which is a multilayer interference filter in form of a second-order mirror (λ0=1565 nm) with high reflection in the 530-540 nm range and maximum transmission in the 470-505 nm and 545-620 nm range, at the filter-substrate and filter-air boundary, there are additional layers of (CH)3 and (CH)2 C1.24H. In the second element, which is a long-wave cut-off filter (λ0=680 nm) with high reflection in the 635-740 nm range and maximum transmission in the 470-620 nm range, situated on the side of the substrate opposite the first element and directly adjacent to it, there are additional layers of 0.5C(CH)4 and (CH)3C 0.54H. In the third element, which is a short-wave cut-off filter (λ0=425 nm) with high reflection in the 380-460 nm range and maximum transmission in the 470-620 nm range and situated on top of the second element, there are additional layers of 0.5 BH(CH)3 and 0.5B.

EFFECT: high filter transparency in the short-wave and long-wave region of the spectrum from the high reflection band while blocking laser radiation with a given wavelength.

3 dwg


The invention relates to optical instruments, namely, devices for protection of organs of sight and equipment from the blinding effects of laser radiation. Known protective devices using different types of filters, blocking laser radiation of certain frequencies and certain power. Blocking radiation occurs either due to absorption of radiation of a given wavelength (λ0), or due to its reflection. Absorption color filters is created by the introduction of materials admixtures, dyes, pigments, semiconductor elements. The absorbed light is converted into heat, resulting filters can discolour and lose the ability to protect against high-power laser radiation. As reflective systems can use various kinds of interference coatings of alternating layers with high (nin) and low (nn) index of refraction: dielectric mirrors, polarizers, splitters, band pass, low pass filters [1]. The main requirements for such coatings are high reflectance in the spectral region of laser radiation, high transmission in the other sections of the visible spectrum and preservation of color. To meet these requirements usually created cover, a locking hole is RNA radiation of a certain frequency.

Now you want to create a coating for protection against laser radiation of multiple wavelengths simultaneously. For this band blocking in the visible part of the spectrum must be large enough to provide a deep suppression of the laser wavelength, including the case of oblique incidence of light, and small enough not to block the rest of the spectrum. The optimal bandwidth of the reflection Δλ0,010=(0,04-008) (Δλ0,01the bandwidth of the reflection at the level of 1% transmittance λ0- wavelength blocking). An obstacle to obtaining the maximum transmittance in the field of transparency is the presence in the spectra of transmittance of the side maxima of reflection (oscillations), the height of which depends on the refractive index difference between and from the absolute values of the refractive indices of the alternating layers. The deepest failure is near the edge of the reflection. The number and height of the side maxima increases with increasing number of layers. Increasing the number of layers needed to obtain maximum reflection (high optical density).

Quite high requirements for performance coatings. Cover should be water-resistant, to withstand cleaning with organic solvents (alcohol, acetone).

Known konstruktionsmaterialer of alternating layers with high and low refractive index, when the optical thickness equal to five (copyright certificate №381055 from 15.05.1973) [2]. This embodiment of the filter provides selective reflection in several portions of the spectrum, for example in the area of 0.53; 0,69 and 1.06 µm, while maintaining transparency outside these areas. The design of the filter P(VN)to5B, where the symbol P labeled substrate; and N quarter-wave film with high and low refractive indices; to - parameter ratio, which determines the total number of layers in the system.

However, this filter does not have sufficient optical density (D). At the wavelength of 0.53 μm D almost in one point is equal to the unit (Δλ0,010<0,01, i.e. Δλ≈2-3 nm). In addition, the filter has a low mechanical strength, because when a large difference in the thickness of the adjacent layers are too high internal stress. These filters are subject to mandatory bonding immediately after production.

Known systems of dielectric mirrors with high selectivity (Δλ0,010=0.1 to 0.2) layer-based unequal optical thickness, and this inequality varies from layer to layer according to a given program. For example, P(0,V - 1,N-0,V-1,N-0,12V - 1,88H-...0,V). However, such systems are difficult to manufacture because they contain very thin layers, the thickness of which cannot be controlled it is possible accuracy in the visible part of the spectrum. Such coatings can be used for the far infrared region of the spectrum.

Also known system of alternating layers of equal optical thickness from three different materials. Selective systems can be Δλ0,010=0,08-0,16. Designation of such systems P(N)toP(N)toetc. where N is an integer denoting the thickness of the next layer in the quarters of the wavelength, With a quarter-wave film with an average value of the refractive index. However, such systems have a low optical density and extra band reflection in the area of transparency.

There are various designs of coatings used to reduce oscillations and improve the transmittance in the workspace transparency, maintaining high reflectance [3-6]. To obtain the greatest possible transparency with long-wavelength side of the band reflect commonly used structure P(0,VN,5V)toor P(0,NW,5H)to. For maximum transparency with the short wavelength side of the band reflection uses P(VL)toB0,5H.

Depending on the specific requirements of the spectral characteristics of the coatings developed a great number of designs of filters to smooth out the oscillations and increase bandwidth in C the data portions of the spectrum. For example, it is proposed, in addition to the upper layer of low refractive index (nn) thickness λ0/8 (0,5H), between the substrate and the interference system to place an additional layer with a high refractive index (nin) thickness 3/4 λ0(3V) (copyright certificate №386363 from 14.06.1973) [7]. In the author's certificate No. 471568 from 25.05.75 proposed interference between the system and the surrounding environments place additional layers with an average refractive index (ncfcalculated by a certain formula, the optical thickness of λ0/8. In the author's certificate No. 448418 from 30.10.74 [9] this task is solved by the introduction of two additional words of thickness λ0/8 on the borders of the interference coating. While the layers adjacent to the floor, have a refractive index equal to n=nin3/2·mon-1/2and the refractive index of the outer layers is equal to (n n0)1/2and (ndastardly)1/2. In the author's certificate No. 553564 from 05.04.1977 [10] proposed two sides of the interference system to introduce additional layers with ninand optical thickness 0,3λ0and the top layer with nnand optical thickness 0,15λ0.

Such a great variety of ways of smoothing and increasing bandwidth in the area of transparency of the filters due to the fact that interferention the s system is very sensitive to changes of optical parameters: the refractive indices of the substrate and layers, the difference between them, the number of layers, the spectral applications. Therefore, for each optical device requires additional calculations of the parameters of the layers to provide the required spectral characteristics.

Most completely different ways of smoothing the oscillations in the interference systems presented in this paper S.A. Furman (prototype) [4]. Using the method of equivalent layers and other analytical methods, the author has presented some special cases of the smoothing of the oscillations for a specific optical systems. For short-wave low pass filter to increase the transmittance in the short wavelength region is proposed by introducing the boundaries substrate-filter and filter-air two additional layers of optical thickness 0,125λ0and refractive indices calculated from approximate formulas. For long-wave low pass filter, to obtain a high transmittance in the long wavelength region, the author proposes the use of classical design P(0,VN,5V)towith the refractive index of the first and the last frame of the layer in accordance with the calculation. However, calculated by solving it is not always possible to implement in practice, because it can't find the film-forming materials with the required parameters.

To solve before us ass is Chi requires greater transparency of optical systems with long-wave, and with the short wavelength side of the band high-reflection for all edges of transition from a high level of transparency to low.

The proposed coating is different from the well-known fact that consists of a composition of three different elements, which provides the desired spectral characteristics of the coating in General. This objective is achieved in that each of the three elements is optimized its structure in such a way as to obtain an optical density of not less than three spectral regions 380-460 nm, 510-540 nm and 635-740 nm, respectively, at the maximum transmittance in the spectral regions 470-505 nm and 545-620 nm to save the color.

Figure 1 shows the schematic construction of the optical filter. The filter is a substrate 4, on both sides of which are optical interference coatings. On one side of the substrate is a multilayer interference filter in the form of a mirror of the second order (λ0=1565 nm) with high reflection in the field of 510-540 nm (element 1) and the maximum transmittance in the field of 470-505 nm and 545-620 nm. On the second side of the substrate is a composition of two interference coatings. Directly to the substrate adjacent the long-wave low pass filter (λ0=680 nm) with high reflectivity in the 635-740 nm and a maximum transmittance in the field 470-620 nm (cell battery (included) is t 2). This filter is a wavelet low pass filter (λ0=425 nm) with high reflectivity in the range of 380-460 nm and the maximum transmittance in the field 470-620 nm (element 3).

To improve the transparency of the filter in the short-wave and long-wave region of the spectrum from the band high-reflection 510-540 nm while blocking laser radiation with the wavelength of 532 nm in the basic design element 1 put additional layers on the border of the filter pad and filter the air:


When blocking laser radiation of a wavelength of 650 nm to increase transparency with the short wavelength side of the band maximum reflectance in the spectral regions 545-620 nm and 470-505 nm in the construction of item 2 introduced additional layers on the border of the filter substrate and the filter element 3:

P,5C (CH)4(NR)11(SN)30,N.

When blocking of laser radiation with the wavelength of 405 nm and 445 nm to increase transparency with long-wavelength side of the band maximum reflectance in the spectral regions 470-505 nm and 545-620 nm in the design item 3 introduced additional layers on the boundary element 2-filter and filter-air:

F 0,5 VN(SN)3(NR)150,5V.

The composition is applied to the second side of the substrate, is written like this:

P,5C(CH)4(NR)11(SN)3C0,N,5V N(SN) 3(NR)150,5V.

Figure 2 shows the estimated spectral transmittance of the filter. The calculated average value of the transmittance in the field of 470-505 nm is of 83.4%, in the 545-620 nm - 88%. Visual transmittance for the standard source And is 62.6%. Calculated values of the optical density at the wavelength of laser pointers purple, blue, green and red colors shown in table 1.

Table 1
Wavelength, nm405445532650
The optical density43,53,43,2

In accordance with the calculated data in the production environment were made an experimental batch of filters. As layers with a high refractive index used In the zirconium oxide. As layers with an average refractive index used With yttrium oxide. As layers with a low refractive index N was used quartz. As substrates were used spectacled optically transparent glass. Prototyping was pariticpants vacuum unit A-700QE firm "Leubold-Heraus". The process of manufacture of mirrors standard and consists of cleaning of the substrate before coating, the heating of the substrate and successive layers in accordance with the calculation. For applying layers were used electron-beam evaporators. Control of the thickness of the layers was carried out on the transmission spectrophotometric method. To obtain maximum accuracy was calculated in advance in the control circuit. The pressure of residual gases in the chamber coating was 2÷5·10-5mm Hg, the Temperature of the substrate 180°C-220°C. the Rate of deposition of layers ZrO2was 17 Å/min, the rate of deposition of layers Y2O3- 20 Å/sec, the rate of condensation layers of SiO2was equal to 25 Å/min is Selected modes evaporation optimal from the point of view of obtaining the most stable and reproducible optical characteristics of the formed optical systems.

Figure 3 shows a typical spectral transmittance of the prototype filter, manufactured under production conditions by the above method.

Band reflection zone in the visible spectral range Δλ0,010=0,06-0,08 that is close to the calculated values. The optical density at the laser wavelengths were calculated from the spectra of transmittance measured on the spectrophotometer SF with stretching of the scale, and is D> 3 for a laser wavelength of 405, 445, 532, and 650 nm. The average value of the transmittance in the field of 470-505 nm is 70,4%, in the 540-620 nm - 80,5%. Visual transmittance of experimental samples 5-8% less than the calculated values, and an average of 54% for the standard source A. the design has ensured that the specified technical characteristics, and on its basis can be organized mass production of the product.


1. Gainutdinov I.S. and other Properties and methods of obtaining interference coatings for optical instrumentation. Kazan: Hairdryer, 2003, 424 S.

2. Mironov, S. p., V. veremey, N. Soloviev Interference filter.//A.S. No. 381055, CL G02b 5/28, publ. 15.05.1973. Bull. No. 21.

3. Thelen A. Design of multilayer interference filters. In kN. Physics of thin films. M.: 1972, volume 5, p.46-83.

4. Furman SP Thin-film optical coatings. Leningrad: Mashinostroenie, 1977, 264 S.

5. Yakovlev P.P., Bags B.B. Design interference coatings. M.: Mashinostroenie, 1987, 192 S.

6. The so-CALLED Krylov. Interference coatings. Leningrad: Mashinostroenie, 1973. 224 S.

7. LB Katsnelson and S.A. Furman. The interference filter.// Avts the USSR. No. 386363, IPC G02b 5/28. Bull. No. 26 from 14.06.1973.

8. B.B. Bags and VA Efremenko. Low pass optical interference filter with a transmission in the shortwave region of the spectrum is.//Auth. St. USSR №471568. Bull. No. 19 of 25.05.1975.

9. EVGENIY Tables and S.A. Furman. The interference optical low pass filter.//Avts of the USSR №448418. Bull. No. 40 of 30.10.1974.

10. NF EVGENIY Markov and Tables. Optical interference long-wave low pass filter.// Avts of the USSR №553564. Bull. No. 13 from 05.04.1977.

Multi-spectral interference filter for protection against laser radiation, comprising a transparent substrate and a deposited composition of three different elements, containing the interference coating of alternating layers with high and low indices of refraction (NR)to, characterized in that the first elements of the composition constituting the multilayer interference filter in the form of a mirror of the second order (λ0=1565 nm) with high reflection in the field of 530-540 nm and a maximum transmittance in the field of 470-505 nm and 545-620 nm, on the border of the filter pad and filter air introduced additional layers (CH)3and (CH)2C 1,24H, the second element represents the long-wave low pass filter (λ0=680 nm) with high reflectivity in the 635-740 nm and a maximum transmittance in the field 470-620 nm, is located opposite the first element-side substrate and adjacent to it, the additional layers 0,5C(CH)4and (CH)3C 0,54H, and the third element are the s a short-wave low pass filter (λ 0=425 nm) with high reflectivity in the range of 380-460 nm and a maximum transmittance in the field 470-620 nm and located over the second element, introduced additional layers of 0.5 NR(CH)3and 0,5B.


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