Device for heating liquids
SUBSTANCE: liquid heating apparatus comprises a heat generator comprising a housing having a cylindrical portion and a liquid movement accelerator, designed as a cyclone, a pump connected to the heat source via an injection nozzle, where at least one insert is placed, and a heat exchange system. The insert is formed as a continuous plate along the injection nozzle oriented perpendicular to the ends of the cyclone. The insert in the injection nozzle forcibly expands the jet in its entry into the cyclone, which results in formation of a vacuum region, downstream the compression region, the vacuum again, compression, etc. As we move into the cyclone, collapse and cavitation are formed in turns on each element of the jet flow in these regions, providing hot water or other process fluid.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve heating efficiency and reliability of a fluid device.
10 cl, 5 dwg
The invention relates to a heat-cavitation type for heating liquids in hydraulic systems for various purposes, and can also be used as mixers for various liquids, dispersing, destroying the molecular bonds in complex fluids, changes in physical and mechanical properties of liquids.
Known heat source for heating liquids (patent RU 2173432, CL F 25 B 29/00)having a cylindrical body with a cyclone accelerator fluid flow in its lower part, the brake device in the upper part of the housing, an outlet connected to the cyclone through the bypass pipe, and the connection is made at the end of the cyclone sosno him, the end of the cyclone is angled 10° to its radial cross-section, and the outer wall of the injection nozzle at the entrance to the housing is equipped with a guide vane attached to the end of the cyclone. The external wall of the injection nozzle and the guide vane made on a logarithmic spiral with the length of the guide blades more πR//2, where R is the inner radius of the shell, and the cyclone cylindrical body made of the same radius.
The disadvantage of this technical solution is that the proposed device is not a high efficiency (water heating). The generators of this class are the Xia liquid whistles, creating a sound field in its internal volume through which the fluid. In the rarefaction phase of the sound wave in the liquid nuclei form and grow cavitation cavity, and in the phase of excessive pressure, they immediately collapse by compaction of energy in space and time with increasing temperature at the point of collapse to 6000 K.
The mechanism of formation of sound waves is reduced to the process of vanishing flow out of the injection nozzle, the guide blades attached to the end of the cyclone. In this case, two sources of education fluctuations. First, the runoff flow guide blades causing it to swing under the action of hydrodynamic effects. Moreover, different parts of the blades have different hardness, so they make complex oscillations with different frequencies. Secondly, the process of expiration of the submerged jet from the injection nozzle into the cyclone is the source of the sound. So the release of the jet in submerged space is local resistance, causing the final part of the inlet channel is excessive in relation to that space pressure, proportional to the velocity head. Therefore, when the thread exits the hole is removed from the shielding action of the walls of the inlet pipe, and it is due to prpich forces expanded. Further, as the flow first through the action of elastic forces, external pressure and later inertial forces, it is crimped, and then, due to the elastic forces expands again and so on.. So, stream is an open stream with alternating along its length regions of compression and exhaustion (EVGENIY Ivanov, the radial component of the jet stream in a flooded space. Proceedings of the 6th International scientific-technical conference "Hydraulic machines, hydraulic drives and gidropnevmoavtomatike. Current state and prospects of development". - SPb.: Publishing house Polytechn. University, 2010. - p.76-83.) Therefore, all submerged jet noise with the basic frequency determined by the flow rate and nozzle diameter. However, the output stream from the hole with the edges of complicated configuration due to the presence of the blade and the equal diameters of the cyclone and a cylindrical body defines an asymmetric deformation of the above periodic regions, the reduction of the amplitudes of the fundamental frequency, and the appearance of a broad spectrum of other values. That is, due to the imperfections of the design under consideration, the device produces a fairly wide range of frequencies, which causes the following effect:
extremely high frequency (>10 kHz) prevents cavitation bubble to purchase think the ' stock of elastic energy and as a result, the process of collapse does not increase the temperature of the liquid;
- when low frequency is enlarged cavity cavity (bubble) in a short phase of collapse not have time to fully disappear, and only pulses. The lack of impact of the collapse also eliminates the investigation, which resulted in the water should be hot.
To improve the efficiency should be the frequency of oscillations in the range of useful values, and the amplitude of the elastic waves to give the highest values.
The closest in technical essence to the claimed is a device for heating the liquid containing the heat source consisting of a body having a cylindrical part, and the accelerator of the fluid made in the form of a cyclone, a pump connected to the heat source through the injection nozzle, which has at least one insert made in the form of a perforated septum, and a heat exchange system connected to the outlet pipe of the heat source and to the pump (patent RU 2162571, CL F 25 B 29/00).
Introduction in the known device for heating the liquid perforated partitions partially eliminates the above discussed disadvantages - in this case, each stream emits the sound of a narrow range of frequencies, however, the amplitude of these oscillations in each stream are reduced in comparison with menstrua in proportion to the decrease in their diameters, and the result is at the summing action of all jets - emitters is not the arithmetic sum.
The decisive circumstance expiration flooded monastry is that the maximum amplitude at a given frequency is limited by the specificity of the mechanism of the expiration of such jets. So to increase the amplitude of the transverse spreading of the stream at its exit from the nozzle, you should increase the pressure in the channel in front of the outlet, which is impossible without increasing the speed of the jet, and hence the frequency of its sound. The increase in the amplitude of oscillation of the jet by increasing its cross sectional dimensions leads to an increase in the size of the device and drive power.
Another feature of this technical solution is that this is another source of acoustic radiation - holes before and behind them, from the friction of the flowing stream are formed toroidal region of separated flow, which due to the action of centrifugal forces from the rotation creates a vacuum pressure. When reaching such a threshold vacuum leaks violated, it directs the flow of fluid from the surrounding space, which is accompanied hydraulic shock and acoustic radiation, but other frequencies. The price of such radiation is a significant expenditure of power to maintain many of these intense currents and expanding the range of frequencies produced by vibrations.
Ie, in addition to the benefit of the presence of perforated partitions in the injection nozzle causes increase in the number of inefficient frequencies, significant hydraulic resistance, and hence a large power loss, and in addition, reducing the reliability of the device for heating the liquid due to the high likelihood of clogging of the small holes hard and fibrous inclusions (slag, flax, sealant with a joints, flakes of scale, rust, and so on) during operation.
A disadvantage of the known device is not a high efficiency heating and low reliability, especially in heterogeneous environments.
The objective of the proposed technical solution is to increase the efficiency of the heating fluid and the reliability of the device.
The problem is solved as follows. In the device for heating the liquid containing the heat source consisting of a body having a cylindrical part, and the accelerator of the fluid made in the form of a cyclone, a pump connected to the heat source through the injection nozzle, which introduced at least one insert, and a heat exchange system connected to the outlet pipe of the heat source and to the pump, the insert is made in the form of a continuous plate, oriented along the injection patrol is and perpendicular to the ends of the cyclone. When this insert in longitudinal section may be made triangular in shape with the orientation of the sharp end toward the pump, the blunt end of the insert through channels with valves and equipment may be reported to augment capacity, pressure or suction pipe of the pump, with the fairing, and the insert can be made in the form of elastic plates of equal thickness with tapered input and output, and input or output with respect to the injection nozzle ends mounted with clearance on the hinge supports, which are made in the form of spines on the lateral sides of the plate, placed in the blind holes of the walls of the injection of the socket. In addition, the insert can be made in the form of elastic plates of equal thickness and fixed console one side against the inner wall of the injection nozzle.
The insert in the form of a continuous plate and its orientation along the injection nozzle perpendicular to the ends of the cyclone force jet expands in the place of her entrance into the cyclone larger in cross section with the same mass flow as in a continuous flow. This leads to the fact that stupid face each insertion creates a significant amount of vacuum, which determines the further course of the flow of the amplitude of the oscillatory processes, the Kolka as further movement of the sparse plot is its compression and subsequent cycles at a rate proportional to the initial magnitude of the vacuum (Mrs x Ivanov, A.V. Sogin. The research results of a computer model of the ring nozzles of the ejectors. Proceedings of International scientific-technical conference "Hydraulic machines, hydraulic drives and gidropnevmoavtomatike". SPb.: Publishing house Polytechn. University, 2008, pp.61-64.).
The amplitude of the pressure fluctuations must ensure that the maximum margin of elastic energy in the formation and the relatively slow growth of the cavitation bubble and the possibility of total extinction in a relatively short phase of the collapse. The presence of channels with valves and equipment, indicating the scope for blunt butt inserts with reinforcing capacity, as well as on the discharge or suction pipe of the pump allows you to adjust the magnitude of the vacuum in place of the input stream in the cyclone, and means to adjust the amplitude of pressure fluctuations to desired values, and also to use them for technological needs (EVGENIY Ivanov, Options expiry of the set of coaxial jets. Materials of all-Russian scientific-technical conference. - Moscow: Publishing house of Mordov. University, 2009. with .255-258).
It should also be noted that the area for the blunt face of each of the inserts is also the source of vibrations. The mechanism of these oscillations is reduced to the formation of this area, increase its size and depth of vacuum leakage due to the destruction obecause flow from the increased pressure difference, filling this area with liquid with the following hydraulic shock and then again the formation region of the isolation and so on.. This process, first, creates vibrations ad hoc frequencies, which takes power. Secondly, in each of these areas in isolation from the friction with the ambient flow is return flow, to maintain which also requires extra unproductive energy, which together reduces the efficiency of the working process of the device. To reduce these negative effects, it is necessary either to constantly fill in each of these areas, the working fluid by your previous channels, or to reduce the amount of fields by filling them with solid material, in the form of fairings. In the first case will disappear parasitic oscillations, the second will decrease the volume of the circulating fluid, which will reduce wasted power, as well as the amplitude of the shock. Frequency shapevine will increase by several orders of magnitude, which will reduce the absorption of beneficial parasitic oscillations.
The insert in the form of elastic plates of equal thickness with tapered input and output, and input or output with respect to the injection nozzle ends mounted with clearance on the hinge supports, which are made in the form of spines on the lateral sides of the plate, the size of the military in blind holes of the walls of the injection nozzle causes the plate additional capacity when the leakage of the fluid flow in the plate Flexural vibrations are excited in the direction perpendicular to its plane, with a maximum in the middle of the pillars. The additional condition that the flow of this process is the need to accommodate the mounting studs at the nodal points of the plate with regard to the natural frequency (Ultrasound. A small encyclopedia. The chapters. edit I.P. Halamine. PM:" Soviet encyclopedia", 1979. - S. 79-80).
Pinning this elastic plate of equal thickness console one side against the inner wall of the injection nozzle also causes the creation of a plate when the flow fluid flow transverse oscillations, and also provides convenience when performing Assembly work.
In addition, the orientation of the insert along the injection nozzle increases the flow channel cross section of the pipe, resulting in reduced hydraulic resistance and their greater capacity pump involved in the creation of efficiency.
The invention is illustrated by drawings:
Figure 1 - General view of the claimed device for heating the liquid;
Figure 2 is a longitudinal section of the injection nozzle, which has two inserts with a blunt output face and the inner channels;
Figure 3 is a longitudinal section of the injection nozzle, which has two arise is key, stupid weekend ends with a fairing;
4 is a longitudinal section of the injection nozzle, in which the elastic insert is fixed with a gap on the hinge supports;
5 is a cross section of the injection nozzle, in which the elastic insert is fixed console.
The device for heating the liquid contains a heat source consisting of a body having a cylindrical part 1 and accelerator of the fluid, in the form of cyclone 2, at the entrance to which is mounted injection nozzle 3, in addition, the heat source includes a first brake system 4 installed in the exit area of the cylindrical part of the housing, the second brake system 5, located at the outlet from the cyclone outlet 6, the bypass pipe 7, box 8, made in the form of solid plates containing hollow channels 9, which can be connected to shut-off and control apparatus 10 to augment capacity 11, 12 with the suction or discharge nozzles 13 of the pump 14 and the heat sink 15. The accelerator of the fluid 2 has a contour view of a spiral or circle and joined to the pump 14 through the injection nozzle 3, which has one or more inserts 8. Installed in the injection pipe 3 plates 8 are placed along the pipe 3 is perpendicular to the ends of the cyclone 2 and the can is either pressed, either tighten the overall end flange 16 of the injection nozzle 3 and the cyclone 2, either be integral with one side means (welding, soldering, adhesive and so on), or be fixed by means of studs 17 placed in the blind holes 18 of the end walls of the pipe 3. This blunt end of the insert 8 may be supplemented by the fairing 19, pointed in the direction of the cyclone and placed it behind the trim nozzle. The heat exchange system 15 includes trunk lines, valves, radiators, temperature sensors, and other blocks. To the inlet of the heat exchange system 15 attached to the outlet 6 of the heat generator, the heat exchange system connected to the pump 14.
The device for heating the liquid works as follows. The pump 14 under pressure (4-6 atmospheres) pumps water into the injection pipe 3, a heat source (Figure 1). As you progress through the injection nozzle, the flow of water is crimped and therefore accelerates, and is divided into several parts due to the presence of inserts 8 in the form of solid plates increasing in cross-section in the course of promoting it to the cyclone (Figure 2). At the nozzle exit formed between the flow elements for the ends of the plates 8 are formed in the zone of separation. Of these areas through ejection is the release of particles from a fluid flow that causes deep pressure drop them to the HAC is americasa values. In this case, the insertion force expanding jet in place of her entrance into the cyclone larger in cross section with the same mass flow as in a continuous flow, and thereby cause a deep vacuum on this part of the jet stream.
Another circumstance of this process is that the zone of separation cause the curvature of the trajectories of the flow elements in the direction of a possible influx of fluid and the pressure gradient, that is, on the periphery, in the side shell of the cyclone 2. The consequence of this fact is the impact of the flat slot jets with a significant increase in pressure in the place of their meeting, and further, due to the rebound together the subsequent expansion of the resulting jet stream, further compression, re - expansion, etc. At the same time, as progress of each element of the jet by alternating areas of vacuum and gauge pressure are formed and collapse of cavitation cavities, ensuring the heating of water or other process fluid. Controlling factors of this process can be:
- maximum thickness and the number of inserts 8, determining the degree of expansion of the jet;
- the thickness of the flat elements jets, defined by the location of the inserts 8;
- the magnitude of the vacuum in the zones of separation, controlled channels 9 with shutoff valves 1, connected with the vacuum source 12 and the source pressure 11, 13.
The value of the vacuum in each area of the isolation variable. It can grow from the nominal level corresponding to the pressure in the jet, to the maximum (proportional to velocity head) due to ejection. Because when the threshold is reached, the vacuum is the tightness of the zone of separation due to the destruction of the flat element of the jet under the action of pressure difference. Depressurization followed by replenishment of the area of separation of the liquid from the surrounding space and hydraulic shock. The frequency of this periodic process is defined:
- speed jet flow;
the thickness of the flat jet element;
the correction degree of vacuum in the area of the isolation valves of the apparatus 10 through the channels 9.
Moreover, periodic process of growth and destruction of the separation zone is in antiphase with the process of expansion and compression of the jet and in this case its harmful consequences. In addition, the volume of areas of separation by friction of the streamline flow is intense return for the maintenance of which requires an energy. To reduce the negative impact of areas of separation follows:
to increase the thickness of the flat flow elements;
to reduce the max is th magnitude of the vacuum due to the flow of liquid through the channels 9 of replenishing the tank 11, or discharge end 13 of the pump 12;
to fill all or part of the area of separation of the solid volume in the form of fairing 19, pointed in the direction of the cyclone 2 and placed in it with the edge of the nozzle (Fig. 3).
The insert 8 can also be made in the form of elastic plates of equal thickness with tapered input and output with respect to the injection pipe ends and are mounted with a gap on the sides of the hinge bearings, made in the form of studs 17 on the lateral sides of the plate and placed in the blind holes 18 of the walls of the injection nozzle 3 (Fig. 4).
In this case, accelerating in the injection pipe flow, flowing the plate is in her Flexural vibrations relative to the nodal points of fastening 17. The frequency of these oscillations is determined by the elastic properties of the liquid and the material of the plates, the distance between the fixing points, the thickness and width of the plate, the rate of flow. When the flow rate natural frequency of oscillation of the plate comes resonance mode, causing fluctuations in the surface layer of the jet stream emerging from the flooded holes in the cyclone. When the movement of the surface layer in an outward direction in the surrounding area of the flow creates a vacuum pressure, the motion of the surface layer inside the flow - high pressure. That is, what about the route for the flow of alternating zones of high and vacuum pressure, which arise and collapse of the cavitation cavity to heat the water. Pointed end of the inlet and outlet end plates reduce hydrodynamic resistance during its oscillatory process in the oncoming flow.
The fixing plate 8 console (Fig. 5) one side to the inner side wall of the injection nozzle 3 assumes a similar oscillatory processes, only oscillations are produced relative to the line of fixation, and their frequency is determined by the geometrical parameters already longitudinal section of the plate. However, for the manifestation of the action of the vacuum regions of the separation plate should not vary, i.e., its stiffness must be considerable, for vibration impacts on the surface layer of the jet, its stiffness must ensure that the desired value of the eigenfrequency
As a result of proposed activities passing through the cyclone 2 vortex flow in different sectors exposed to deep pressure drops, which causes the formation and collapse on the germ (foreign inclusions, inhomogeneities fluid, etc.) cavitation cavity. With the growth of each such cavity accumulates elastic energy, while the collapse of its seal, both in space and in time, resulting in t is CCE collapse of the fluid is warmed up to 6000 degrees.
As further movement of the vortex flow is directed into the cylindrical part of the housing 1, passing which interacts with the first brake system 4, made for example in the form of a system of rods. Each of the rods from the action of the incident vortex flow varies with the frequency of natural vibrations and transmits these vibrations to the liquid in which the newly formed and collapse of the cavitation cavity emitting thermal energy.
Itself the cylindrical part of the housing 1 is a resonator elastic waves produced by its ends in the cyclone 2 and the first brake system 4. If the length of the cylindrical part of the housing 1 is a multiple of an integer of paladin waves it comes resonance with the formation of a standing wave. In the antinodes of such waves (middle cylindrical part of the housing 1) as a result of this process is a deep pressure drops over time, which is the next source of formation of warmth.
After exiting the nozzle 6 of the heated fluid passes through the elements of the heating system 15 and enters into the suction inlet 12 of the pump 14 to participate in the next cycle workflow heat generation.
1. The device for heating the liquid containing the heat source consisting of a body having a cylindrical part, and the accelerator of the fluid made in the IDA cyclone, a pump connected to the heat source through the injection nozzle, which introduced at least one insert, and a heat exchange system connected to the outlet pipe of the heat source and to the pump, wherein the insert is made in the form of a continuous plate, oriented along the injection nozzle perpendicular to the ends of the cyclone.
2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the insert in the longitudinal cross-sectional triangular shape with the orientation of the sharp end toward the pump.
3. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the insert is made in the form of elastic plates of equal thickness with tapered input and output with respect to the injection nozzle ends mounted with clearance on the hinge supports.
4. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the insert is fixed console one side to the inner side wall of the injection nozzle.
5. Device according to any one of claim 2 and 4, characterized in that the blunt end of the insert through channels with valves and equipment communicated with additional recharge capacity.
6. Device according to any one of claim 2 and 4, characterized in that the blunt end of the insert through channels with shut-off and control devices in communication with the pressure pipe of the pump.
7. Device according to any one of claim 2 and 4, characterized in that stupid t is Retz insertion through channels with valves and equipment communicated with the suction inlet of the pump.
8. The device according to claim 2, characterized in that the blunt end of the insertion supplemented pointed in the direction of the cyclone Radome placed in a cyclone over the edge of the nozzle of the injection nozzle.
9. The device according to claim 3, characterized in that the pivot bearing is made in the form of spines on the lateral sides of the plate, placed in the blind holes of the walls of the injection nozzle.
10. Device according to any one of p and 4, characterized in that the insert is made in the form of a plate with a pointed input or output with respect to the injection nozzle end.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: electrically driven pump-heat generator comprises encased scroll, impeller, discharge outlet, stator and drive motor hollow rotor running in plain bearings. Heat tube is made inside said hollow rotor. Hydrodynamic rotary cavitator fitted on the shaft incorporates ultrasound resonance cavitation amplifier. Coaxial heat tubes are fitted on hollow shaft between said stator and rotor.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, decreased electric power consumption.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic heat generator comprises a cylindrical body with a cover and a bottom, an element in the form of a wound spring, nozzles for supply of cold water and drain of hot water. A wound flat spring with holes is fixed to turns of a hollow element, in its cylindrical part, outside, in the horizontal position, and on the vertical pipe installed inside the element there are hollow washers installed, filled with a heat-accumulating substance and equipped with holes. The vertical shaft from a wind engine via a reducer and a horizontal shaft having a solid disc at the end, is mechanically via a finger on a disc and a crank are connected with a connecting rod and a stem rigidly fixed with a hollow element and a pipe installed inside the body.
EFFECT: compactness and reduced metal intensity with increased transforming devices, making it possible to increase coefficient of mechanical energy transformation into thermal one.
SUBSTANCE: heat generator includes a cylindrical housing, a cover plate and a bottom. Inside the housing there installed on a ring attached to the wall is a pulse speed variator having a shaft with three rows of blades, in its upper part. The cover plate is provided with an electric generator, which is mechanically connected through friction discs to a drive shaft, as well as an electric accumulator connected through leads to the generator and electric board. Under the cover plate inside the housing there installed is a tubular coil having inlet and outlet branch pipes connected to cold and hot water supply systems.
EFFECT: heat generator design is compact; it has considerable number of rotating parts, which increases its thermal efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: system includes a heat generator, in the housing of which there fixed on the shaft are two discs forming an antechamber in the housing volume, a chamber of space between the discs and a post-chamber. Location of the discs on the shaft is calculated as per a certain formula; two discs of the heat generator are filled with pressed magnets arranged in a circumferential direction; bifilar coils with working and control windings, the cores of which are put tightly into the housing, are installed above the discs. Besides, a control unit is introduced, which is arranged between working and control windings of coils; in addition, the heat generator housing volume includes an electrolyser, the pairs of electrodes of which are made of one nipple electrode, the other one that is pressed into the housing; pairs of electrodes are arranged in a circumferential direction of the housing inner volume in the space between the discs and in the post-chamber. The system also includes a gas collector of oxygen-hydrogen mixture; the heat generator inlet is connected to the receiver outlet; the heat generator outlet is connected to the gas collector, and the gas collector is connected to the receiver inlet.
EFFECT: proposed invention allows reducing power consumption for obtaining heat and generation of gases.
SUBSTANCE: heat generator is installed in a closed circuit, at which vortex flow of water is formed due to conversion of a head created with a pump and the received flow is accelerated in a water movement accelerator, with further removal of heat obtained in the heat generator from outlet water flow to the consumer. At that, at the heat generator inlet, water flow is broken with an air cavity in the zone of its phase transition, in which the impact of drops of water at its outlet in atomisation cones is provided. An air cavity is formed at the inlet of the heat generator housing, and a volute has the shape of logarithmic spiral; at that, flow of liquid from the volute to a vortex pipe is performed through the logarithmic spiral pole, and a centrifugal pump and a shutoff valve is installed between a suction pipeline and a delivery pipeline.
EFFECT: obtaining more energy-saving method and economic water heating plant.
9 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: polyfunctional step vortex heater comprises a reduction thread, connected with inlet and outlet gas lines, in which there is a gas filter, a safety stop valve, a pressure controller, a double-flow and a single-flow ribbed vortex pipes, serially connected to each other by a cold gas flow, forming separate steps closed with a board jacket, besides, the inlet nozzle of the first stage of the vortex pipe is connected with the reduction thread via a tee and a stop device, its high-temperature nozzle is connected via a cyclone to an ejector nozzle, and a low-temperature nozzle is connected with an inlet nozzle of a vortex pipe of the second stage, the high-temperature nozzle of which is connected with a receiving chamber of the ejector, the outlet nozzle of which is connected via a stop device and a tee with a gas filter of the reduction thread, and the condensate outlet from the tray of the cyclone is connected to an external collector of condensate.
EFFECT: higher reliability and efficiency of a polyfunctional step vortex heater.
SUBSTANCE: hydrodynamic cavitator has fixed working chamber shaped to elliptic torus with two focuses and rotary disc. Working medium is fed by integral centrifugal pump or independent pump unit in working chamber in small portions when openings in said rotary disc and working chamber wall get aligned. Cavitation steam-gas bubbles of boiled fluid are formed in zone of proximal focus. Collapse of said bubbles is accompanied by intensive shock wave processes and origination of superhigh pressures and temperatures. Shock waves reflect from proximal focus to working chamber wall and, further, therefrom to nearest focus, and so on.
EFFECT: increased resonance of shock waves, efficient grinding of solid particles, structural and molecular change in complex molecules and mixes, dispersion and other chemical processes.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method of heat release in a liquid is proposed, including development of cavitation, at the same time a gas cushion is developed in the liquid cavitating in the closed circuit, and its volume and flow of passing liquid are serially varied to set an autovibrating mode in it, besides, a source of oscillations is a centrifugal nozzle, and to vary a gas cushion the closed circuit is equipped with an expansion tank with a piston moving in it, besides, the smaller part of the liquid flowing along the circuit is additionally heated to the temperature close to overheating in a heat exchanger prior to arrival to a cavitator (centrifugal nozzle), and a coolant for a heat exchanger is hot water or steam or power. The method makes it possible to intensify heat release in a closed circuit, where liquid circulates due to pre-heating of the liquid prior to its supply into a cavitator (centrifugal nozzle). Pre-heating of the liquid is carried out to the temperature close to overheating.
EFFECT: more intense formation of cavitation bubbles and release of high quantity of energy as they collapse.
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: target goal is achieved by the fact that an inner surface of a body has a coating from metals of aluminium, copper, silver, nickel, chrome or zinc with the reflecting capacity of thermal (infrared) radiation from 90 to 99 %, and having coating surface roughness from 0.2 mcm to 3.2 mcm, and an outer surface of the body is coated with a heat insulation paint. As a result of lower heat losses to environment, intensity of liquid heating is increased by 10-15 %.
EFFECT: lower heat losses to environment and higher efficiency of liquid heating.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: eco-complex is proposed based on energy of earth subsoils, providing for comfortable conditions for residing, using energy of earth subsoils, delivered by working bodies, such as electric current arriving along electric networks, and air arriving from atmosphere along a channel located at the depth of the earth surface, inside of which there is a turbine of power generator drive and a water and air heat exchanger, besides, the turbine of the power generator drive is located at the outlet from the lower part of the channel at the depth of more than 4000 metres.
EFFECT: ecosystem makes it possible to solve a problem of comfortable stay of a human being at northern latitudes, without limitation, taking into account processed related with climatic changes taking place on Earth.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: low-power engineering, applicable as a component of windmills for production of heated water in houses not provided with centralized hot water supply.
SUBSTANCE: the friction heater has a tank with heated liquid, fixed and rotary disks coupled to the drive shaft for joint axial motion, and a propeller with the working force in the direction of the disks are installed in the tank. The novelty in the offered heater is the installation of additional fixed and rotary disks, the propeller is fastened on the drive shaft, and each of the rotary disks is installed between two fixed disks, and a float located above the propeller for rotation relative to the drive shaft and for axial motion on the latter.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of heater operation at the same rotary speed of the drive shaft.
FIELD: cavitation and vortex heat generators; heating liquids in various hydraulic systems; activation of mixing, dispersion and chemical interaction processes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydrodynamic heat generator is provided with liquid accelerator made in form of bladed impeller at guaranteed small clearance; it is mounted in circular bush provided with tangential passages located over periphery and used for connecting the peripheral surface of impeller with vortex cylindrical chambers found in bush through longitudinal slots in their lateral surfaces. Mounted at outlet of cylindrical vortex chambers are accelerating packings extending to braking chamber where cavity resonators are arranged. Bladed impellers may be of different types: open or closed-type centrifugal impellers at angle more than 90 deg. and centrifugal vortex impellers; vortex and braking chambers may be also made in different versions.
EFFECT: low losses of energy; enhanced stability of cavities; enhanced efficiency.
15 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heating device comprises generator of heat energy and system for supplying heat to a consumer, which are interconnected through the supplying and discharging pipelines forming a closed contour. The contour has a net pump and at least one recirculation pipeline which receives at least one member provided with a converging pipe, diverging pipe, and one ring groove made between the diverging and converging pipes. The method of operation of the heating device comprises pumping the heat-transfer agent in the contour comprising at least one member with converging and diverging pipes. The heat-transfer agent is pumped under pressure which excludes the onset of cavitation in the heat-transfer agent flow.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
16 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: heat-power engineering; heating systems; water heating systems, public services, agricultural sector and transport facilities.
SUBSTANCE: steam from electric steam generator is delivered to jet apparatus nozzle where it is mixed with cold liquid flow for forming two-phase flow at acceleration to supersonic velocity. At mixing chamber outlet, this two-phase flow is decelerated for forming shock wave and converting the flow into liquid flow after shock wave. Then, flow is divided and one part is directed to heat exchanger of vortex tube where it is heated and directed for replenishment of electric steam generator. Other part is directed to nozzle apparatus where it is accelerated to supersonic velocity for forming two-phase flow, after which it is decelerated for converting it into liquid flow saturated with micro-bubble component. Nozzle apparatus outlet is connected with swirler inlet where vortex flow is formed; from swirler, flow is directed to vortex tube where heat is released and flow is divided into hot and cold components. From vortex tube, flow is directed to heat exchanger for transfer of heat to second loop; cooled liquid flow is directed to ejector inlet.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of plant.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises high-pressure pump, hydraulic motor, and safety device which are arranged in the tank under the level of fluid. The delivery space of the high-pressure pump is connected with the supplying passage of the hydraulic motor through the high-pressure pipeline which is made of a cylindrical coil whose longitudinal axis is coaxial to the longitudinal axes of the housing, diffuser of the resonance vibrations , and ring made of a trancated cone. The discharging passage of the hydraulic motor is connected through the a pipeline with the sprayer whose longitudinal axis is coaxial to the axes of the deflector and head, longitudinal axis of the diffuser, longitudinal axis of the ring, and longitudinal axis of the magnetostriction emitter.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device for heating water comprises heat generator of pump type, which consists of housing that have cylindrical section and receives at least one member for acceleration of fluid flow made of working wheel composed of two disks which allow the working wheel to be set in rotation and disk made of a flat ring secured inside the cylindrical section of the housing in the zone of rotation of working wheel coaxially to it, one member for decelerating fluid flow made of a conical straightener, and heat exchange system connected with the delivery branch pipe and the pump. The disks of the working wheel define nozzles arranged closer to its face. The working wheel and unmovable disk define space of variable cross-section for sucking heated fluid through the nozzles and supplying it to consumers. According to a particular version, the working wheel can be mounted for permitting adjusting the spaces between its sides and lids at the inlet and outlet of the heat generator.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: heat production by means other than fuel combustion for premises water heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed cavitation-type rotary heat-generator has housing provided with heated-liquid inlet and outlet and cylindrical surface carrying two coaxial rings of which one is fixed in position relative to housing and other ring is set in rotary motion by drive shaft disposed coaxially with rings. The latter are provided with radial holes disposed in plane perpendicular to axis of revolution. External coaxial ring is revolving and internal one is fixed in position relative to housing, clearance of 0.5 to 3 mm being provided between external revolving ring and internal cylindrical surface of housing. Steel disk is turned onto threaded end of drive shaft and external revolving ring is turned onto its rim. Drive shaft has spider with steel spokes tightened by means of claw nuts installed in depressions of external revolving ring. Threaded end of drive shaft mounts metal head with rimmed textolite disk attached thereto; this rimmed disk carries external revolving ring. Diameter of holes in internal fixed ring is larger by 1.5 - 3 times that that of holes in external revolving ring. Hole number in external revolving ring is other than that in internal fixed one.
EFFECT: augmented cavitation processes occurring during rotor revolution which enhances heating efficiency.
6 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: heat-power engineering; generation of heat in the course of combustion; degassing liquid in the course of heating.
SUBSTANCE: proposed heat generator includes cyclone-type jet apparatus mounted vertically and provided with inlet branch pipe located in upper part and outlet branch pipe located in lower portion; it is also provided with expansion reservoir mounted above jet apparatus; upper cavity of this jet apparatus is communicated with expansion reservoir.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of degassing liquid; enhanced corrosion resistance; increased flow rate of liquid; reduced noise of pump.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: chemical and oil industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying methane-containing gas to the cavitation liquid (water), bringing the gas into contact with the cavitation liquid to produce exothermic reactions, withdrawing heat, and removing oxygen-organic compositions, highest hydrocarbons, and unreacted gases from the cooled liquid, and rising pressure of the purified liquid. The reaction between the methane-containing gas and cavitation liquid is carried out in the presence of catalyzers that contain carbides, nitrides, borides and oxides of metals. The unreacted gases are supplied to the methane-containing gas.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: heat-power engineering; water heating systems for living and industrial rooms.
SUBSTANCE: proposed liquid heater has stator with cylindrical cavity and rotor mounted in this cavity at spaced relation and secured on rotating shaft; intermediate bush or disk mounted between rotor and shaft is made from dielectric material, thus reducing losses of heat over rotor shaft.
EFFECT: reduction of heat losses; enhanced efficiency.