Ultrasonic drag head

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: ultrasonic drag head is designed for drilling of ground to the depth of up to 2 metres at the speed of up to 20 mm/min per passto take samples without changing the composition. Drag head consists of an ultrasonic oscillating system with a working tool, an ultrasonic generator and a control system. Ultrasonic generator and control system are fixed on a space lander. On a waveguide of ultrasonic oscillating system there installed is a frame on which heat-insulated containers to take ground samples with a turning opening/closing mechanism, heat accumulators and a passive temperature stabilisation system are fixed. Ultrasonic oscillating system is equipped with a temperature sensor of drag head containers, which is connected to the control system of drag head. Sizes of each next element of the ultrasonic oscillating system are chosen based on compliance with resonant frequency of piezoelectric converter.

EFFECT: invention is able to take ground samples without thermal destruction and evaporation of volatile components.

6 dwg

 

The invention relates to space technology, and in particular to devices for sampling of soil, and can be used in the study of planets, comets and other heavenly bodies.

The sampling unearthly soil by running a small-diameter holes to a depth of several meters and the collection of samples of soil with the necessary depth without changing the structure and composition of the studied material remains one of the most difficult problems in the study of the surface of other planets [1].

Known suction head; it is intended for sampling unearthly soil by running a small-diameter holes due to mechanical rotation of the working tool [2]. The known suction head; it is a working tool made in the form of a drill with a carbide tip. Working tool rotates through the gear motor is gradually introduced into the soil and pushes it outward. On the surface of the installed container, which is a collection of samples produced soil.

The main disadvantage of the known device is the introduction of large amounts of energy in the area of drilling, which leads to changes in the structure and composition of the soil and the evaporation of volatile components (e.g., water) due to heating.

To eliminate the drawbacks caused by the rotation of the working tools of grantozajaviteli, used ultrasonic suction head; it.

Known ultrasonic groundsamine device containing successively installed and acoustically coupled between a rear reflecting the frequency reducing patch plate, the piezoelectric ring elements, a working plate, a hub, made in the form of a rod of variable cross-section, the level of low-frequency vibration and the working tool with an internal cavity for collection of soil sample [3].

The main disadvantage of these devices is the inability to obtain a sample from a depth of more than 15-20 see It due to the fact that the diameter of the working tool is much smaller than the diameter of the hub.

The closest to the technical nature of the present device is an ultrasound groundsamine device according to patent US 6968910, CL EV 7/24; EV 49/02, publ. 29.11.2005 [4], which was adopted for the prototype, containing successively installed and acoustically coupled between a rear frequency reducing patch reflecting the pad with the mounting stud, the piezoelectric ring elements, frequency reducing patch radiant plate, hub, made in the form of a rod of variable cross-section, the waveguide, the level of low-frequency vibration and the working tool.

In the prototype link low-frequency vibration has a free mass, vypolnenno is in the form of a ring, installed outside, and passive working tool made in the form of a cylinder with an internal cavity for collection of soil sample.

The analysis capabilities of the device, taken as a prototype, revealed the following significant drawbacks.

1. Inability to obtain several samples of soil from different depths in a single pass. When using prototype, you must drill out and remove the soil from the area of drilling. When drilling bulk soil and in the seizure suction head; it is from the zone drilling is crumbling soil. When using the device, the efficiency of the drilling process of the soil is small.

2. The impossibility of obtaining the sample in original condition and maintain its temperature until delivery from the zone drilling to research the device, due to the lack of control and maintain the required temperature range of the working tool and containers with the soil.

3. The possibility of jamming free mass on the surface of the working tool, as it is made in the form of a ring and is installed outside. With this arrangement, the free mass of crumbling the ground when drilling into the gap between the inner radial surface of the free mass and the outer radial surface of the working tool. Entering g the CNTs reduces the effectiveness of the shock oscillation-free mass, and under certain conditions, can completely eliminate vibrations.

4. Formed within the working tool sample collected soil for a long time (the time of formation of the required amount of soil exposed to ultrasound, which causes heat and the change of properties due to the energy of the impact.

Thus, the deficiencies reduce the effectiveness of the drilling of the soil in the unearthly conditions exclude the fence to the required depths, change properties and degrade the quality of the obtained soil samples.

The proposed solution aims to eliminate these drawbacks of the prototype and the creation of the ultrasonic suction head; it is capable of sampling soil samples without thermal destruction and evaporation of volatile components.

The technical solution is that the proposed ultrasonic gruntsgabalam device mounted on the manipulator space landing module containing successively installed and acoustically coupled between a rear frequency reducing patch reflecting the pad with the mounting stud, the piezoelectric ring elements, frequency reducing patch radiant plate, hub, made in the form of a rod of variable cross-section, the waveguide, the link discocactus the Oh vibration and the working tool, the mounting stud of the rear reflective lining above the surface of the reflecting frequency reducing patch plates by an amount corresponding to half of the wavelength in the material of the studs at a distance corresponding to the fourth part of the length of the wave has a thrust flange for connection with the optical drive space of the lander. Diameter section of the hub connected to the waveguide, and the diameter of the waveguide is selected from the conditions of placement of the passive thermal control system and containers for soil samples in the dimensions of the working tool. In the mounting stud, the radiating plate and the hub is made through channel having an exit in the area of changing the diameter of the hub, the length of the waveguide corresponds to an integer number of half-waves in the waveguide material, the number of half-waves is determined by the placement of the required number of thermoacoustic and grantsearch containers, articulated by means of the thrust flange located at distances that are multiples of a quarter of wavelength in the waveguide material. Link low-frequency vibration is made with an internal cavity of variable cross-section, and a free weight presses the spring to the end surface of the working tool, the working tool is made of special channels for output produced razryhlenie the soil and its distribution along the drilling channel, the working edge is made of stepped form, thickness and shape of the working edge is selected from a minimum of mechanical impact on the ground at a reasonable speed drilling.

The technical result is expressed in the creation of the ultrasonic suction head; it allows to increase the drilling depth in one pass, as well as to improve the quality of soil samples obtained from the required depths, at the lowest possible mechanical and thermal devastating impact on the ground.

The essence of the proposed solution and how it works are explained figure 1-6.

Figure 1 presents a General view of the space of the lander with the proposed gruntsgabalam device at the time of soil collection;

figure 2 presents a General view of the space of the lander with the proposed gruntsgabalam device at the time of unloading of the substrate;

figure 3 presents a constructive view of the piezoelectric transducer of the proposed suction head; it;

4 shows a longitudinal section of the proposed suction head; it;

figure 5 shows the location of elements of thermal control system;

figure 6 - section a-a in figure 3.

Offer groundsamine device is attached to the manipulator 1 space landing module 2 and the content is tons of ultrasonic oscillatory system 3 and the containers 17, installed around the waveguide 14 on the frame 19. Ultrasonic generator, ensuring optimal power Converter oscillatory system, installed on the space landing module 2.

Ultrasonic oscillatory system 3 consists of a piezoelectric transducer 12, the hub 13, the waveguide 14, the level of low-frequency vibration 15 and the active working tool 16.

Piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer 12 comprises acoustically connected between a quarter-wave frequency reducing patch radiating plates 4, the piezoelectric ceramic element 5, the annular copper strips are made with the electrode 6, an insulating sleeve 7, the o-ring copper gasket 8, reflecting the frequency reducing patch pads 10, tightening studs 9 of titanium alloy with a channel 11 for the passage of command and signal cables.

Accession to the piezoelectric elements 5 additional masses lining increases the overall height of the half-wave Converter and reduces its frequency. Radiant frequency reducing patch plate 4 in the proposed Converter is made of duralumin alloy D16T), and reflecting 10 - steel Steel (45). This choice of material is due to the fact, in order to improve the efficiency of the Converter (the gain) is necessary is velicity the ratio of the impedances reflecting and radiating frequency reducing patch overlays.

Acoustic communications transducer is ensured by the fact that the piezoelectric elements 5 are placed between the frequency reducing patch radiating plate 4 and the reflecting frequency reducing patch plate 10 with a force many times greater than the magnitude of the alternating force generated by the piezoelectric elements. The tightening force is provided by reflecting frequency reducing patch plate 10 and pin 9. The mounting stud of the rear reflective lining above the surface of the reflecting frequency reducing patch plates by an amount corresponding to half of the wavelength in the material of the studs. At a distance corresponding to a quarter of a wavelength from the end of the protruding part of the stud, made the thrust collar. By means of the thrust collar on the protruding part of the stud mounted on the bracket 18 for connection with the optical drive space of the lander. The choice of the dimensions of each subsequent element of the ultrasonic vibrating system is made from the condition of compliance with the resonant frequency of the piezoelectric transducer.

Transmission and simultaneous concentration (gain) acoustic energy (amplitude) from the end of the radiating surface of the piezoelectric transducer to the working radiant tool through transformationcelebertie speed (the hub) 13. The need to use the hub due to the impossibility of obtaining the amplitude of oscillations of more than 10 μm by means of a transducer constructed according to the scheme Langevin. The piezoelectric transducer 12 is connected by a pin 16 to the hub 13. In the mounting stud 16, the radiating plate 4 and the hub 13 is made through channel having an exit in the area of changing the diameter of the hub

After the hub 13 has a waveguide 14. The containers 17 are mounted on the frame 19, which is mounted on the waveguide 14 by means of the thrust flange that is located in the zone of minimal fluctuations. The hub is pulled from the waveguide by a pin 20. The length of the waveguide corresponds to an integer number of half-waves in the waveguide material, the number of half-waves is determined by the placement of the required number of thermoacoustic 21 and grantsearch containers 17, each of which is equipped with independent rotary mechanism for opening/closing. Diameter section of the hub connected to the waveguide, and the diameter of the waveguide is selected from the condition of the placement of the passive thermal control system and containers for soil samples in the dimensions of the working tool.

Link low-frequency vibration 15 made in the form of a hub with an internal cavity of variable cross-section, which has a free mass 22, prig is taken by the spring 23 to the end of the stud 24, tightening the working tool 16 and link low-frequency vibration 15.

As the material of the ultrasonic waveguide concentrator and link low-frequency vibration used titanium alloy VT-5.

Active working tool 16 in the form of a rod with an inner profile of variable cross-section, through which increases the amplitude of the working edge. For the output produced loosened soil and its distribution along the drilling channel in the working tool made special channels 25, the working edge 26 is made of stepped form, thickness and shape of the working edge is selected from a minimum of mechanical impact on the ground at a reasonable speed drilling. Active working tool 16 has a length that is a multiple of the half wavelength in the material of the working tool, and is connected to link low-frequency vibration of the stud 24. As the active material of the working tool used titanium alloy VT-5.

For temperature control grantsearch containers ultrasonic oscillatory system is equipped with a temperature sensor 27 connected to the control system. The temperature is maintained at the required level using a passive thermal control system that includes a heat pipe in the form of low-temperature heat pipe 28, the area evaporated the Oia which is connected to link low-frequency vibration. Passive thermal control system is also equipped with a low temperature termoacumuladores 21 with a substance having a temperature of phase transition from solid to liquid and back) at the required level.

Ultrasonic groundsamine the device operates as follows.

The first step is drilling at the maximum desired depth, for example on the moon up to 2 meters

In the process of drilling is controlled drilling speed, the temperature of the working tool and the frequency of the alternator output voltage and the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric vibrating system, matching the output impedance of the generator to the load and maintaining the amplitude of mechanical vibrations of the working tool at the specified level when the potential changes in the operating conditions.

For example, for the study of water on the moon (in the form of ice) soil temperature at a depth of 0.5 m to 2 m is about minus 120 ºC. When drilling with a speed of 20 mm/min is heated working tool 16. To maintain the required temperature in the present invention is provided by a low-temperature heat pipe 28 and thermoacoustic 21 with a working body type ethanol, having a transition temperature at minus 114.5º and specific heat of melting point 108 kdzhkg.

Preliminary estimates showed that depending on the breed of soil is possible variant of the drilling mode without stopping the process to a depth of 2 m

After the desired depth of drilling and the shutter speed for establishing the desired temperature, for example in our case minus 110 º C, we can proceed to the fence of the soil sample.

During the drilling of the working tool 16 having a special channels 25 to exit depleted soil, distributes along the drilling channel is already loosened soil. For distribution of produced ground along the drilling channel at the level of low-frequency vibration in the zone of maximum oscillations performed the flange 31. Soil samples for analysis in the drilled hole the command is given on the reverse of the ultrasonic system is approximately 50 mm (over the length of the container 17). Then the command is given to the electromagnetic mechanism by which the rotation of one or more containers 17, and the movement of the ultrasonic vibrating system 3 down in the direction of drilling. In the opened slit in the bottom of the container during the downward movement occurs, the soil samples. Then given the command to shut off the electromagnetic mechanism and by spring 30 and the subsequent rise of the oscillating system 3 is closing the holes for soil collection.

Subsequent soil samples from other depths (e.g. the R 1.5 m, 1.0 m and 0.5 m) occurs on the similar technology at the expense of consecutive stops when removing the drilling tool from the well.

After extracting oscillatory system 3 from a well manipulator 2 working tool is mounted on the device for receiving ground 29. At the command of the operator turns on the electromagnetic mechanism of a specific container 17, which rotates the container with soil, and the soil via open channel due to forces of gravity poured on the ground. If taken from the soil tightly trembowla in containers, provided the start of the ultrasonic vibrating system, in which low-frequency vibration generated free mass, will create conditions for the complete deterioration of the soil from the container.

The use of the proposed device allows to obtain samples of the soil to the required depth with a temperature corresponding to the temperature of the occurrence of the breed, which allows a qualitative study of the composition of the soil in the place of its occurrence and to obtain deep borehole for one drilling.

The study proposed and developed ultrasonic suction head; it is possible to provide drilling depth up to 2 meters in a single pass and soil samples with the required depth, the volume of soil collected each container, which is 1.5 cm 3.

The proposed ultrasonic groundsamine the device was successfully tested in the laboratory of acoustic processes and devices Biysk technological Institute (branch) Altai state technical University.

References

1. Bar-Cohen Y., Zacny K. (Eds.). Drilling in Extreme Environments: Penetration and Sampling on Earth and other Planets, Weinheim, 2009.

2. Sample collecting apparatus of space machine [Text]: U.S. patent 6138522: MPK7 G01N 1/00; EV 49/02; G01N 1/08; G01N 35/00; G01N 1/00; E21B 49/00; G01N 1/04; G01N 35/00; E21B 49/00 / Hiroaki Miyoshi (Japan), the patentee: NEC Corporation (Japan), proposal: 08/827,496 from 28.03.1997. Published: 31.10.2000.

3. Self mountable and extractable ultrasonic/sonic anchor [Text]: U.S. patent 7156189: IPC ES 37/02; AV 17/00; B25D 17/06; H02N 2/00 / Bar-Yoseph Cohen (USA), Stewart Sherrit (USA), the patentee: The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (USA), proposal: 11/001,465 from 01.12.2004. Published: 02.01.2007.

4. Ultrasonic/sonic mechanism of deep drilling (USMOD) [Text]: U.S. patent 6968910: MPK7 EV 7/24; EV 25/00; EV 7/00; EV 25/00; EV 7/24; EV 49/02 / Bar-Yoseph cohen (USA), Stewart Sherrit (USA), Benjamin Dolgin (USA), HLW Xiaoqi (USA), Stephen Askins (USA), proposal: 10/304192 from 27.11.2002. Published: 29.11.2005. the prototype.

Ultrasonic groundsamine device containing successively installed and acoustically coupled between a rear frequency reducing patch reflecting the pad with the mounting stud, the piezoelectric ring elements, radiation frequency reducing patch is surrounding the pad, the hub is made in the form of a rod of variable cross-section, the waveguide, the level of low-frequency vibration and the working tool, wherein the mounting stud of the rear reflective lining above the surface of the reflecting frequency reducing patch plates by an amount corresponding to half of the wavelength in the material of the studs at a distance corresponding to the fourth part of the length of the wave has a thrust flange for connection with the optical drive space of the lander, diameter section of the hub connected to the waveguide, and the diameter of the waveguide is selected from the condition of the placement of the passive thermal control system and containers for soil samples in the dimensions of the working tool, the mounting stud, the radiating patch and the hub is made through channel having an exit in the area of changing the diameter of the hub, the length of the waveguide corresponds to an integer number of half-waves in the waveguide material, the number of half-waves is determined by the placement of the required number of thermoacoustic and grantsearch containers, articulated by means of the thrust flange located at distances that are multiples of a quarter of wavelength in the waveguide material, the level of low-frequency vibration is made with an internal cavity of variable cross-section, and a free weight, perimenopausal the end surface of the working tool, in the working tool is made of special channels for output produced loosened soil and its distribution along the drilling channel, the working edge is made of stepped form, thickness and shape of the working edge is selected from a minimum of mechanical impact on the ground at a reasonable speed drilling.



 

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4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: apparatus for obtaining or removing undisturbed cores in tubular core lifter, particularly during vertical, inclined or horizontal well drilling.

SUBSTANCE: core holder comprises body, core engagement member and support ring with inclined end surface. Core engagement member is bush with parallel ends and inner inclined surface, which is located on support ring by larger base so that the bush may perform radial, axial and annular movement relative support ring. Angle α of cone generator is more or equal to angle β of end ring surface inclination. Magnet is installed in support ring part characterized by the least height. Core holder has orifice. Magnet and orifice are in common line, which is parallel to axial core holder line. In the case of vertical well drilling the bush is rotated on support ring by gravity force application. In the case of inclined or horizontal well drilling the bush is rotated under the action of magnet and flushing liquid jet to engage core just as washer installed in skewed position on cylindrical body engages the core.

EFFECT: increased reliability of core holding during well drilling.

1 dwg

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