Device on solar batteries

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention is a device with supply from a solar battery, which includes a battery, at least one photoelectric element (which may be a part of a solar module comprising multiple photoelectric elements) and a DC-perceptive AC device, such as a compact fluorescent lamp. The device with supply from a solar battery may also include the first DC-DC converter, which receives the first electric signal from at least one photoelectric element and provides a charging signal to a battery, and the second DC-DC converter, which receives the second electric signal from a battery and provides for a DC signal of DC supply to the DC-perceptive AC device.

EFFECT: higher efficiency factor.

19 cl, 3 dwg

 

The prior art inventions

1. The technical field to which the invention relates.

At least one variant embodiment of the invention is directed to systems running on solar energy, and means for providing energy and, more specifically, to lighting, solar-powered.

2. Discussion of the prior art,

In 2006, the international indicators on access to rural energy showed that the estimated 2.4 billion people on Earth lack access to modern energy services and approximately 1.6 billion people have no access to electricity. The vast majority of these people are located in rural areas, many in poor countries, and it is unlikely that the network energy companies reached them in the near future.

To diffuse agricultural markets improved energy services can be reached through technology distributed clean energy, such as solar photovoltaic module and biogas. Many of the 1.6 billion people are without access to electricity networks (i.e. that are in non-electrified areas), live in warm, Sunny locations. In these locations solar PV systems are often Naib is more cost-effective way to provide electricity to non-electrified areas.

Traditional solar PV systems use a battery to store energy collected from the sun during the daytime hours. This battery is typically a 12-volt (V) battery, which gives energy to direct current (DC). The system can either be directly connected to 12-volt appliances direct current or may include inverter DC-AC, in order to allow the connection to be more common devices alternating current (AC) with a higher voltage (for example, 120 V or 230 V). This Converter is usually the inverter H-bridge, as is well known to specialists in this field of technology.

The invention

Aspects and embodiments of the invention are directed to systems and methods that can provide an inexpensive solution for lighting using solar energy. The system can be especially useful in rural areas where houses and/or commercial and industrial enterprises do not have access to the electrical network. In accordance with one embodiment, the system can be connected directly to compact fluorescent lamps to provide efficient, cost-effective lighting, as discussed in more detail below.

As discussed above, there are two types of traditional solar photovoltaic systems, which is s can be used for lighting. However, each of these two types of systems suffer from significant drawbacks. The first type of system can directly connect to 12-volt fluorescent lamps DC. However, these 12-volt fluorescent lamp (DC not produced commercially in the scale compact fluorescent bulbs AC and therefore are not cost-effective. Another type of conventional system uses an inverter, inverter DC-AC, coupled between battery and AC devices. However, these inverters increase the cost, complexity and energy loss of the system. At least some aspects and embodiments of focused on solar photovoltaic system that can be used with low-cost, mass-produced compact fluorescent lamps AC without increasing unnecessary cost, complexity and efficiency losses from the inverter.

In accordance with one embodiment, the device may include a battery, at least one photovoltaic element (which may be part of a solar module, comprising multiple photovoltaic cells), and at least one electrical alternating current (AC), susceptible to direct current (DC) (DC-susceptible AC) device (such as the ompaktnaja fluorescent lamp). The device may also include a first DC-DC Converter that receives the first electrical signal from the at least one photovoltaic element and provides the signal charge on the battery, and the second DC-DC Converter that receives the second electrical signal from the battery and provides a DC signal DC power-sensitive AC device.

In one example, the first DC-DC Converter may be a step down Converter or, in the alternative, the boost Converter. In another example, the first DC-DC Converter may include a circuit point tracking maximum power. In another example, the device may also contain a number of devices associated with the second DC-DC Converter, each of the multiple devices associated with a corresponding one of the many compact fluorescent lamps or other electrical appliances. With the first and second DC-DC converters can be connected to the microcontroller and adapted to control components of the first and second DC-DC converters. In one example, may be provided to the housing, which protects the microcontroller, the first DC-DC Converter and the second DC-DC Converter, and optionally also the battery.

In accordance with another embodiment, a method of providing energy to the DC-vos is ioncinema AC device, may include the transfer of power from your PV sections and providing a DC signal DC-susceptible AC device. In one example, the method may also include the conservation of energy in the battery and signal transmission of direct current from the battery.

Still other aspects, ways of implementation and benefits of these model aspects and embodiments are discussed in detail below. Moreover, it should be understood that the preceding information, as well as the subsequent detailed description are merely illustrative examples of various aspects and embodiments and are intended to give an overview or framework for understanding the nature and character of the claimed aspects and embodiments. The accompanying drawings are included to illustrate and further understanding of various aspects and embodiments, and are registered and constitute part of this description. The drawings, together with the rest of the description, serve to explain the principles and actions described and claimed aspects and embodiments.

Brief description of drawings

Various aspects of at least one variant of implementation are discussed below with reference to the accompanying drawings. In the drawings, which are not expected to draw in scale, each of the first identical or nearly identical component, which is illustrated in the various drawings, the same number. For the purpose of clarity, not every component may be labeled in every drawing. The drawings are for the purpose of illustration and explanation and is not meant to be a determination of the scope of the invention. In the drawings:

Figure 1 - functional diagram of one example of the system according to aspects of the invention;

Figure 2 - illustration of the sample curves dependency of the current on the voltage and the power voltage for a typical solar module; and

Figure 3 is a more detailed functional block diagram of the system 1, including the monitoring of current and voltage in accordance with aspects of the invention.

Detailed description

Many are available for purchase devices such as, for example, compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), some TVs, radios, etc., although primarily designed to obtain power alternating current (AC), rectify the incoming AC line to get power direct current (DC). Consequently, such devices can be powered directly by the DC signal, thus eliminating the need for an inverter used in traditional systems. Such devices are referred to here as DC-susceptible AC device. Accordingly, at least some aspects and options done by the means directed on solar photovoltaic system, which provides access direct connection to DC-susceptible AC device, such as CFLs, without increasing unnecessary cost, complexity and efficiency losses from the inverter used in traditional systems. In addition, the system in accordance with some options for implementation may support or to maximize the shelf life of the battery, monitoring the battery charge, as discussed below.

It should be understood that this invention is not limited in its application to details of construction and arrangement of the components set forth in the following description or illustrated in the drawings. The invention allows the introduction of other options for implementation and the practical application and implementation in a variety of ways. Examples of specific implementations are provided here for illustrative purposes only and are not intended to be exhaustive. In particular, steps, elements and features discussed in connection with one or more variants of implementation, it is not intended to be excluded from a similar role in other types of exercise. Also, the phraseology and terminology used here with the purpose of description and should not be construed as restrictive. The use of "comprising", "includes", "having", "covering", "inclusive" and their variants is intended here to generate the, to cover the symptoms listed in the future, and their equivalents, as well as additional features.

Referring to Figure 1, there is illustrated a functional diagram of one example of the system according to aspects of the invention. The system 100 includes a solar module 102, also called photovoltaic cell or solar panel. Solar module 102 contains one or more, usually many, photovoltaic cells, which convert energy from sunlight into an electrical signal. At least in some applications, the solar module 102 may be a 100 Watt module, or less. One example of a solar module, which can be used is a 65-Watt module, available from BP Solar under inventory number BP365U. The system may also include a first subsystem 104, the second subsystem 106 and a controller 108, which can be accommodated in the housing 110. The first and second subsystems 104, 106 attached to the battery 112. The battery may be external to the housing 110, as shown, or may be placed inside the housing 110. In one example, the battery 112 may be a 12-Volt lead acid battery. The second subsystem 106 is also connected to one or more clamping devices 114, as discussed in more detail below. Each clamping device 114 attached to DC-asprincipal AC device 116, such as compact fluorescent light bulb (CFL), a small black-and-white or colour television, radio or computer. It should be understood that although the subsequent discussion will focus on lighting and can relate mainly to the appliance, which is a compact fluorescent lamp, the invention is not limited to this only and can be used with any DC-susceptible AC device. The system discussed here can be used in many applications, not limited to lighting, in order to generate electricity from the PV module.

During the daytime hours, the system 100 transmits power from the solar module 102 to stock up as much as possible the charge in the battery 112, without overloading the battery and without reducing the battery life. In order to perform the charging of the battery, in one embodiment, the first subsystem may include a DC-DC Converter that transmits power from the solar module 102 and uses the power for charging the battery 112. In one example, the first subsystem 104 may include a non-isolated step-down Converter. As is known to experts in the art, step-down Converter is a DC-DC Converter with a step decrease, which may be implemented as a pulse power source on the emitting coil, managed two switches, usually a transistor and a diode. In operation, the step-down Converter is alternately changed between connecting the inductor to the supply voltage (in this case, the solar module 102)to store the power in the inductor and discharging the inductor into the load (in this case, the battery 112). Step-down Converter can be very effective (for example, with an efficiency of 95% or higher), and the simple design of the Converter and can be used in particular in applications in which the voltage from the solar module must be reduced before you apply for the battery.

In another example, the first subsystem 104 may include a non-isolated boost Converter. As is well known to specialists in this field of technology that improves the Converter is a DC-DC Converter with an output voltage higher than the voltage source. Non-isolated step-up Converter is a Converter that does not include galvanic isolation provided by, for example, by means of a transformer. The first subsystem 104 may, therefore, contain a boost Converter, where it is desirable to increase the voltage generated from the solar module 102 before it is fed to the battery 112.

In accordance with one embodiment, the PE the first subsystem 104 may include a device tracking maximum power point (ASTM). As is well known to specialists in this field of technology, USTM is a DC-DC Converter with high efficiency, which functions as an optimal electrical load to a solar module (in this case, the solar module 102)to extract the maximum, or nearly maximum power from the module. Photovoltaic modules, such as solar module 102, may have a single operating point under all conditions of sunlight and temperature, where the values of current (I) and voltage (V) element result in the maximum output voltage. This is illustrated in figure 2, which shows three exemplary curves of current versus voltage 118a, 118b and 118c for different conditions of solar illumination. These three curves of current versus voltage curves correspond to the three power vs. voltage 120a, 120b and 120c, respectively. As can be seen in figure 2, each curve of a power voltage has a single maximum point, 122a, 122b and 122c, respectively, where the output power of the photovoltaic element maximum. Device tracking maximum power point of use electric control or logic to search for this point and, consequently, to allow the scheme DC-DC Converter to extract the maximum available power from the solar module 102.

Arr is was again to Figure 1, the second subsystem 106 may include a DC-DC Converter step-UPS, which can be used to increase the voltage from the battery 112 to a voltage, which can be used for compact fluorescent lamps 116. In addition, during certain periods of operation, the second subsystem 106 may receive power directly from the first subsystem 104 may increase the resulting voltage to the level required to power the electrical device 116. For example, during periods of full sunlight, the solar module 102 may generate more power than is sufficient to actuate electrical devices 116, and the excess energy may be stored in the battery. During the night or in conditions of low solar illumination, however, the solar module 102 may be little energy, or no, and some or all of the energy required for electrical devices 116 can something that comes to us from the battery 112. Therefore, the second subsystem may receive a signal from one or the other device, or from both the first subsystem 104 and/or the battery 112, and may convert the signal to a level (levels), suitable for electrical devices 116.

According to one variant of implementation, the second subsystem 106 may contain isolated or non-isolated surface is superior to the Converter, depending on cost, efficiency and/or security reasons. For example, if the rate of increase is relatively small, for example, a factor of 4 or 5 (e.g., 24-Volt battery for up to 120 VDC, non-isolated converters can in most cases be cheaper and with higher efficiency. However, if the requested rate increase is large (for example, the coefficient on the order of 10 or more), the isolated Converter using a transformer, it may be more cost-effective and efficiency. Isolated converters can also generally considered to be safer than non-isolated converters, because isolated converters do not have a conducting channel between the input voltage and the output.

Referring to Figure 3, there is illustrated one example of the second subsystem 106. The second subsystem may include an inductor 124, the transistor 126, the diode 128 and a capacitor 130 to provide a DC-DC conversion with increase. In addition, according to one variant of implementation, the second subsystem 106, in conjunction with the controller 108 may monitor the current and/or voltage output from the second subsystem 106 to determine conditions that may indicate potential problems, such as short circuit or connecting improper electrical czarinas devices 114. As discussed above, many different types of appliances can be connected to clamping devices 114, provided that these appliances are either electrical DC or AC appliances susceptible to direct current, i.e. electrical appliances, adapted to receive the signal power constant current. Some appliances, such as compact fluorescent lamps and some television receivers, denoted devices "AC", in the sense that they can take the input AC power and can traditionally be connected to alternating current circuits, but is also able to receive the DC signal, as discussed above (these devices are referred to as AC appliances susceptible to direct current (DC-susceptible AC devices)). However, other electrical devices can be "true" AC devices that cannot accept the input DC power. These devices may typically include input transformers, which can operate as a short circuit, if they accept the input DC power. It is possible that such true device AC may be incorrectly connected to clamping devices 114. Resultyou the second emission current due to the circumstances of the short circuit, caused by such devices can be dangerous, especially because it can represent a risk of fire. In addition, circumstances in addition to connecting the wrong device may cause current surges that can trigger fires or submit other security threats. Such circumstances may include, for example, damaged devices connected to clamping devices 114, or damaged wiring between the clamping devices.

To prevent such surges of power and thereby reduce the associated security threats, embodiments of the system may include circuitry to monitor the current and/or voltage supplied from the second subsystem 106 to clamping devices 114. As shown in Figure 3, in at least one embodiment, the controller 108 can be connected to the output line 136 of the second subsystem 106 to measure the voltage (for example, at the connection point 132) and/or current (for example, at the connection point 134) on line 136. If the controller 108 determines the situation of voltage or current on the line 136, which may indicate a short circuit or connection true AC load to push the device 114, the controller may disconnect the battery by means of the signal on l is of 138, so to eliminate any power line 136. This provides an indication of safety, which can reduce the risk of fire or danger to personnel using electrical appliances connected to the clamping devices 114.

According to another variant implementation, the controller 108 may also be used to control components of the power, such as field-effect transistors (FETS), as in the first subsystem 104, and the second subsystem 106 (e.g., transistor 126, shown in Figure 3). The controller 108 may include, for example, low-cost microprocessor or other control circuit. The controller can control the first subsystem and monitor the charge on the battery, so to allow you to stock up on the battery 112 most of the charge, without overloading the battery and without reducing the battery life. To achieve this function, the controller can be programmed with knowledge of the charging mode of the battery and can monitor the battery temperature, to adjust the set point voltage and current so as to charge the battery in accordance with its mode of charging. When electrical devices 116 are in operation, for example, after nightfall, if the appliances are compact fluorescent lamps, the system transmits power from a battery to power electrical appliances. In this case, the controller 108 which may again monitor the battery and to control the second subsystem 106, so in order to protect the battery, limiting the depth of discharge. To achieve this function, the controller 108 may monitor the current and voltage on the battery and can be programmed with pre-calculated expected performance of the battery in ampere-hours. The controller can summarize the current supplied by the battery, over time, to measure the expected ampere-hours, and can reduce the capacity of the battery or disconnect the battery when the expected number of ampere-hours is approaching the expected maximum number of ampere-hours that can produce the battery. Thus, the controller 108 can protect the battery 112 from the fact that it is not fully discharged, thereby preventing damage to the battery.

In one embodiment, clamping devices 114 can include switches that can adapt to shut down the DC loads. In one example, these clamping devices can also include a protective circuit for protection against electric arc, which may occur when off DC. Clamping devices can also be configured to allow easy connection "chain chain" of additional clamping devices.

Having described thus several aspects of at least one possible implementation of this is th invention, it should be understood that various changes, modifications, and improvements will readily occur among specialists in this field of technology. For example, although the second system is described here as including a step-up Converter, in some applications (for example, if the devices are low voltage, such as LEDs, are connected to clamping devices) the second subsystem may alternatively include the step-down Converter. These and other changes, modifications and improvements are intended to be part of this disclosure and are intended to be within the scope of the invention. Accordingly, the above description and drawings are only an example, and the scope of the invention should be set from a proper interpretation of the attached claims and their equivalents.

1. The device is powered by a solar battery, comprising:
- the battery;
at least one photovoltaic element;
- clamping device;
- compact fluorescent lamp connected to a push-on device;
the first DC-DC Converter connected between the at least one photovoltaic element and the battery, which receives the first electrical signal from the at least one photovoltaic element and especiay the signal charge on the battery; and
the second DC-DC Converter connected between the first DC-DC Converter and a clamping device and between the battery and the clamping device, and the second DC-DC Converter is a DC-DC Converter step-UPS, configured to receive the second electrical signal from the battery and the third electrical signal from the first DC-DC Converter and to provide a signal DC power compact fluorescent lamp through the clamping device, and the DC signal power is derived from at least one of the second electrical signal and the third electrical signal and has a voltage level sufficient for compact fluorescent lamps.

2. The device is powered by a solar battery according to claim 1, in which the first DC-DC Converter is a step-down Converter.

3. The device is powered by a solar battery according to claim 1, in which the first DC-DC Converter is a boost Converter.

4. The device is powered by a solar battery according to claim 1, in which the first DC-DC Converter includes a circuit point tracking maximum power.

5. The device is powered by a solar battery according to claim 1, further comprising a solar module, containing a number of photovoltaic elements, including, Melsheimer, one photoelectric element.

6. The device is powered by a solar battery according to claim 1, additionally containing a lot of additional clamping devices attached to the second DC-DC Converter, each of the sets of clamping devices attached to a corresponding one of the many DC-susceptible AC devices.

7. The device is powered by a solar battery according to claim 6, in which many DC-susceptible AC devices includes many additional compact fluorescents.

8. The device is powered by a solar battery according to claim 6, in which many DC-susceptible speaker device includes at least one of: a black and white television receiver, a color television receiver, a radio and a computer.

9. The device is powered by a solar battery according to claim 1, additionally containing a microcontroller, connected to the first DC-DC Converter and the second DC-DC Converter, and a microcontroller designed and executed to control components of the first and second DC-DC converters.

10. The device is powered by a solar battery according to claim 9, further comprising a housing, and a microcontroller, the first DC-DC Converter and the second DC-DC Converter is located inside the housing.

11. The device with the power of the solar battery of claim 10, in which the battery is placed inside the case.

12. The method of providing a DC-susceptible speaker device, comprising:
- transmission of power from the PV module to provide the first DC voltage;
- transmission of power from the battery to provide a second DC voltage;
- perform DC-DC conversion on the first DC voltage to provide a third DC voltage;
- perform DC-DC conversion over at least part of the second DC voltage and the third DC voltage for step-by-step increase of the DC voltage to a level sufficient to operate compact fluorescent lamps, thereby providing a DC signal power; and summing the DC signal supply to the compact fluorescent lamp.

13. The method according to item 12, in which the transmission of power from the PV module involves the use of a device tracking maximum power point for the optimization of power received from the PV module.

14. The method according to item 12, optionally containing monitoring DC signal power supplied to the compact fluorescent lamp.

15. The method according to 14, in which the monitoring DC signal power includes the detection of the emission current in the DC signal power, and upon detection of the emission current, disable DC signal power.

16. The method according to item 12, optionally containing save the tion, at least part of the power in the battery.

17. The method according to clause 16, in which the preservation of power in the battery includes protecting the battery from overcharging.

18. The method according to item 12, in which the transmission of power from the battery includes limiting the discharge of the battery.

19. The method according to item 12, additionally containing the summed DC signal supply to at least one of: a black and white television receiver, a color television receiver, computer, and radio.



 

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4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: protection circuit of the power supply unit of a dc voltage apparatus is installed at the output of the power supply unit, and between the positive terminal (3) of the power supply unit and the positive terminal (1) of said apparatus there is a switching element (S1) and an inductor (L1), which is connected between the switching element (S1) and the positive output terminal (1), wherein the inductor (L1) on its side connected to the positive output terminal (1) is also connected to the an output capacitor (C2), and the side of the inductor (L1) connected to the switching element (S1) is connected to a diode (D1), which is connected in parallel to the output capacitor (C2) n the cathode side, and there is also a device for controlling the switching element (S1), which includes the switching element (S1) depending on current measured in the protection circuit.

EFFECT: designing an apparatus which, as a result of connecting units when the apparatus is operating, the absence of current harmonics is determined, and therefore undervoltage on the conductor line.

16 cl

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention is a device with supply from a solar battery, which includes a battery, at least one photoelectric element (which may be a part of a solar module comprising multiple photoelectric elements) and a DC-perceptive AC device, such as a compact fluorescent lamp. The device with supply from a solar battery may also include the first DC-DC converter, which receives the first electric signal from at least one photoelectric element and provides a charging signal to a battery, and the second DC-DC converter, which receives the second electric signal from a battery and provides for a DC signal of DC supply to the DC-perceptive AC device.

EFFECT: higher efficiency factor.

19 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: step-up voltage converter comprises an input circuit with a choke in one of branches, two power keys, two diodes, and a starting key with a resistor shunting it and two in-series output capacitors. In order to improve reliability of semiconductor elements and prevention of the core saturation upon supply of input voltage should be performed in four stages. Unbalanced conditions of the converter operation are eliminated by introduction into the scheme of two auxiliary keys controlled by two auxiliary drivers and two operating amplifiers (OA). A resistor is connected in series with each auxiliary key and each operating amplifier contains series circuits, which consist of a diode and resistor thus ensuring hysteresis of connection and disconnection of the auxiliary keys.

EFFECT: high reliability.

5 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of electrical equipment and can be used in digital control systems of DC voltage converters with the function of suppression of the hazardous oscillations of output voltage occurring at a certain set of parameters of the system. In the nonlinear dynamics control system the control system consisting of the main subsystem and the control auxiliary subsystem, approximators on the basis of neural networks is connected to the power part of the converter. The converter control signal provides the stabilization of average value of output voltage. In the system the correction of error signal is provided, thus the stabilization of the design dynamic mode (1 cycle) is provided.

EFFECT: ensuring of pre-set nonlinear dynamic properties of the system and pre-set parameters of speed and accuracy of output voltage stabilization in case of refusal from parametrical synthesis.

3 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: direct-current voltage converter comprises control field-effect transistor, which gate is shunted by parallel circuit from counterconnected first diode and first resistor while its drain is connected to anode connection point of switching diode and the first output of choke, which second output is connected to the first input pin joined to source of the control field-effect transistor and the first output pin connected through output capacitor to cathode connection point of switching diode, the second output pin and the first output pin of the output voltage divider, which second output is connected to the first output pin meanwhile the midpoint is connected to measuring input of the control unit, which common leg is connected to the first output pin, emitter follower, which output pin is connected to the first output of the second resistor. The circuit is featured by introduction of a coupling capacitor connected between the second output of the second resistor and gate of the field-effect transistor, the first transistor with load resistor in the collector circuit and auxiliary capacitor connected between outputs of the collector and emitter of the first transistor, which base is connected to output pin of the control unit, emitter is connected to the first output pin while collector - to input pin of the emitter follower. At that in the suggested device the control unit may consist, for example, of pulse generator, which output is coupled to input of saw-tooth voltage shaping unit and to the first input of comparator circuit, which second input is coupled to output of saw-tooth voltage shaping unit and its third input is coupled to output of feedback amplifier, which input is connected to input pin of the control unit and its second input is connected to output of the reference element. In operating mode at large pulse ratio of control voltage at the gate of field-effect transistor (low duration of gating pulses) due to introduction of an auxiliary capacitor the control field-effect transistor starts operation in linear mode limiting reduction in duration of control voltage thus preventing loss in stability of regulation by DC voltage stabiliser.

EFFECT: reliability improvement.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrical engineering and can be used in load time division multiple access systems. Power supply with USB interface comprises: USB interface, smooth switching circuit and DC/DC conversion circuit, which are connected in series. From output of DC/DC conversion circuit power is supplied to loading time-division multiple access system. Power supply source also comprises a capacitor, first end of which is connected between smooth switching circuit and DC/DC conversion circuit, and second end is grounded. Said capacitor is used for limitation of input current of DC/DC conversion circuit. Value of capacitor is selected in accordance with voltage on capacitor, when loading time-division multiple access system is operating or not operating, maximum current allowable for output via a USB interface, input voltage of DC/DC conversion circuit, voltage and current required by load time division multiple access system, and period of operation of load time-division multiple access system.

EFFECT: technical result consists in compensation of power at reduced capacitance in circuit of connector, providing compensation of power, ensuring working parameters of power supply source with USB interface.

8 cl, 8 dwg

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