# Method of protecting user of radio navigation receiver from aberrational pseudodistance measurements

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: measurement error is detected using statistical estimation based on calculation of residual measurements, which particularly enables, independent of any ground segment (i.e. using a RAIM function), to increase efficiency of the available receiver (designated as "primary") without an integrity monitoring function, detect possible errors which distort input measurements for position calculation owing to use of a robust statistical estimation algorithm, i.e. an algorithm which is not susceptible to measurement errors, and with use of a dynamic criterion, and calculate a robust position adjustment provided by the primary receiver, with exclusion of any such detected error.

EFFECT: protecting a user of a radio navigation receiver from aberrational pseudodistance measurements.

16 cl, 1 dwg

The technical field

The present invention relates to a method of protecting a user's navigation receiver from aberrant measurements pseudoresistance.

Prior art

The error in the geographic location indicated by the receiver to the satellite radio navigation system, depends on errors in the measurement of pseudoresistance determined using the algorithm used by this receiver, and errors contained in the navigation message transmitted by the satellite.

To limit these errors and to ensure the protection of users, you must have the means, allowing to identify such errors with a view to their elimination and to calculate the limiting error of the position depending on the available measurements with regard to the requirements of integrity and continuity associated with the context of use (landing aircraft etc). These tools are the basis of the device that contains the function RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring*-*the Autonomous integrity monitoring receiver). Modern receivers GNSS (global satellite navigation system)used in civil aviation, it is impossible to use without RAIM function.

Modern equipment with RAIM function is characterized by two problems:

it is full of the stew integrated, from which it follows that it is impossible to choose a separate device, which receives the navigation signal, and a device that calculates the position of the device that provides the functions of monitoring the integrity of,

- it is based on algorithms algorithm type of least squares, which remain intact in the presence of erroneous measurements, and at any amplitude (even infinitesimal) error, which distorts the measurements, which creates problems of reliability of the proposed solutions positioning.

A brief description of the nature of the inventions

The present invention is to provide a method for protecting a user's navigation receiver from aberrant measurements pseudoresistance, and this method can be applied to the device-independent device, which receives the navigation signal and which calculates the position of the device which provides the function of monitoring the integrity and stability of which is not disturbed by the presence of erroneous measurements at any amplitude errors that distort the measurements.

The protection method in accordance with the present invention in the most General case differs in that weigh N residuals from the estimation of the state vector during the evaluation of a navigation solution, the weighting is done according to estimated statistics of these errors is Sereni, using robust statistical estimation (such as Least Trimmed Squares Estimator (estimation by the method of least squares), or Minimum Covariance Determinant Estimator (minimum covariant determinant), or M-score, or A-, D-, GM-, L-, MM-P, R-, S - or W-score, or MSTD, and this weighting may be full or partial. If it is full, the account balances is full with a weight equal to 1 or equal to 0 exceptions, and if it is partial, the weight ratio is between 0 and 1. The case of complete weighing covers, inter alia, robust methods “RAIM-MSTD” and “RAIM-LTS”and the case of partial weighing covers robust type methods “RAIM-M-estimates”. Robust statistical evaluation of themselves well known and are described, for example, in the article "Wikipedia", which can be found at the following address: and in the references listed at the end of this article.

According to another distinctive feature of the invention, choose a subgroup of h residues of estimating the state vector with the smallest variance, apply to this variance, multiplied by a factor of adaptation, as well as the average value of the same subgroup, in order to average and then normalize N inputs, which after squaring compared with the statistical threshold and drop, if they exceed this threshold, with h=N-1 and/or N-2, while N is the Chi is scrap residues. Comparison with the statistical threshold is designed to systematically separate h residuals from the estimation of the state vector. This is the method of “RAIM-MSTD”.

According to another distinctive feature of the invention, choose a subgroup of the N-h of residue estimates of the state vector, in which the sum of these measurements in the square is the minimum, evaluate the mean value and the variance of this subgroup and use this average value and the dispersion (preferably the latter is multiplied by a coefficient adaptation, greater than 1)to average and then normalize N inputs, which after squaring compared with the statistical threshold and drop, if they exceed this threshold. This is the method “RAIM-LTS”.

According to another distinctive feature of the invention, the N residues of estimating the state vector is weighed using an iterative method, which at each iteration consists in estimating the mean and variance of the residuals of the estimation of the state vector, in the calculation of the weighting factor by using the weighting function, the input data which are averaged and normalized by the variance of the residues, and residues multiplied by these weights, when this iterative process is stopped if the sum of the squares of the difference between two consecutive residues less than p is Horny values, the average value and the variance (the latter multiplied by a coefficient adaptation), the resulting process is used to average and then normalize N inputs, which after squaring compared with the statistical threshold and drop, if they exceed this threshold. This is the method “RAIM-M-estimates”.

More specifically, the protection method in accordance with the present invention is characterized in that it includes the following steps calculate the information integrity by calculating the residuals of the measurements pseudoresistance obtained on the basis of geographical position and time offset, issued by the primary radio navigation receiver, and based on the dimensions used in a primary receiver for receiving these values, which are:

- form groups of residues cardinal h=N-1 and/or N-2, where N is the number of residues,

- calculate the standard deviation for each subgroup and identify with the smallest standard deviation σ_{min}used for weighing balances, h_{min}the value of the cardinal, which get σ_{min}, Y_{min}the vector of the corresponding cardinal h_{min}and m_{min}the average value of Y_{min},

- calculate the first vector, defined as:

the vectors r_{vec,1}sorted in ascending order to obtain:

- calculate factor f, defined as:^{2})(.,1) is the inverse value of the distribution χ^{2}with one degree of freedom,

after this re-weighting σ_{min}as follows:

σ_{min,2}=

- compute a new vector of residuals:

- determine the threshold T:

- each element of the vector r_{vec,2}compared with T, and if

Brief description of drawings

The present invention will be more apparent from the following detailed description of the scenarios, presented as a non-restrictive example with reference to the accompanying drawing, which shows a simplified diagram of the successive steps of the method in accordance with the present invention.

Detailed description, preferred is a recreational options embodiments of the present invention

In the diagram according to Fig. position 1 is symbolically denoted classic primary receiver satellite navigation system, issuing, on the one hand, through a single channel 2 solution, evaluate the primary receiver (geographical location and time shift), and through a different channel 3 measurement pseudoresistance used primary receiver for receiving the decision.

If the measurements transmitted by the primary receiver, have not previously been treated, it is necessary to make them pre-processing, which is in itself known, to resolve them in error propagation and measurements, which is symbolically shown by a dotted rectangle 4.

Calculation of data integrity further includes the following steps, starting with the calculation of residues (5) measurement of pseudoresistance (denoted by Yi, where i is the index of the satellite, and N is the number of these residues)on which:

1. Generate all subsets of residues cardinal h=N-1 and/or N-2,

2. Calculate the standard deviation of each subgroup (6). The smallest standard deviation of the mean σ_{min}. It is used as a reference value (7). Then define:

A. h_{min}the value of the cardinal, which get σ_{min},

b. Y_{min}the vector of the corresponding cardinal h_{min},

C. m_{min}the average value of Y_{min}.

_{min}used for weighing the residue. Calculate the first vector:

4. For different satellites first vectors r_{vec,1}sorted in ascending order to obtain:^{2})(.,1) is the inverse value of the distribution χ^{2}with one degree of freedom.

5. After this re-weighting σ_{min}as follows: σ_{min,2}=

6. Compute a new vector of residuals:

7. Determine the threshold T:

8. Each element of the vector r_{vec,2}compared to So If

9. After the detection of possible erroneous measurements, you can calculate areas of protection (10) in the usual way based on the number produced is Sereni.

It should be noted that P represents the probability of exclusion neosovetskogo companion, however, cannot be directly correlated with the likely exceptions defined by ICAO standards. On the other hand, the action item 8 carried out separately for each satellite: so there is no detection without exception.

Thus, the outputs of this device provide:

solution position, if necessary, adjusted (11), if the detected error in the input measurement data,

- value protection (12), which allows you to provide a solution to the location of your device, including, if necessary, an alarm signal.

The method in accordance with the present invention allows Autonomous from any ground segment (i.e. using RAIM):

- to improve the efficiency of the receiver (called "primary"), available on the market without control function integrity

to detect possible errors that distort the measurement of input calculation provisions through the use of robust statistical estimation algorithm, that is really not affected by the measurement errors, and using the dynamic criterion

- calculate robust correction to regulations issued by the primary receiver, with the exception of this error e is the detection,

to calculate the limiting error of position depending on the available measurements and taking into account the requirements of integrity and continuity appropriate to the context of use (for example, in the landing phase of the aircraft). These maximum errors are thresholds that should not be exceeded more than once for the N distance measurements, for example, when N=10^{5}up to 10^{7},

- efficiency is more efficient than the standard RAIM algorithm (using the method of least squares).

Because there is currently no way to add a function integrity monitoring receiver, if it was not incorporated, the known device cannot use the current algorithms to obtain an equivalent characterization of the integrity/availability. To improve performance, you can use serial or filtering processing, but because of the possibility of such processing are excluded when evaluating a location point (too long time of issuing an alarm signal integrity, which is, for example, about 6 seconds in civil aviation, but can be several hundred seconds with effective filtering), to ensure integrity at this level of efficiency is another full the capacity of a stand-alone solution does not exist.

The method in accordance with the present invention allows the optimization of the device, receiving a navigation signal, regardless of the device processing RAIM.

- RAIM method, which thanks to the invention becomes robust, can increase the reliability of the evaluation point location (geographical position) by improving the characteristics of the integrity monitoring (detection and exclusion) compared with the standard RAIM method.

- This method provides the ability to detect and avoid erroneous measurements GNSS, more optimized compared with the standard RAIM. In particular, it allows to increase the degree of availability of the GNSS system, compatible with the requirements of civil aviation.

In conclusion it can be noted that the invention provides much more in comparison with standard algorithms from the point of view of the integrity monitoring (detection), and from the point of view of readiness (false alarm, optimization of protection areas), and can be used for radionavigation receiver does not initially have a robust function RAIM protection from measurement errors.

1. The way to protect the user's navigation receiver relative to aberrant dimensions pseudoresistance, characterized in that it comprises the following steps of calculation and the formation integrity by computing residues (5) measurement of pseudoresistance,
obtained on the basis of geographical position and time offset (2)issued by the primary radio navigation receiver, and on the basis of measurements (3)used by the primary radio navigation receiver for receiving these values, and mentioned residues denoted by Y_{i}where i is the index of the satellite on which:

a) form a subgroup of residues cardinal h=N-1 and/or N-2, where N is the number of residues,

b) calculate the standard deviation for each subgroup (6) and define at least a standard deviation σ_{min}used as the reference value (7) for weighing balances, h_{min}- the value of the cardinal, which was obtained σ_{min}, Y_{min}- vector of the corresponding cardinal h_{min}and m_{min}- the average value of Y_{min},

c) calculate the first vector of residuals, defined as

d) the vectors r_{vec,1}sorted in ascending order to get

e) calculate factor f, defined as

where (χ^{2})(.,1) is the inverse value of Chi square statistical distribution χ^{2}with one degree of freedom;

f) after this re-weighting σ_{min}as follows:

g) compute a new vector of residuals

h) definition is given threshold T: T=(χ^{
2})^{-1}(P,1), where P is the probability that the optimal value of which is determined by a stochastic simulation;

(i) each element of vector r_{vec,2}compared with T, and if r_{vec,2(i)}>T, note the detection of a fault and the satellite i exclude.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the method probabilistic modeling used to determine the threshold T, is a method of the type "Monte Carlo".

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that when the measure passed the primary receiver, do not undergo pre-processing, they are subjected to preliminary processing, eliminating from them the error distribution and measurements (4).

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for detecting errors in the input data measurement calculates the corrected position (9).

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for detecting errors in the input data measurements calculate the adjusted value of time (11).

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the areas of protection (10), associated with the dimensions calculated in a known manner.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for detecting errors in the input measurement data transmit an alarm signal (12).

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the method is used for radio navigation receiver, initially no light source is ka robust protection against measurement errors.

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