Double-pipe stream heat exchanger

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: double-pipe heat exchanger for liquid and gaseous media, which contains a heat exchange pipe and an external turbulence promoter dividing inter-tube space into inlet and outlet cavities, which are concentrically located in the cylindrical housing. On the turbulence promoter surface there are the holes serving as medium injection to the cavity between the heat exchange pipe and external turbulence promoter. Inside the heat exchange pipe there concentrically located is an internal turbulence promoter dividing inter-tube space into inlet and outlet cavities and having the holes on the surface, which serve as medium injection into the cavity between the heat exchange pipe and the internal turbulence promoter. Use of the invention will allow intensifying heat exchange due to almost complete removal of a boundary layer from outer and inner surfaces of the heat-conducting pipe with heated (or cooled) medium.

EFFECT: increasing heat transfer coefficient between heat carrier and heated medium up to 10 times and more; reduction of the required heat exchange surface corresponding to it, length of stream heat exchangers, their weight and overall dimensions.

2 dwg

 

The claimed invention relates to heat exchange apparatus and can be used in various industries, agriculture and communal farms.

Known heat exchangers of the type "pipe in pipe", consisting of two pipes, one of which, of smaller diameter, concentrically located inside another, larger diameter annular gap, called the annular space (Bajan P.I. and other Reference heat-exchange apparatus. M. engineering, 1989, p.56, (figure 1.15), b). The inner tube is pumped liquid, for example, a higher temperature (hot), and the annular space fluid of lower temperature (cold). Thus the wall of the inner tube is heated and transfers heat to the cold fluid, which has as a consequence the temperature rises. The direction of heat transfer may be such as described above, or in the opposite direction depending on the ratio of the temperatures in the inner tube and in the annular space.

Note. The term "liquid" hereinafter refers to the environment in liquid or gaseous state.

The efficiency of heat transfer depends mainly on the thickness of the boundary layer fluid, i.e. the layer adjacent to the wall, with comparatively with the main stream of small thickness and remaining practically the automatic stationary relative to the wall. Up to 95% or more thermal resistance with heat transfer from the liquid to the wall (or Vice versa) is thermal resistance of exactly the boundary layer. And if its any way to remove or at least significantly reduce its thickness, thermal resistance of the heat transfer from the liquid to the wall will be reduced many times and becomes comparable to thermal resistance of the wall. Since the pipes in heat exchangers are typically made from metals, thermal resistance of the wall close to zero, and when the wall thickness of a few millimeters when calculating the overall heat transfer coefficient him (thermal resistance of the wall) usually do not take into account.

To improve the efficiency of heat transfer strive in one way or another to reduce the thickness of the boundary layer.

The simplest and most affordable way to increase the turbulence of the fluids on both sides of the wall (i.e. from the side of the coolant and the heated (or cooled) by the environment).

When increasing the turbulence of a fluid particle from the main thread penetrate the part of the boundary layer, which is adjacent to the main thread, and some part of it involved a total chaotic motion. This reduces the thickness of the immobile or sedentary part of the boundary layer, which reduces thermal resistance is of boundary layer and to increase the overall heat transfer coefficient, i.e. to increase the efficiency of heat exchange.

The increase in turbulence can be achieved by increasing the speed of the fluid, creating different shapes and sizes of projections and depressions on the walls separating the flows of the fluids, installed on the inner and outer pipes turbulized elements.

It should be noted that the increase in speed has its negative sides.

First, the growth of turbulence in a first approximation proportional to the growth rate, and the hydraulic resistance increases when it is proportional to the square of the growth rate. I.e. there is a certain limit, after which, it becomes disadvantageous, if not impossible, to further increase speed.

Secondly, it reduces the contact time of the fluid in the heat transfer, which makes it necessary in some cases to increase the heat exchange surface.

Therefore, strive to enhance the turbulent flow of liquids not to increase speed, and to use other, the above-mentioned methods in turbulence.

Known heat exchangers of the type "pipe in pipe", in which the inner tube is wound wire having different steps of winding and configuration. The drawback of such heat exchangers is a slight increase of turbulence with the growth of hydraulic resistance (patent RU №2121122).

Known as the heat exchangers, on the inner tube which is installed, for example, the welding of spiral ribs, the height of which is almost equal to the distance from the inner pipe to the outer. Such ribs largely increase the turbulence in the annular space compared to the winding wire. In addition, they increase the area of thermal contact between the wall of the inner tube with the liquid annulus, i.e. increases the efficiency of heat transfer (patent SU # 800566).

The drawbacks of such heat exchangers are the following:

not all of the liquid in the annular cavity engages in a helical movement - a large portion of it flows through the annular gap between the spiral ribs and the wall of the outer pipe;

the increase in the fluid velocity, turbulence occurs only at a few percent, at least several tens of percent, since the elevation angle of helix of small ribs. And with the increase of the elevation angle of the hydraulic resistance increases much faster growth of turbulence and increasing the amount of fluid begins to flow through the annular gap;

- the heat transfer from the fluid in the inner pipe to the wall remains relatively low level, which determines the efficiency of heat transfer in General.

A known heat exchanger "pipe in pipe" patent SU # 1222207. Inthis heat exchanger inside the inner pipe installed turbulent insert in the form of a twisted coil line strip of sheet metal with the turbulent petals along its longitudinal edges. This insertion causes a twisting of the fluid along a helical line, significantly increases the turbulence of the liquid in the pipe and the heat transfer from the fluid to the wall.

However, this analog has the following disadvantages:

not all of the liquid in the pipe engages in a helical movement (only approximately 20-30%), which can significantly increase the turbulence of the fluid, and hence the amount of heat transfer;

- due to insufficient development of turbulence reduction of the thickness of the turbulent boundary layer occurs by a small amount (a few percent). Its thermal resistance is high, and heat dissipation is increased slightly.

A known heat exchanger pipe in pipe" patent SU # 510634.

The heat exchanger comprises a cylindrical housing, located on its axis of the heat exchange tube with wavy turbulization having radial holes. The tabs turbulizer is directed along the longitudinal axis of the pipe. At the ends of the turbulizer installed mechanical plugs.

When the flow of fluid in the annulus, it passes through the holes in turbolister and comes in the form of separate streams on the outer surface of the wall of the tubes, thereby intensively washing away the boundary layer at the area of impact of the jets. Due to this several times increases the heat transfer from the LM the bones to the wall of the tubes.

This heat exchanger is adopted for the prototype.

However, it has the following disadvantages:

- turbulization difficult to make, especially for small diameter (10-30) mm;

- the heat transfer from the fluid flowing inside the tubes, remains low, and this can significantly increase the efficiency of heat transfer in General (not more than twice, as in a conventional heat exchanger of the tube-in-tube heat transfer efficiency from the liquid filling the annular space to the wall of the tubes and the fluid inside the tubes to the wall about the same).

The aim of the present invention is more significant increase of heat transfer coefficient in a few times. This in turn will allow the same time to reduce the length of the heat exchanger and, therefore, also, at times to reduce its dimensions and weight, although to a lesser extent than the decrease in length.

This goal is achieved due to the fact that the heat exchanger pipe for liquid and gaseous media containing concentrically located within the cylindrical housing of the heat exchange pipe and the outer turbulator dividing the annular space into the input and output cavities. On the surface of the turbulizer holes that serve as the input medium in the cavity between the heat e is constant pipe and outer turbulization. Inside the heat pipe is concentric inner turbulator dividing the annular space into the input and output cavity and having on the surface holes that serve as the input medium in the cavity between the heat pipe and the inner turbulization.

The device proposed heat exchanger is shown schematically in figure 1 and figure 2.

Figure 1 shows a longitudinal section of the heat exchanger, figure 2 - cross section a-a figure 1.

The heat exchanger pipe for liquid and gaseous media, includes: a cylindrical housing 4, concentrically located therein heat exchange tube 8 and the outer turbulator 6, which divides the annular space into the input 7 and output 3 cavity. On the surface of the outer turbulizer 6 holes 5, serving as an input medium in the cavity 3 between the heat exchanger tube 8 and outer turbulization 6. Inside the heat pipe 8 is concentric inner turbolister 2, which divides the annular space into input 1 and the output 9 of the cavity and having on the surface of the hole 12, serving as an input medium in the cavity between the heat exchange pipe 8 and the inner turbulization 2. The size of annular gap annulus, and the diameters of the holes 12, 5, located on the inner and outer energizers 2 and 6 are determined by thermal and hydraulic calculations Approximate the total area of the holes 12 should be 10-20% less than the cross-sectional area of the annular gap annulus between the heat exchange pipe 8 and the inner turbulization 2. The total area of the holes 5 should be 10-20% less than the cross-sectional area of the annular gap annulus between the heat exchanger tube 8 and outer turbulization 6. To achieve the maximum heat transfer coefficient perforated portions of the inner and outer turbulizer 2 and 6 should be located along the length opposite each other on the plot intensive (working) heat transfer. Position 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16 - the seals.

Does the heat exchanger is as follows. The inner turbolister 2 through the input cavity 1, enters the environment, such as hot fluid filling the internal space turbulizer 2 passes to the holes 12 and goes through them in the output cavity 9 of the tubes 8. The speed of the liquid in the holes depends on the pressure in the inner turbolister 2. For example, at a pressure of 0.5 MPa speed will be about 30 m/s When the pressure change rate will vary proportionally to the square root of the magnitude of the pressure change.

Streams of liquid at a speed given for the example above, reaching the walls of the tubes 8, intensely wash the boundary layer in the zone of action of the jets (it's a stain in the form of a circle with a diameter equal to about 4-6 diameters of the jet). Hot liquid when it comes into contact directly with the wall heat e is tion of the pipe 8, and the local heat transfer coefficient is increased tenfold. When frequent location of holes on the inner turbolister 2, the boundary layer on the inner surface of the wall of the tubes 8 in the zone of action of the jets from the holes is almost completely removed. And on this site in General, the heat transfer coefficient will increase tenfold. This implies a corresponding reduction of heat transfer surface (i.e. the length of the pipes).

A similar pattern is observed when the flow of the cold liquid as the heat transfer fluid through the inlet cavity 7 in the cylindrical body 4. Only cold coolant enters first in the annulus annulus between the outer turbulization 6 and the cylindrical housing 4, and then passing through the holes 5 in the outer turbulator 6, washes the outer surface of the tubes 8.

As a result, the coefficient of heat transfer from the coolant to the heated (or cooled) environment as a whole also increased tenfold, closer in magnitude to the coefficient of heat transfer by conduction through the wall of the tubes 8.

The use of the invention makes it possible to intensify the heat transfer due to the almost complete removal of the boundary layer with the outer and inner surfaces of conductive heat the pipe with the heated (or cooled) environment. This entails an increase of the heat transfer coefficient between the coolant and the heated (or cooled) by environment up to 10 or more times, suitably reducing the required heat exchange surface, the length of the inkjet heat exchangers, their weight and dimensions.

The heat exchanger pipe for liquid and gaseous media containing concentrically located within the cylindrical housing of the heat exchange pipe and the outer turbulator dividing the annular space into the input and output cavity and having on the surface holes that serve as the input medium in the cavity between the heat pipe and the outer turbulization, characterized in that the heat exchange pipe is concentric inner turbulator dividing the annular space into the input and output cavity and having on the surface holes that serve as the input medium in the cavity between the heat pipe and the inner turbulization.



 

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